IntroductionEmergency• Life threatening condition which requires the administration of life-saving measures (German Red Cross)• When there is an unexpected condition requiring specific action plans to normalise (i.e. fire, explosion, leak of products or gas, loss of containment or threats)
IntroductionDisaster• A disaster is an occurrence disrupting the normal conditions of existence and causing a level of suffering that exceeds the capacity of adjustment of the affected community. (WHO)• “Disaster” is defined as an incident which occurs unexpectedly, which is complex in nature, causes loss of life, destruction to properties or environment and grind down the activity of the community (Emergency and Disaster Planning Manual, Laura G. Kaplan, B.S.E.E., McGraw- Hill, 1996).• Disaster = Uncompensated Incident = catastrophe = major incident• An uncompensated incident occurs when the resources available are inadequate to deal with the situation; load exceed capacity
IntroductionWhat is a workplace emergency?• It is an unforeseen situation that threatens employees, customers, or the public; disrupts or shut down company’s operations; or causes physical or environmental damage.• This can pose actual or potential hazard to life, environment, facility, production, and company’s image• Emergencies may be natural or manmade.
IntroductionWhat is an emergency response plan?• It is an action plan to organize and employee actions during workplace emergencies.• Well developed emergency plans and proper employee training will result in fewer injuries and less structural damage to the facility during emergencies.
Emergency management processPreparedness Phase• Consists of activities carry out in advance before an emergency strike to improve response to emergency• E.g. hazard or risk analyses, training, drills and exercises, emergency plans and procedures, emergency communications, joint cooperation consensus, warning systems procedures and response planning.
Emergency management processResponse Phase• Consists of the immediate response to emergency by the ERT• It is aim at containing the disaster so as to minimize loss of life and destruction to property.• Includes measures such as – notification, – implementation of emergency plans, – activation of emergency operation centers, – mobilization of resources, – issuance of warnings and directions, – provisions of medical and social services assistance, – announcement of emergencies or disasters by the management.
Emergency management processRecovery Phase• It refers to those measures undertaken following a disaster that will return all systems to normal levels of service.• includes measures such as: – physical restoration and reconstruction; – cleaning up contaminated areas; – eliminating and/or reducing any known hazards – restoring businesses.
Emergency management processMitigation Phase• It is the continuous ongoing endeavor to avert or reduce the impact that a hazardous materials incident will have on people, property, and the environment• Examples of mitigation activities would include the following: – Hazard Identification – Risk Analysis – Evaluation – Research – Education .
Legislation• The Malaysia government has recognized the need to regulate activities with potential to cause major hazards.• Occupational Safety and Health (Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazards) Regulations 1996. – It states the need for certain industries to create their own emergency response programmes.• The National Security Council Directive No 20 (MKN 20) – National policy on disaster mx – Industrial accidents such as explosions, fire, pollution and leaks of hazardous material from plants are incidents covered under the directive.• The Fire Services Act 1988 – It states the need for premises to obtain a fire certificate – The elements required to obtain a fire certificate are those related to personal safety facility, fire prevention, fire protection, fire fighting facilities, special needs and fire fighting team on site.• The Uniform Building By-Laws, 1984 – It state the need for fire alarms, fire detection, fire extinguishment and fire fighting access.
