What are political parties? A political party is a group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. They agree on some policies and programmes for a society with a view to promote collective good. A political party has three main components-1.The leaders2.The active members and3. The supporters.
Functions of the politicalparties Parties contest elections. Parties form and run governments in country. Parties put different policies and programmes. Parties play a decisive role in making laws for a country. Those parties that lose in the elections play the role of opposition to the parties in power. Parties shape public opinion by raising and highlighting issues. Parties provide people access to gov.t machinery and welfare schemes implemented.
What a common Indian thinkabout political parties? Most people in India tend to be very critical of political parties. They blame parties for all the wrong with our democracy and our political life. the parties were also identified with social and political divisions in our country.
Why do we need political parties? We can understand the necessity of political parties by imagining a situation where political parties doesn’t exist. Every candidate in the elections will be independent , so no candidate will be able to make any promises to the people about any major changes. The government may be formed but its utility will remain ever uncertain. Elected representatives will be accountable to their consistuency only. No one will be responsible for how the country will be run
Different party systems in the worldSingle dominant partyIn one party systems ,one political party is legally allowed to hold effective power.Although minor parties may sometimes be allowed, they are legally required toaccept the leadership of the dominant party. This party may not always be identicalto the government, although sometimes positions within the party may in fact bemore important than positions within the government. China is an example;Two political partiesTwo party systems are states such as United States of America in which there aretwo political parties dominant to such an extent that electoral success under thebanner of any other party is almost impossible. One right wing coalition party andone left wing coalition party .
Multiple political partiesA poster for the European parliament election 2004 in Italy, showing party listsMulti party systems are systems in which more than two parties are representedand elected to public office. Australia ,Canada ,Pakistan ,India ,Ireland ,United Kingdom and Norway areexamples of countries with two strong parties and additional smaller parties thathave also obtained representation. The smaller or "third" parties may form a part ofa coalition government together with one of the larger parties or act independentlyfrom the other dominant parties.More commonly, in cases where there are three or more parties, no one party is likelyto gain power alone, and parties work with each other to form coalitiongovernment .
CHARACTERISTICS OF INDIAN PARTY SYSTEM1. Multiple Party system – In 2006 – national parties -6; regional parties -35, non – recognized parties – 612,2. Rise of Effective Opposition Party3. Independent Members4. Existence of many Communal and Regional Parties5. Absence of Specific Constitutional Provision - Article 19(C) -All citizens shall have the right to form associations or unions. -
Types of political parties There are two types of political parties –1.National parties – A party that secures at least 6% of the total votes in lok sabha elections or assembly elections in four states and win at least 4 seats in lok sabha is recognized as a national party.2.State / Regional parties – A party that secures atleast 6% of the of the total votes in state legislative assembly elections and wins at least 2 seats is recognized as state party.
MAJOR NATIONAL POLITICAL PARTIESS.N. Symbol Flag Name Acronym Year Party leader1. Bahujan Samaj Party BSP 1984 Mayawati2. Bharatiya Janata Party BJP 1980 Nitin Gadkari Communist Party of3. CPI 1925 A.B. Bardhan India Communist Party of4. CPI (M) 1964 Prakash Karat India (Marxist Indian National5. INC 1885 Sonia Gandhi Congress Nationalist Congress6. NCP 1999 Sharad Pawar Party
INDIAN NATIONALCONGRESS (INC) One of the oldest parties of the world . Founded in 1885 by members of the occultist movementTheosophical Society—Allan Octavian Hume, Dadabhai Naoroji, Dinshaw Wacha, Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee, Surendranath Banerjee, Monomohun Ghose, and Mahadev Govind Ranade It played a important role in the independence of India. It was a ruling party till 1977 after independence. A centrist party in its ideological orientation, the party espouses secularism and welfare of weaker sections. Currently leads the ruling united progressive alliance. The partys political symbol is hand
