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http://www.edurite.com/kbase/life+processes+notesLIFE PROCESSES
What are the characteristics of life?
The seven life processes          1 Move        2 Reproduce        3 Sensitive        4 Nutrition         5 Excrete       ...
Difference between living and non-living thingLIVING THINGS             NON-LIVING THINGSMovement- body,           Even th...
What is a living thing? Imagine that you are space traveler who lands on an unknown planet. How could you determine if wh...
What are the life processes?   NUTRITION   TRANSPORT   RESPIRATION   EXCRETION   SYNTHESIS   GROWTH   REGULATION  ...
Nutrition Includes the activities involved in ingestion (obtaining food from the environment) and digestion (processing f...
How organisms grow? Living organisms need to grow, they need energy for living and growth. This is accomplished by break...
FATS          CARBOHYDRATES       PROTEINS             OXIDATION- REDUCTION             REACTIONS         ENERGY
Molecular movements inside cells Maintaining living structures                    Energy  Growth of  bodyTo run series of ...
Chemical reactions inside cells Oxidation-reduction reactions are most common inside cells to breakdown molecules of gluc...
How do organisms obtain their nutritionSinglecellular organisms These organism live with one cell. They carry out all l...
Nutrition in amoeba
Multicellular organisms Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to single-c...
Multicellular continues…. All cells are not in direct contact with  environment. Simple diffusion is insufficient and wi...
FOOD                      OXYGENDigestive system digests   Respiratory system iscomplex food and           responsible for...
Nutrition
How do living things get their food? Green plants and some bacteria make their own  food. They use raw materials like wa...
What is an autotroph?An organism capable of making its own foodfrom inorganic substances, using light orchemical energy. P...
Photosynthesis in equation
photosynthesis Absorption of light energy by chlorophyll.
 Conversion of light energy into chemical energy.
Splitting of water molecules into Hydrogen and oxygenand 1pair of electrons.
 Desert plants takes up carbon dioxide and prepare starch at night. Light energy is absorbed by the chlorophyll during d...
Nutrition in green plants Green plants are also called autotrophic  organisms, as they can produce their own  food. Auto...
Starch test
Leaves tested for starch-IODINETEST                    Variegated leaf
Opening and closing of stomataStomata: They are tiny openings or pores,found mostly on the underside of a plant leafand u...
glucose   NITROGEN           Amino           acids
 Roots of leguminous plants can absorb nitrate / nitrite compounds (nitrogen source) from the soil. Rhizobium bacteria h...
Heterotrophic nutrition Heterotrophic nutrition is classified into three types : (i) Saprophytic nutrition (ii) Parasitic...
Heterotrophic nutrition in non green plantsTypes: Saprophytes: These organisms get their  food from dead and decaying plan...
 PARASITIC NUTRITION : If an organism depends on another living organism for nutrition, its mode of nutrition is called p...
Cuscata (amber -bel)
leeches
 HOLOZOIC NUTRITION : Holozoic nutrition involves intake of parts of plants or animals or an organism as a whole by the p...
Nutrition in humans Digestion: The conversion of complex food  into simple soluble forms. Parts of digestive system: Te...
H u m a n N u t r it io nINGESTION        taking of food into to the mouthDIGESTION        break down of food into small s...
NUTITION IN HUMAN BEINGS Human alimentary canal
Identify the labellings
Location of the salivary glands in mouth
Digestion in mouth   What happens in mouth?Grinding                S alivaryof bolus                    glandsby teeth    ...
Digestion of starch inmouth
Peristalsis
Peristaltic waves of contraction push food throughthe lower esophageal sphincter into the stomach.
Parts of stomach
Gastric glands and mucous membranes
Digestion in stomachPepsin action is favored by HCl, mucus protectsinner lining of stomach Digestion in stomach           ...
main digestive enzymes found in our bodyS.NO Digestive   Enzyme/juice        Food        Substances produced.     organ   ...