CIMAH• Regulations apply to all industrial activities except: – Nuclear installation; – Installation under the armed forces; – Vehicle or vessel use in transportation; – Industrial activity which involves less than 10 percent of the threshold quantity set out in Schedule 2 of the Regulations
CIMAH• Industrial activity - an operation carried out in an industrial installation referred to in Schedule 4 involving one or more hazardous substances, and includes on-site storage and on-site transport which are associated with the operation
INDUSTRIAL INSTALLATIONSInstallation for the production, processing or treatment of organic orinorganic chemicals using for these purposes amongst others, thefollowings :- alkylation - hydrogenation - extraction- hydrolysis - amination by ammonolysis - solvation- carbonylation - oxidation - mixing- codensation - polymerization - esterification- dehydrogenation - sulphonation - distillation- halogenation and manufacture of halogens- desulphurization, manufacture and transformation of sulphur-containingcompounds- nitration and manufacture of nitrogen-containing compounds- manufacture of phosphorus-containing compounds- formulation of pesticides and of pharmaceutical products 20
Installation for distillation, refining or other processing of petroleum orpetroleum products.Installation for the total or partial of solid or liquid substances byincineration or chemical decomposition.Installationfor the production, processing or treatment of energy gases, forexample light petroleum gas, light natural gas and synthetic natural gas.Installations for the dry distillation of coal or lignite.Installations for the production of metals or non-metals by a wet process orby means of electrical energy.Installations for the bottling of flammable and toxic substances definedunder paragraphs (a), (b) and (c) of Schedule 1, for example, light petroleumgas, ammonia, chlorine and acetylene.(Back to Industrial Activity) 21
• Every manufacturer needs to identify an industrial activity within his control to the Director General – The authority will determine whether it is a major hazard installation or not• Major Hazard Installation - an industrial activity which produces, processes, handles, uses, disposes of or stores, permanently or temporarily, one or more hazardous substances equal of exceed the threshold quantity;
INDICATIVE CRITERIAVery Toxic Substances(a) Substances which correspond to the line 1 of the table below; and(b) Substances which correspond to the line 2 of the table below which, owing totheir physical and chemical properties, are capable of producing major accidenthazards similar to those caused by the substances mentioned in line 1 : LD50 (oral) LD50 (cutaneous) LC50 mg/kg body weight mg/kg body weight mg/l (inhalation) 1. LD50 5 LD50 10 LC50 0.1 2. 5 LD50 25 10 LD50 50 0.1 LC50 0.5 23
INDICATIVE CRITERIAOther Toxic SubstancesSubstances with the following values of acute toxicity as shown in the tablebelow and having physical and chemical properties capable of producingmajor accident hazards: LD50 (oral) LD50 (cutaneous) LC50 mg/kg body weight mg/kg body weight mg/l (inhalation) 1. 25 LD50 200 50 LD50 400 0.5 LC50 2 24
Flammable Substances• Flammable gases - substances which in the gaseous state at normal pressure and mixed with air become flammable and the boiling point of which at normal pressure is 20 C or below;• Highly flammable liquids - substances which have a flash point lower than 21 C and the boiling point of which at normal pressure is above 20 C and;• Flammable liquids - substances which have a flash point lower than 5.5 C and which remain liquid under pressure and where under particular processing conditions such as high pressure and high temperature, may create major accident hazards. 25
Explosive Substances- substances which may explode under the effect of flame or which are more sensitiveto shocks or friction than dinitrobenzene.Oxidizing Substances- substances which give rise to highly exothermic reaction when in contact with othersubstances particularly flammable substances.For the purpose of this schedule :LD50 (oral) - a dose of a substance in mg/kg of body weight that produces death in50% of a given experimental animal population;LD50 (cutaneous) - a dose of a substance in mg/kg of body weight that produces deathin 50% of a given animal population; andLC50 - a concentration of a substance in air that is estimated to produce death afterinhalation for four hours in 50% of a given experimental animal population. 26
LIST OF SUBSTANCES AND QUANTITIESThe quantities set out below relate to each installation or group ofinstallations belonging to the same manufacturer where the distancebetween the installations is not sufficient to avoid, in foreseeablecircumstances, any aggravation of major accident hazards. Thequantities apply in each case to each group of installations belonging tothe same manufacturer where the distance between the installations isless than 500 meters; 27
Part 1 : Named SubstancesWhere a substance or group of substances listed in Part 1 also falls within acategory of Part 2 the quantities set out in Part 1 shall be used. Substance Threshold QuantityGroup 1 - Toxic Substances (quantity 1 tonne)Aldicarb 100 kilograms4-Aminodiphenyl 1 kilogramAmiton 1 kilogramAnabasine 100 kilogramsArsenic pentoxide, arsenic (V) acid and salts 500 kilogramsArsenic trioxide, arsenious (III) acid and salts 100 kilogramsArsine (Arsenic hydride) 10 kilograms 28
Manufacturer must demonstrate safe operations, by:• identify the possible major hazards;• take adequate steps to prevent any major accidents;• take adequate steps to minimise consequences topeople and environment;• prepare and keep on-site emergency response plan;• provide evidence that the above is done whenrequested by the DG 29
• Prepare and submit Industrial Activity Report at least 3 months before commencing the activity;• Not make any modifications in that is not consistent with the Industrial Activity Report until he consult a Competent person and resubmit a further report;• Report to be updated every 3 years;• Prepare and submit on-site emergency plan 3 months before commencement of industrial activity;• Emergency plan to be prepared in consultation with a Competent person• Emergency plan to be updated once every 3 years;• Prepare information on industrial activity and inform local authorities or port authority for them to prepare off-site emergency response plan;• Provide information on hazards of the industrial activities to persons/public who may likely be affected by a major accident around the site;
• Level I disaster NSD 20 – Confined and controlled • No potential for spread • Not complex – Limited/ minimal effects – Does not halt daily activities – Can be handled at district level• Level II disaster – More serious – 2 areas (districts) / potential spread – Large scale destruction/ death • Destruction of infrastructure • Activities disrupted – More difficult search and/ or rescue – Needs to be handled at State Level• Level III disaster – Arises from Level II – More complex – Involves large areas (>2 states) – National level intervention required – +foreign help
Emergency Response Planning• Planning is a crucial component in any safety and health program including emergency action.• Planning is prevention and preparedness!• A comprehensive emergency response programme would cover not only on-site incidents but also off-site incidents, which may occur during the transportation of products.• Important elements in a programme are the overall plans and the resources required to execute the plans.• The emergency action plan should address emergencies that the employer may reasonably expect in the workplace.