Prime Ministers of the Republicof India from the IndianNational Congress Jawaharlal Nehru (1947–1964) Gulzarilal Nanda (May–June 1964 and in January 1966) Lal Bahadur Shastri (1964–1966) Indira Gandhi (1966–1977, 1980–1984) Rajiv Gandhi (1984–1989) P.V. Narasimha Rao (1991–1996) Manmohan Singh (2004–)
Chairperson Sonia GandhiLeader in Lok Sabha Pranab MukherjeeLeader in Rajya Sabha Manmohan SinghHeadquarters 24, Akbar Road, New Delhi, 110011Student wing National Students Union of IndiaYouth wing Indian Youth CongressWomens wing Mahila CongressLabour wing Indian National Trade Union CongressPolitical position Center-leftInternational affiliation Alliance of DemocratsOfficial colours AquaECI Status National PartyAlliance United Progressive Alliance (UPA)Seats in Lok Sabha 205 / 545Seats in Rajya Sabha 70 / 250
BHARTIYA JANTAPARTY (BJP) The BJP is the current form of the erstwhile Bharatiya Jana Sangh (BJS, Indian Peoples Union), which was founded in October 21, 1951 by Syama Prasad Mookerjee Believes in Indian Nationalism (Hindu Nationalism),Integral humanism, Economic liberalism, Gandhian Socialism, Conservatism, Social conservatism. Came to power in 1998 as the leader of national democratic alliance. Earlier limited to the northern and western parts of the country. The principal opposition party in lok sabha. The partys political symbol is a lotus
Chairperson Nitin GadkariLeader in Lok Sabha Sushma SwarajLeader in Rajya Sabha Arun JaitleyPreceded by Bharatiya Jana SanghHeadquarters 11 Ashoka Road, New Delhi, 110001Newspaper Kamal SandeshYouth wing Bharatiya Janata Yuva MorchaWomens wing BJP Mahila MorchaLabour wing Bharatiya Mazdoor SanghPeasants wing Bharatiya Kisan SanghPolitical position Centre-rightOfficial colours OrangeECI Status National PartySeats in Lok Sabha 116 / 545Seats in Rajya Sabha 51 / 250
BAHUJAN SAMAJPARTY (BSP) It was formed in 1984 under the leadership of Kanshi Ram. Stands for the cause of securing the interests and welfare of the dalits and oppressed people. It’s main base is in Uttar Pradesh and substantial presence in neighbouring states. The partys political symbol is an Elephant.
Chairperson MayawatiSecretary-General Satish Chandra MishraLeader in Lok Sabha Rajesh VermaLeader in Rajya Sabha Urmilesh Kumar BhartiHeadquarters 12, Gurudwara Rakabganj Road, New Delhi - 110001Political position CenterOfficial colours BlueECI Status National PartySeats in Lok Sabha 21 / 545Seats in Rajya Sabha 18 / 250
COMMUNIST PARTYOF INDIA (CPI) It was formed in 1925. The founding members of the party were M.N. Roy, Evelyn Trent Roy (Roys wife), Abani Mukherji, Rosa Fitingof(Abanis wife), Mohammad Ali (Ahmed Hasan), Mohammad Shafiq Siddiqui and M.P.B.T. Acharya. It believes in Marxism-Leninism, secularism and democracy. Became weak after the split in the party in1964. Has significant presence in the states of Kerala ,West Bengal ,Punjab ,Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
The principal massorganizations of the CPI are: All India Trade Union Congress All India Youth Federation All India Students Federation National Federation of Indian Women All India Kisan Sabha(peasants organization) Bharatiya Khet Mazdoor Union(agricultural workers) All India State Government Employees Federation (State government employees)
Secretary-General A.B. BardhanHeadquarters New Delhi, IndiaPolitical position Far-leftInternational Internationalaffiliation Conference of Communist and Workers Parties.Official colours RedAlliance Left FrontECI Status National Party
COMMUNIST PARTY OFINDIA –MARXIST (CPI-M) It was founded in 1964 due to a split in communist party of India. It believes in Marxism-Leninism, secularism and democracy and opposes imperialism and communalism. Enjoys strong support in West Bengal ,Kerala ,and Tripura. Has been in power in West Bengal without a break for 30 years.
Secretary-General Prakash KaratLeader in Lok Sabha Basudev AchariaLeader in Rajya Sabha Sitaram YechuriHeadquarters New Delhi, IndiaStudent wing Students Federation of IndiaYouth wing Democratic Youth Federation of IndiaWomens wing All India Democratic Womens AssociationLabour wing Centre of Indian Trade UnionsPeasants wing All India Kisan SabhaPolitical position Far-leftECI Status National PartyAlliance Left FrontSeats in Lok Sabha 16 / 545Seats in Rajya Sabha 15 / 250
NATIONAL CONGRESSPARTY (NCP) It was formed in 1999 due to a split in Indian national congress. Espouses democracy, Gandhian secularism, equity, social just.ice and federalism. Wants that high offices in government must be confined to natural born citizens of India. It is a major party in Maharashtra and. significant presence in Meghalaya ,Manipur and Assam. A member of United Progressive Alliance.
