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Renewable and non renewable sources of energy Niju Thandapra


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Renewable and non renewable sources of energy created by me: Niju Sebastian Thandapra of St Berchmans College Autonomous is a one made after adetailed study from many sources... U can trust the ppt.. Take it with no edits...

Renewable and non renewable sources of energy Niju Thandapra

  1. 1. Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
  2. 2. A renewable resource is an organic natural resource that can replenish in due time compared to the usage, either through biological reproduction or other naturally recurring processes. Renewable resources are a part of Earth's natural environment and the largest components of its ecosphere. Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
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  5. 5. The Wind  The wind is created by the movement of atmospheric air mass as a results of variation of atmospheric pressure, which results from the difference in solar heating of different parts of the earth surface. Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
  6. 6. •Wind power describes the process by which the wind is used to generate mechanical energy or electrical energy. •Wind energy is the kinetic energy of the large mass of air over the earth surface. •Wind turbines converts the kinetic energy of the wind into mechanical energy first and then into electricity. Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
  7. 7. It is the design of the blades that is primarily responsible for converting the kinetic energy into mechanical energy As the air flows over the aerofoil-section of the blade, it induces a differential pressure distribution across the top and bottom surfaces of the blade. Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
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  11. 11. 1.The wind is free and with modern technology it can be captured efficiently. 2. Once the wind turbine is built the energy it produces does not cause green house gases or other pollutants. 3. Although wind turbines can be very tall each takes up only a small plot of land.This means that the land below can still be used.This is especially the case in agricultural areas as farming can still continue. 4. Many people find wind farms an interesting feature of the landscape. Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
  12. 12. 5. Remote areas that are not connected to the electricity power grid can use wind turbines to produce their own supply. 6.Wind turbines have a role to play in both the developed and third world. 7. Wind turbines are available in a range of sizes which means a vast range of people and businesses can use them. Single households to small towns and villages can make good use of range of wind turbines available today. Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
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  14. 14. 1.The strength of the wind is not constant and it varies from zero to storm force.This means that wind turbines do not produce the same amount of electricity all the time.There will be times when they produce no electricity at all. 2. Many people feel that the countryside should be left untouched, without these large structures being built.The landscape should left in its natural form for everyone to enjoy. 3.Wind turbines are noisy.. Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
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  16. 16. •Wave power is the transport of energy by ocean surface waves, and the capture of that energy to do useful work. •for example : electricity generation, water desalination, or the pumping of water (into reservoirs). •A machine able to exploit wave power is generally known as a wave energy converter Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
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  20. 20. 1. Renewable:The best thing about wave energy is that it will never run out.There will always be waves crashing upon the shores of nations, near the populated coastal regions. The waves flow back from the shore, but they always return. Unlike fossil fuels, which are running out, in some places in the world, just as quickly as people can discover them. Unlike ethanol, a corn product, waves are not limited by a season.They require no input from man to make their power, and they can always be counted on. 2. Environment Friendly: Also unlike fossil fuels, creating power from waves creates no harmful by products such as gas, waste, and pollution.The energy from waves can be taken directly into electricity-producing machinery and used to power generators and power plants nearby. In today’s energy-powered world, a source of clean energy is hard to come by. Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
  21. 21. 3. Abundant andWidely Available : Lots of big cities and harbours are next to the ocean and can harness the power of the waves for their use. Coastal cities tend to be well- populated, so lots of people can get use from wave energy plants. 4. Variety ofWaysTo Harness : A final benefit is that there are a variety of ways to gather it. Current gathering methods range from installed power plant with hydro turbines to seafaring vessels equipped with massive structures that are laid into the sea to gather the wave energy. Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
  22. 22. 5. Easily Predictable :The biggest advantages of wave power as against most of the other alternative energy sources is that it is easily predictable and can be used to calculate the amount that it can produce.The wave energy is consistent and proves much better than other sources which are dependent on wind or sun exposure. 6. Less Dependency on Foreign Oil Cost : Dependence on foreign companies for fossil fuels can be reduced if energy from wave power can be extracted up to its maximum. Not only it will help to curb air pollution but can also provide green jobs to millions of people. 7. No Damage to Land : Unlike fossil fuels which cause massive damage to land as they can leave large holes while extracting energy from them , wave power does not cause any damage to earth. It is safe and clean. Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