Emergency Response Planning• Policy and procedures to be developed should consider: – Hazards at site and worse case scenarios – Existing standards (guidelines) and legal requirements – Knowledge of the company operations background as well as internal resources available such finances, manpower and equipment – Information on external resources such as: • distance from nearest fire brigade and their incident management capability • distance from nearest medical service, specialty service offered and their ability to manage mass casualties
Steps for emergency response planning• Step 1: Form a Health and Safety Committee• Establish a team to coordinate emergency planning and preparedness activities• An existing health and safety committee can take on this responsibility.• The committee may also want to consider including outside organizations. These might include the Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC), emergency medical services (EMS), fire department, Malaysian Red Cressent.
Steps for emergency response planningStep 2: Develop (or Update) and implementing emergency response plans.• An emergency response plan is a detailed written document that explains what emergencies an organization is likely to face, and WHO will do WHAT during a particular situation.• A chain of command should be established• Writing the plan begins with assessing what measures are already in place and determining adequacy of current resources and procedures by reviewing documents and seeing what has been put into operation.
Steps for emergency response planning• Check available resources to review the strengths of the facility’s internal and external resources. – Internal resources include: • First aid/CPR supplies and trained personnel • fire extinguishers and other firefighting equipment • heavy equipment available on-site • available shelters/ability to shelter in-place • transportation equipment • in-house emergency response teams • sprinkler and alarm systems and • security systems and personnel. – External resources include: • fire department • police department • emergency medical services (EMS) • emergency response teams (ERTs) or hazardous materials (HazMat) response teams
Steps for emergency response planning• Research what laws apply to the facility.• Review any existing documents related to the facility’s preparedness: – alarms and fire suppression systems – building diagrams and plans – evacuation routes – roles of key personnel – housekeeping practices – a list of hazardous materials used and/or stored in the workplace and – information on hazardous chemicals (material safety data sheets, or MSDSs).• Walk through the facility to see what preparations have actually been put in place.• Any differences between what is in written documents and what is actually occurring in the workplace should be noted.
Steps for emergency response planningStep 3: Train All Staff• Every employee needs to know details of the emergency action plan, including evacuation plans, alarm systems, reporting procedures for personnel, shutdown procedures, and types of potential emergencies.• Additional training is needed – when new equipment, materials or processes are introduced, – when the layout or design of the facility changes, – when procedures have been updated or revised, or – when exercises show that employee performance is inadequate.
Steps for emergency response planning• At a minimum, the training should include: – an overview of the emergency action plan – review of the evacuation procedures and routes for each section of the workplace – practice drills of emergency evacuation and – basic first aid.• Drills should be held at random intervals, at least annually, and should include outside police and fire authorities. – Drills will lessen confusion and panic should an emergency situation take place. – The drills should reflect the actions taken for different types of emergencies (e.g., fire, tornado, earthquake, depending on the vulnerability analysis).
Steps for emergency response planningStep 4: Address Needs Following an Emergency• Physical and psychological effects – The plan must specify what steps will be taken to ensure that all injured staff receive immediate first aid and follow-up medical care including any physical rehabilitation that might be necessary as the result of injuries. – Counseling services are essential parts of responding to overcome severe emotional and psychological effects on victims.• Financial support and services – The plan should identify resources that are available to affected workers such as: – continuation of health care and other benefits – workers compensation – social services that can provide food, shelter or other needs, – federal aid if the area is declared a national disaster area.• Workplace operations – process for recovery so that operations can continue. – E.g. Contingency plans should be developed for having backup systems to protect documents, computer files and other critical data.
