K. L. E. SICIETY'S
K. L. E. INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,HUBBALLI-30
(Approved by AICTE, New Delhi, Affiliated to V. T. U, Belagavi,
ISO 9001:2015 Certified, NBA Accredited)
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering
“AUTOMATED CONTROLLER DESIGN FOR AMBU
(Artificial Manual Breathing Unit) BAG"
7th semester B Div.
Team NO : B13
Dr. Manu T. M.
Date: 29/12/2022 1
SADDAMHUSEN NADAF 2KE19EC073
SUPRIT KUNTOJI 2KE19EC096
VARUNKUMAR KUMBAR 2KE19EC106
VEERESH WALI 2KE19EC107
Content Slide Number
1. Introduction 3
2. Problem definition and objective 4
3. Motivation 5
4. Scope 6
5. Literature Survey 7
6. Methedology and Block Diagram 8
7. Hardware Components 11
• The human lungs are used for respiration. They use push mechanism in each breath inhalation and
exhalation process takes place. The ventilator here with the design is to help people during Covid
• Our project focuses on the development of a fully functional and low cost ventilator with a wide
range of user friendly controls.
• It involves the design and making of a prototype that will provide oxygen-regulated, volume and
pressure controlled air for mechanical ventilation.
• Precisely calibrated pressure and flowrate sensor will provide feedback signals for a closed loop
1. Build a Hardware Mechanism to control and regulate the Airflow for Artificial Breathing
based on Input.
2. Meet the increasing demand for Mechanical ventilators due to COVID-19.
3. Providing low-cost alternatives to ventilators.
1. To design a hardware module for controlling the Breath Per Minute(BPM) of the patients by
controlling the AMBU(Artificial Manual Breathing Unit) bag. According to the patient’s
• Up to 100 million Americans were expected to have the novel corona virus, with 2% of those
requiring intensive care and 50% requiring the use of medical ventilators, according to
• Early in March of 2020, it appeared that India might require a million ventilators-six times as
many as hospitals had at the time to handle the Covid-19 pandemic.
• Although they would take months to arrive and cost tens of thousands of dollars each, the
federal government launched a crash purchasing initiative for 200,000 of the sophisticated
• The Covid-19 pandemic has caused a rapid expansion of the ventilators market. Global Data
estimates that the ventilators market was worth nearly $1.1 billion in 2019 and is anticipated to
reach $4.8 billion by 2020 as a result of the significant demand during Covid-19. Ventilator.
• The demand for Covid-19-related devices is beginning to normalize. Global Data anticipates that
by the end of 2020, the demand for ventilators will gradually return to normal, with sales gradually
declining in the following year as a result of its increased purchasing in the year 2020.
• Modern ventilators will soon have more sophisticated functionality and smaller sizes that will
allow them to properly ventilate all patients in all settings, whether it is invasive or non-invasive.
LITERATURE SURVEY :
Author Name Title Published Year Description
Balamurugan C.R., Kasturi
“Design of Ventilator
Using Arduino for Covid
The author suggested model of a
ventilator has a push mechanism for
each breath. This ventilator is really
inexpensive. The airbag is pushed by
a motor system. This mechanism is
activated when the oxygen level
count is low.
H. Güler and F. Ata "The intelligent tidal
Implemented closed-loop control of
tidal volume, a parameter controlled
in mechanical ventilators being used
intensive care units (ICU) and
veterinary facilities for exploratory
R. Robert, P. Micheau.
“Weight - controlled
streamlines the use of the
The Author suggested paper
undoubtedly encourages its
presentation in highly elevated care
units for clinical applications.
• Arduino Uno: A microcontroller board called Arduino/Genuino Uno is based on the ATmega328P.
It contains a 16 MHz quartz crystal, 6 analog inputs, 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be
utilized as PWM outputs), and a USB connection.
• Power supply: Project need a power supply for converting mains AC voltage to a regulated DC
• Mode switch:
i)Manual Mode: The compression mechanism is controlled manually by the person and it can be
turned ON/OFF whenever it is required.
ii)Auto Mode: We use a blood oxygen sensor that will monitor the patient’s BPM regularly if the
value falls below the threshold AMBU bag starts automatically when the BPM reaches normal
compression of the AMBU bag stops automatically
• Blood Oxygen sensor: Used to detect pulse oximetry (SpO2) and heart rate (HR) signals, it
combines two LEDs, a photodetector, optimized optics, and low-noise analog signal processing.
• Pressure Sensor: The pressure sensor, must be connected in such a way that it can sense the
pressure in the patient's airway. These sensors shouldn't be single-use because it's hard to find
pressure transducers with the right specs to detect human respiration.
• Johnson motor: Johnson motor is a simple DC motor with a metal gearbox that drives the motor's
shaft, making it a mechanically commutated electric motor that is powered by a DC supply.
• LCD Display: A liquid crystal display, or LCD, is a video display that utilizes the light modulating
properties of liquid crystals to display pictures or text on a screen.
Hardware components :-
• Arduino Uno
• Blood Oxygen Sensor
• Breather Mask
• Air Breather Bag
• Push Rods
• Pressure Sensor
• Johnson Motor
• A regulated power supply converts unregulated AC to a constant DC. A regulated power supply is
used to ensure that output remains constant even if the input changes.
• 7805 is a 5V fixed three terminal positive voltage regulator IC.
• A full-wave rectifier is a device that has two diodes arranged so that load current flow in the same
direction during each half cycle of the ac supply.
• A 9V transformer steps down the main voltage .
• The pulsating DC is connected across a filter capacitor which removes the ripples and smoothens
the DC output.
REGULATED POWER SUPPLY
• ATmega 328 has 1KB Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EEPROM). This
property shows if the electric supply supplied to the micro-controller is removed, even then it can
store the data and can provide results after providing it with the electric supply
• 8 bit and 28 pins microcontroller.
• RISC Architecture
• 1 KB EEPROM memory and 2KB SRAM memory.
• 3 timers, two 8 bit timers and one 16 bit timer.
• 8 pin for ADC operations, port(PA0-PA7).
• Operates ranging from 3.3vV to 5.5V.
• The LCD (Liquid Crystal Display ) is a type of display that uses the liquid crystals for its operation.
• LCD can be used in two modes 4 bit mode and 8 bit mode.
• R/W pin is always grounded.