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  24. 24. 1. Suitable to Certain Locations :The biggest disadvantage to getting your energy from the waves is location. Only power plants and towns near the ocean will benefit directly from it. Because of its source, wave energy is not a viable power source for everyone. Landlocked nations and cities cannot use this. 2. Effect on marine Ecosystem : As clean as wave energy is, it still creates hazards for some of the creatures near it. Large machines have to be put near and in the water to gather energy from the waves.These machines disturb the seafloor, change the habitat of near-shore creatures (like crabs and starfish) and create noise that disturbs the sea life around them.There is also a danger of toxic chemicals that are used on wave energy platforms spilling and polluting the water near them. Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
  25. 25. 3. Source of Disturbance for Private and Commercial Vessels : Power plants that gather wave energy have to be placed by the coastline to do their job, and they have to be near cities and other populated areas to be of much use to anybody. But these are places that are major thoroughfares for cargo ships, cruise ships, recreational vehicles and beach goers. All of these people and vessels will be disrupted by the installation of a wave energy gathering source. 4. Wavelength :Wind power is highly dependent on wavelength i.e. wave speed, wave length, wavelength and water density. Some areas experience unreliable wave behaviour and it becomes unpredictable to forecast accurate wave power and therefore cannot be trusted as reliable energy source. Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
  26. 26. 5. Weak Performance in Rough Weather :The performance of wave power drops significantly during rough weather. They must withstand rough weather. 6. Noise andVisual pollution :Wave energy generators may be unpleasant for some who live close to coastal regions. They look like large machines working in the middle of the ocean and destroy the beauty of the ocean.They also generate noise pollution but the noise is often covered by the noise of waves which is much more than that of wave generators. Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
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  28. 28. Solar energy is radiant light and heat from the sun harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, solar photovoltaic, solar thermal energy, solar architecture and artificial photosynthesis. When we get the solar energy from the sun it gets trapped and stored and can be used in various ways to generate power. Heat energy into electrical energy. Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
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  30. 30. •Solar energy is a clean and renewable energy source. Once a solar panel is installed, solar energy can be produced free of charge. •Solar energy will last forever whereas it is estimated that the world’s oil reserves will last for 30 to 40 years. •Solar energy causes no pollution. • Solar cells make absolutely no noise at all. On the other hand, the giant machines utilized for pumping oil are extremely noisy and therefore very impractical. Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
  31. 31. •Very little maintenance is needed to keep solar cells running. •There are no moving parts in a solar cell which makes it impossible to really damage them. • In the long term, there can be a high return on investment due to the amount of free energy a solar panel can produce, it is estimated that the average household will see 50% of their energy coming in from solar panels Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
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  33. 33. • Solar panels can be expensive to install resulting in a time- lag of many years for savings on energy bills to match initial investments. • Electricity generation depends entirely on a countries exposure to sunlight; this could be limited by a countries climate. • Solar power stations do not match the power output of similar sized conventional power stations; they can also be very expensive to build. • Solar power is used to charge batteries so that solar powered devices can be used at night.The batteries can often be large and heavy, taking up space and needing to be replaced from time to time Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
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  35. 35. •Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower •production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. •It is the most widely used form of renewable energy, accounting for 16 percent of global electricity generation •150 countries all around the world uses this power source. Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
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  37. 37. 1. Once a dam is constructed, electricity can be produced at a constant rate. 2. If electricity is not needed, the sluice gates can be shut, stopping electricity generation.The water can be saved for use another time when electricity demand is high. 3. Dams are designed to last many decades and so can contribute to the generation of electricity for many years / decades. 4.The lake that forms behind the dam can be used for water sports and leisure / pleasure activities. Often large dams become tourist attractions in their own right. Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
  38. 38. 5.The lake's water can be used for irrigation purposes. 6.The build up of water in the lake means that energy can be stored until needed, when the water is released to produce electricity. 7.When in use, electricity produced by dam systems do not produce green house gases.They do not pollute the atmosphere Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