Small intestine structure
Absorption in the small intestines
Assimilation It is the final stage of digestion. When the soluble food absorbed into the blood stream is used to provide...
assimilationFood material AssimilationGlucose       •Provides energy.              •Stored in liver and muscles.Fatty acid...
Egestion The removal of undigested food or waste moves to large intestines where water is absorbed from them, making a se...
RESPIRATION The process of releasing energy from organic molecules for use by cells. During respiration glucose is broke...
Respiration is the release of energy fromglucose or another organic chemical.Aerobic Respiration requires oxygen.Anaero...
Respiration Respiration: is the release of energy from food,takes place in animal and plant cells. Aerobic Respiration r...
Anaerobic respirationC6H12O6                2C2 H5OH +                         ethanol                         2CO 2 +    ...
Anaerobic respiration in humansDuring vigorous physical exercise.Glucose        Lactic acid + Energy
BREAK DOWN OF GLUCOSE BY ANAEROBICPATHWAYS IN MUSCLE CELLS           In cytoplasmGlucose (6C)           Pyruvate (3C) + En...
ANAEROBIC PATHWAY FOR GLUCOSE BREAKDOWN IN YEAST             In cytoplasmGlucose (6C)            Pyruvate (3C) + Energy   ...
Aerobic pathway for glucose break down inmitochondria             In cytoplasmGlucose (6C)            Pyruvate (3C) + Ener...
Aerobic respiration      Anaerobic respirationPresence of oxygen.      Absence of oxygen.6 Carbon glucose        6 Carbon...
Types of respiration
What form of energy used by cells? The energy used during cellular respiration is used to synthesis ATP. ATP – Adenosine...
 Endothermic reactions (reactions that absorbs heat from outside source) use ATP to drive their reactions. The terminal ...
ADP + PHOSPHATE       EnergyADP~PHOSPHATE     ATP
DiffusionThe process by which molecules spreadfrom areas of high concentration, to areasof low concentration. When the mol...
Diffusion contd….. Molecules will always move down the concentration difference, toward areas of lesser concentration. Th...
Water movement in plants
Diffusion in plants Plants exchange gases through stomata. The large intracellular space ensures cells are in  contact w...
Diffusion in terrestrial animals Animals respire using different organs. Terrestrial animals use lungs for breathing. T...
Diffusion in aquatic animalsBreathing rate iscomparativelyfaster in aquaticanimals.Takes inwater bymouth
Respiration in humans
Gas exchange in alveoli
The circulatory system in humans3 distinct components Blood         - fluid circulates in our body. Blood vessels- tubes...
Composition of bloodPLASMA(55%)                      BLOOD                            CELLS(45%Red blood cells            ...
Red blood cells Disc shaped. O2 and CO2 transport. 1 cubic millimetre of blood has5 million RBC. Haemoglobin
White blood cells Colourless and larger than RBC. Protects your body against infection by killing bacteria.
HUMAN HEART              Pulmonary artery                Pulmonary                vein                septum
Single circulation infishes, amphibiansand reptiles
Blood pressure
 Blood pressureForce exerted by blood on the walls of artery. It is greater in arteries than in veins. The Pressure of ...
Maintenance by platelets
Lymph Lymph or tissue fluid is involvedin transportation. The almost colourless fluid that bathes body tissues and is fo...
Transport in plants
 Water absorbed into roots through root hair cells Water carried to leaves through xylem vessels Water evaporates from ...
 Water is absorbed in plants by young roots and in the dermal cells by osmosis Cell sap of the epidermal cells has highe...
Diffusion and osmosis
osmosisVisit the site:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yYx_9y0I1Hg&feature=related
Osmosis in plants
transpiration
substances
Excretion in humans
 i) Kidneys  Place of filtration and reabsorption ii) Ureter  Urine flows from the collecting tubes in the kidneys to th...
Urine formation
EXCRETION
Oxygen- waste product.          Photosynthesis                         Water – transpiration                          Dead...
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.
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c.b.s.e grade 10 Life processes ppt.