Steps for emergency response planningStep 5: Evaluate and Modify the Plan• The committee should review the plan on a periodic basis and after practice drills to make sure it reflects the current work situation.• Names and numbers as well as emergency contacts need to be kept current.• Any renovations or changes in floor plans must be reviewed to see how they will impact the emergency action and evacuation plans.• Periodic drills give staff a chance to practice what to do in an emergency and provide valuable information on changes that need to be made.
Important elements for ERP1. Vulnerability assessments2. Chain of command3. Emergency respond teams4. Alarms and communication systems5. Suppression Systems6. Evacuation planning7. Emergency medical facility
Important elements for ERPVulnerability assessments• The first step is to find which hazards pose a threat to any specific enterprise (list of hazards)• E.g. emergency planners need to determine if other nearby facilities may pose a hazard or any toxic materials that may cause unsafe conditions.• Important sources of information: – records of past incidents – occupational experience – knowledge of both technological (chemical or physical) and natural hazards by consulting with external organizations such as fire departments, engineering consultants, and government departments.
Important elements for ERPChain of command• The employer should designate an emergency response coordinator and a backup coordinator.• The coordinator should be drawn from management ranks, possibly the engineering manager, safety manager or environmental compliance manager.• Employees should know who the designated coordinator is.• Duties of the coordinator and employer include: – Determining what emergencies may occur and seeing that emergency procedures are developed to address each situation. – Directing all emergency activities including evacuation of personnel. – Ensuring that outside emergency services are notified when necessary. – Directing the shutdown of plant operations when necessary
Important elements for ERPEmergency respond teams (ERT)• ERT are the first lines of defense in emergencies.• ERT members should be thoroughly trained for potential crises and physically capable of carrying out their duties• Team members need to know about toxic hazards in the workplace and be able to judge when to evacuate personnel or when to rely on outside help• One or more teams must be trained in: – Use of various types of fire extinguishers. – First aid, including cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) – blood borne pathogens risk. – Shutdown procedures. – Chemical spill control procedures. – Search and emergency rescue procedures. – Hazardous materials emergency response.
Important elements for ERPAlarms and communication systems• In a situation requiring evacuation, the first step is to let all occupants know they must leave the building.• Describe to the workers the alarm system used → Occupants must know which alarm means to evacuate.• Alarms must be both seen and heard. There must also be an effective means to notify individuals with disabilities.
Important elements for ERPSuppression Systems• Suppression systems are designed to put out fires.• There are many types of suppression systems, and not all are suited for every situation.• Most common are automatic water-based sprinkler systems (there are many different kinds) and dry chemical (carbon dioxide) systems.• These may be connected to a detention/alarm system or may be separate.• The systems must be inspected and tested on an annual basis to ensure they will work when needed.
Important elements for ERPEvacuation planning• At the time of an emergency, employees should know what type of evacuation is necessary and what their role is in carrying out the plan (partial or complete evacuation).• The goal is to evacuate people and move resources (equipment, supplies, inventory) out of threatened areas.• The designation of refuge or safe areas for evacuation should be determined and identified in the plan.• Should establish methods of warning employees and customers• Maps indicating evacuation routes from buildings and the facility site is important.
Important elements for ERPEvacuation planning.. (cont)• Escape routes must meet the following criteria: – There are enough exits. – Exits are not blocked. – Exits are clearly marked. (Many emergency situations involve smoke and fire that make it difficult to see.) – The routes to the exits must be wide enough to accommodate the number of occupants normally in the building. – Exits lead to a public thoroughfare (not to a closed area, like a courtyard). – Escape routes do not lead through any area that may cause more danger to the evacuees (such as an area where hazardous materials are stored). – Secondary routes are available in case the primary route is blocked• Assuring that all personnel know the evacuation routes, routines, and check-in procedures for both area and site evacuations• An organized head count to ensure that all facility occupants have
Important elements for ERPRescue and emergency medical facility• The employer should find out which medical facilities are closest to them.• The committee should take a look at the workplace to make sure that it is accessible to emergency services.• In certain cases it may be necessary to have emergency medical and rescue services on site, for example: – employers in remote areas – high security situations or – employers with high hazard operations.• It may help to coordinate an emergency action plan with the outsider responders such as the fire department, hospital emergency room, and EMS providers.