Chairperson Sharad PawarFounded 1999Headquarters 10, Bishambhar Das Marg,New Delhi, 110001Political position Centre/Centre leftOfficial colours AquaAlliance United Progressive AllianceECI Status National PartySeats in Lok Sabha 9 / 545Seats in Rajya Sabha 7 / 250
Name Year Party leader StatesAll India Anna Dravida 1972 J. Jayalalitha Tamil Nadu, PondicherryMunnetra KazhagamAll India Forward Bloc 1939 Debabrata Biswas West BengalAll India Trinamool Congress 1998 Mamata Banerjee Arunachal Pradesh,Asom Gana Parishad 1985 Prafulla Kumar Assam MahantaBiju Janata Dal 1997 Naveen Patnaik OrissaDravida Munnetra Kazhagam 1949 M Karunanidhi Tamil Nadu, PondicherryIndian National Lok Dal 1999 Om Prakash Chautala HaryanaJammu & Kashmir National 1932 Omar Abdullah Jammu and KashmirConferenceJammu & Kashmir National NA Bhim Singh Jammu and KashmirPanthers PartyJammu and Kashmir Peoples 1998 Mufti Mohammed Jammu and KashmirDemocratic Party Sayeed
Name Year Party leader StatesJanata Dal (Secular) 1999 H.D. Deve Gowda Karnataka KeralaJanata Dal (United) 1999 Nitish kumar BiharJharkhand Mukti Morcha 1972 Shibu Soren Jharkhand OrissaKerala Congress 1964 P.J. Joseph KeralaKerala Congress (M) 1979 C.F. Thomas KeralaLok Jan Shakti Party 2000 Ram Vilas Paswan BiharMaharashtra Navnirman Sena 2006 Raj Thackeray MaharashtraMaharashtrawadi Gomantak Party 1963 Shashikala Kakodkar GoaManipur Peoples Party 1968 O. Joy Singh ManipurMizo National Front 1959 Pu Zoramthanga MizoramMizoram Peoples Conference 1972 Pu Lalhmingthanga MizoramMuslim League Kerala State 1948 G.M. Banatwalla KeralaCommitteeNagaland Peoples Front 2002 Neiphiu Rio NagalandPattali Makkal Katchi 1989 G. K. Mani Tamil Nadu
Name Year Party leader StatesPraja Rajyam Party 2008 Chiranjeevi Andhra PradesPudhucherry Munnetra Congress 2005 P. Kannan PondicherryRevolutionary Socialist Party 1940 T.J. Chandrachoodan West BengalSamajwadi Party 1992 Mulayam Singh Yadav Uttar PradeshSave Goa Front NA Churchill Alemao GoaShiromani Akali Dal 1920 Parkash Singh Badal PunjabShiv Sena 1966 Bal Thackeray MaharashtraSikkim Democratic Front 1993 Pawan Kumar Chamling SikkimTelangana Rashtra Samithi 2001 K. Chandrashekar Rao Andhra PradeshUnited Democratic Party NA Donkupar Roy MeghalayaUttarakhand Kranti Dal 1979 Bipin Chandra Tripathi UttarakhandZoram Nationalist Party 1997 Lalduhoma Mizoram
Challenges to political parties Lack of internal democracyThe lack of internal democracy within parties manifests in the following:Parties do not keep membership registersParties do not hold organizational meetings.Parties do not conduct internal elections regularly.Ordinary members do not have sufficient information about the party.All powers get centralized among the top leaders.
Challenges to political partiesDynastic successionDynastic succession is a feature common to most of the politicalparties, both at the national and state level where top positions in theparty become hereditary. others members cannot even aspire to reachthese positions.Growing role of money and muscle The role of money and muscle is on the rise in almost all the parties. Those with money and muscle power begin to control the various organs of the party.
How can parties be reformedThey can be reformed byMaintaining a regular register of its members.Makings rules and regulations.Holding elections for higher posts in the party.Giving more tickets to the women.Giving funds to parties for elections.