  1. 1. http://www.edurite.com/kbase/life+processes+notesLIFE PROCESSES
  2. 2. What are the characteristics of life?
  3. 3. The seven life processes 1 Move 2 Reproduce 3 Sensitive 4 Nutrition 5 Excrete 6 Respire 7 Grow
  4. 4. Difference between living and non-living thingLIVING THINGS NON-LIVING THINGSMovement- body, Even though there ismolecules movement they are not alive.Nutrition It is not taking place.Excretion There is no excretion.Growth Growth is not taking place.Respiration – breathing There is no respiration.Reproduction It is not taking place.Sensitivity There is no sensory organs.
  5. 5. What is a living thing? Imagine that you are space traveler who lands on an unknown planet. How could you determine if what you are looking at is alive. Ex. A rock and a blade of grass.
  6. 6. What are the life processes? NUTRITION TRANSPORT RESPIRATION EXCRETION SYNTHESIS GROWTH REGULATION REPRODUCTION
  7. 7. Nutrition Includes the activities involved in ingestion (obtaining food from the environment) and digestion (processing food for use by the organism). It also includes egestion (removal of solid wastes)
  8. 8. How organisms grow? Living organisms need to grow, they need energy for living and growth. This is accomplished by breaking down food to produce energy. Life on earth depends on obtaining energy by breaking down carbon-based compounds (carbohydrates, fats and proteins).
  9. 9. FATS CARBOHYDRATES PROTEINS OXIDATION- REDUCTION REACTIONS ENERGY
  10. 10. Molecular movements inside cells Maintaining living structures Energy Growth of bodyTo run series of biochemicalreactions inside cells
  11. 11. Chemical reactions inside cells Oxidation-reduction reactions are most common inside cells to breakdown molecules of glucose or fatty acid or amino acid (molecules used by cells). These reactions use oxygen. Living organisms use oxygen to carryout oxidation-reduction reactions, so they are called as cellular respiration.
  12. 12. How do organisms obtain their nutritionSinglecellular organisms These organism live with one cell. They carry out all life processes with its single cell. They are not having any specific organ system for taking in food, exchange of gases or removal of wastes. The entire surface of the organism is in contact with the environment. Single cellular organisms carryout Simple Diffusion process to meet some of the life processes.
  13. 13. Nutrition in amoeba
  14. 14. Multicellular organisms Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to single-cell organisms. To form a multicellular organism, these cells need to identify and attach to the other cells.
  15. 15. Multicellular continues…. All cells are not in direct contact with environment. Simple diffusion is insufficient and will not meet the requirements of all the cells.
  16. 16. FOOD OXYGENDigestive system digests Respiratory system iscomplex food and responsible for inhaling O2.absorbs simpler form of Then O2 is transported tonutrients and then all cells.transported to cells. Transport systemBody cells need both to perform biochemicalreactions to produce energy Excretion
  17. 17. Nutrition
  18. 18. How do living things get their food? Green plants and some bacteria make their own food. They use raw materials like water and carbon dioxide(inorganic raw materials). Green plants and some bacteria are autotrophs.
  19. 19. What is an autotroph?An organism capable of making its own foodfrom inorganic substances, using light orchemical energy. Plants are autotrophs. They takein light (the sun) and convert this into food orenergy. E.g. plants , bacteria and algae.What is a heterotroph?An organism that must ingest complex organicsubstances in order to create energy. Theseorganisms use biocatalysts called enzymes.Examples of heterotrophs are humans. Humansmust ingest food in order to create energy. Theydo this through digestion. Other e.g. animals,
  20. 20. Photosynthesis in equation
  21. 21. photosynthesis Absorption of light energy by chlorophyll.
  22. 22.  Conversion of light energy into chemical energy.
  23. 23. Splitting of water molecules into Hydrogen and oxygenand 1pair of electrons.
  24. 24.  Desert plants takes up carbon dioxide and prepare starch at night. Light energy is absorbed by the chlorophyll during day time.