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  40. 40. 1. Dams are extremely expensive to build and must be built to a very high standard. 2.The high cost of dam construction means that they must operate for many decades to become profitable. 3.The flooding of large areas of land means that the natural environment is destroyed. 4. People living in villages and towns that are in the valley to be flooded, must move out.This means that they lose their farms and businesses. In some countries, people are forcibly removed so that hydro-power schemes can go ahead. Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
  41. 41. 5.The building of large dams can cause serious geological damage. For example, the building of the Hoover Dam in the USA triggered a number of earth quakes and has depressed the earth’s surface at its location. 6. Although modern planning and design of dams is good, in the past old dams have been known to be breached (the dam gives under the weight of water in the lake).This has led to deaths and flooding. 7. Dams built blocking the progress of a river in one country usually means that the water supply from the same river in the following country is out of their control.This can lead to serious problems between neighbouring countries. 8. Building a large dam alters the natural water table level. Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
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  43. 43. •Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. •The geothermal energy of the Earth's crust originates from the original formation of the planet (20%) and from radioactive decay of materials . •The Earth's geothermal resources are theoretically more than adequate to supply humanity's energy needs, but only a very small fraction may be profitably exploited. •Thermal energy in to electrical energy. Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
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  46. 46. 1) It is a renewable source of energy. 2) By far, it is non-polluting and environment friendly. 3) There is no wastage or generation of by-products. 4) Geothermal energy can be used directly. In ancient times, people used this source of energy for heating homes, cooking, etc. 5) Maintenance cost of geothermal power plants is very less. 6) Geothermal power plants don't occupy too much space and thus help in protecting natural environment. 7) Unlike solar energy, it is not dependent on the weather conditions. Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
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  48. 48. 1)Only few sites have the potential of Geothermal Energy. 2) Most of the sites, where geothermal energy is produced, are far from markets or cities, where it needs to be consumed. 3) Total generation potential of this source is too small. 4) There is always a danger of eruption of volcano. 5) Installation cost of steam power plant is very high. 6) There is no guarantee that the amount of energy which is produced will justify the capital expenditure and operations costs. 7) It may release some harmful, poisonous gases that can escape through the holes drilled during construction. Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
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  50. 50. •Biomass is biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms. •It most often refers to plants or plant-based materials which are specifically called ligno cellulosic biomass •As an energy source, biomass can either be used directly via combustion to produce heat, or indirectly after converting it to various forms of biofuel. Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
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  52. 52. 1. No Harmful Emissions : Biomass energy, for the most part, creates no harmful carbon dioxide emissions 2. Clean Energy : Because of its relatively clean use, biomass energy, when used in commercial businesses such as airlines, receives tax credit from the US government.This is good for the environment and good for business. It does release carbon dioxide but captures carbon dioxide for its own growth. 3. Abundant and Renewable : Biomass products are abundant and renewable. Since they come from living sources, and life is cyclical, these products potentially never run out Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
  53. 53. Reduce Dependency on Fossil Fuels : It has developed as an alternate source of fuel for many homeowners and have helped them to reduce their dependency on fossil fuels Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
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  55. 55. •Inefficient as Compared to Fossil Fuels : Secondly, and connected to the first, is the relative inefficiency of biomass energy. Ethanol, as a biodiesel is terribly inefficient when compared to gasoline, and it often has to be mixed with some gasoline to make it work properly anyway. On top of that, ethanol is harmful to combustion engines over long term use. •Consume More Fuel : Finally, using trees and tree products to power machines is inefficient as well. Not only does it take a lot more fuel to do the same job as using conventional fuels, but it also creates environmental problems of its own Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
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  58. 58. Are nonrenewable because they take millions of years to form. In developing countries, the fossil fuels are fossilized wood, charcoal, and peat. In developed countries, the fossil fuels are mainly coal, natural gas, and oil. Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
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  60. 60. •A major advantage of fossil fuels is their capacity to generate huge amounts of electricity in just a single location. •Fossil fuels are very easy to find. •When coal is used in power plants, they are very cost effective. Coal is also in abundant supply. •Transporting oil and gas to the power stations can be made through the use of pipes making it an easy task. •Power plants that utilize gas are very efficient. •Power stations that make use of fossil fuel can be constructed in almost any location.This is possible as long as large quantities of fuel can be easily brought to the power plants. Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
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  62. 62. •Pollution is a major disadvantage of fossil fuels.This is because they give off carbon dioxide when burned thereby causing a greenhouse effect.This is also the main contributory factor to the global warming experienced by the earth today. •Coal also produces carbon dioxide when burned compared to burning oil or gas. Additionally, it gives off sulphur dioxide, a kind of gas that creates acid rain. •Environmentally, the mining of coal results in the destruction of wide areas of land. Mining this fossil fuel is also difficult and may endanger the lives of miners. Coal mining is considered one of the most dangerous jobs in the world. Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
  63. 63. •Power stations that utilize coal need large amounts of fuel. In other words, they not only need truckloads but trainloads of coal on a regular basis to continue operating and generating electricity.This only means that coal-fired power plants should have reserves of coal in a large area near the plants location •Use of natural gas can cause unpleasant odors and some problems especially with transportation. •Use of crude oil causes pollution and poses environmental hazards such as oil spills when oil tankers, for instance, experience leaks or drown deep under the sea. Crude oil contains toxic chemicals which cause air pollutants when combusted. Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
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  65. 65. Coal Is a Plentiful but Dirty Fuel  World’s most abundant fossil fuel  U.S. has 25%  Current usage we have a 300 year supply  Environmental costs of burning coal  Severe air pollution  Sulfur released as SO2  Large amount of soot  CO2  Trace amounts of Hg and radioactive materials  Dirtiest fossil fuel to burn. Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
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  70. 70. “It was supposed to be the fuel source to end all energy problems and power our future.” Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
  71. 71. How a Nuclear Reactor Works  The nucleus of a heavy element, such as uranium, splits when bombarded by a free neutron in a nuclear reactor.(1)The fission process for uranium atoms yields two smaller atoms, one to three free neutrons, plus an amount of energy.  This leads to a continuous reaction which is considered a chain reaction. Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
  72. 72. Boiling Water Reactor U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
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  74. 74. Expense Less uranium is needed to produce the same amount of energy as coal or oil, which lowers the cost of producing the same amount of energy. Uranium is also less expensive to procure and transport, which further lowers the cost . Reliability When a nuclear power plant is functioning properly, it can run uninterrupted for up to 540 days.This results in fewer brownouts or other power interruptions.The running of the plant is also not contingent of weather or foreign suppliers, which makes it more stable than other forms of energy. No Greenhouse Gases While nuclear energy does have some emissions, the plant itself does not give off greenhouse gasses. Studies have shown that what life-cycle emissions that the plants do give off are on par with renewable energy sources such as wind power.This lack of greenhouse gases can be very attractive to some consumers. Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
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  76. 76. Raw Material Uranium is used in the process of fission because it's a naturally unstable element.This means that special precautions must be taken during the mining, transporting and storing of the uranium, as well as the storing of any waste product to prevent it from giving off harmful levels of radiation. Water Pollutant Nuclear fission chambers are cooled by water.This water is then turned into steam, which is used to power the turbines.When the water cools enough to change back into liquid form, it is pumped outside into nearby wetlands.While measures are taken to ensure that no radiation is being pumped into the environment, other heavy metals and pollutants can make their way out of the chamber.The immense heat given off by this water can also be damaging to eco systems located nearby the reactor. Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
  77. 77. Waste When the uranium has finished splitting, the resulting radioactive byproducts need to be removed. While recycling efforts of this waste product have been undertaken in recent years, the storage of the byproduct could lead to contamination through leaks or containment failures. Leaks Nuclear reactors are built with several safety systems designed to contain the radiation given off in the fission process.When these safety systems are properly installed and maintained, they function adequately.When they are not maintained, have structural flaws or were improperly installed, a nuclear reactor could release harmful amounts of radiation into the environment during the process of regular use. If a containment field were to rupture suddenly, the resulting leak of radiation could be catastrophic. Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
  78. 78. Case Study: Worst Nuclear Power Plant Accident in the World  April 26, 1986  In Chernobyl, Ukraine  Series of explosions caused the roof of a reactor building to blow off  Partial meltdown and fire for 10 days  Huge radioactive cloud spread over many countries and eventually the world  350,000 people left their homes  Effects on human health, water supply, and agriculture Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
  79. 79. Case Study: Worst Commercial Nuclear Power Plant Accident in the U.S.  March 29, 1979  Near Harrisburg, PA, U.S.  Nuclear reactor lost its coolant  Led to a partial uncovering and melting of the radioactive core  Unknown amounts of radioactivity escaped  People fled the area  Increased public concerns for safety  Led to improved safety regulations in the U.S. Niju Thandapra St Berchmans MBA
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