  25. 25. Nutrition in green plants Green plants are also called autotrophic organisms, as they can produce their own food. Autotrophic = auto+ trophic, means- making food by self without depending other living beings. Green plants produce food by photosynthesis process, so they are known as producers in the environment.
  26. 26. Starch test
  27. 27. Leaves tested for starch-IODINETEST Variegated leaf
  28. 28. Opening and closing of stomataStomata: They are tiny openings or pores,found mostly on the underside of a plant leafand used for gas exchange.The pore is formed by a pair of specialized cellsknown as guard cells which are responsible forregulating the size of the opening.
  29. 29. glucose NITROGEN Amino acids
  30. 30.  Roots of leguminous plants can absorb nitrate / nitrite compounds (nitrogen source) from the soil. Rhizobium bacteria helps in converting atmospheric nitrogen into organic nitrates/nitrites.
  31. 31. Heterotrophic nutrition Heterotrophic nutrition is classified into three types : (i) Saprophytic nutrition (ii) Parasitic nutrition (iii) Holozoic nutrition. SAPROPHYTIC NUTRITION : Organisms obtaining nutrients from dead and decaying organic matter are called saprophytes and their mode of nutrition is called saprophytic nutrition. Many species of bacteria and different types of fungi are saprophytes.
  32. 32. Heterotrophic nutrition in non green plantsTypes: Saprophytes: These organisms get their food from dead and decaying plants and animals. They release digestive enzymes to break down complex organic matter into simpler ones. E.g. Fungi, Bacteria.
  33. 33.  PARASITIC NUTRITION : If an organism depends on another living organism for nutrition, its mode of nutrition is called parasitic nutrition. Such organisms are called parasites and the organism from which they obtain nutrition is called host. The host organism is harmed by the parasite. Parasitic nutrition is observed in some bacteria, fungi, flowering plants like cuscuta and animal like ascaris.
  34. 34. Cuscata (amber -bel)
  35. 35. leeches
  36. 36.  HOLOZOIC NUTRITION : Holozoic nutrition involves intake of parts of plants or animals or an organism as a whole by the process of ingestion which is then digested and absorbed. Some examples are amoeba, frog, insects, human being, etc.
  37. 37. Nutrition in humans Digestion: The conversion of complex food into simple soluble forms. Parts of digestive system: Teeth – biting, chewing food. Alimentary canal - it consists of several organs oesophagus, stomach, the small and large intestines, rectum and anus. Digestive glands - secrete digestive juices.
  38. 38. H u m a n N u t r it io nINGESTION taking of food into to the mouthDIGESTION break down of food into small soluble piecesABSORPTION taking in of useful food into the bloodstreamASSIMILATION use of food for growth, repair and energyEGESTION removal of unused food from the body.
  39. 39. NUTITION IN HUMAN BEINGS Human alimentary canal
  40. 40. Identify the labellings
  41. 41. Location of the salivary glands in mouth
  42. 42. Digestion in mouth What happens in mouth?Grinding S alivaryof bolus glandsby teeth produce saliva Saliva contains salivary amylase Starch maltose
  43. 43. Digestion of starch inmouth
  44. 44. Peristalsis
  45. 45. Peristaltic waves of contraction push food throughthe lower esophageal sphincter into the stomach.
  46. 46. Parts of stomach
  47. 47. Gastric glands and mucous membranes
  48. 48. Digestion in stomachPepsin action is favored by HCl, mucus protectsinner lining of stomach Digestion in stomach CHYME: when stomach churns food, it is converted into semi solid state.
  49. 49. main digestive enzymes found in our bodyS.NO Digestive Enzyme/juice Food Substances produced. organ acted upon1. Mouth Salivary amylase Starch Maltose (sugar) (salivary glands)2. Stomach Gastric juice - Proteins Peptides (fragments of Pepsin protein)3. Pancreas Pancreatic juice: •Amylase •Starch •Maltose (sugar) •Trypsin •Proteins •Peptides (very small •Lipase •Fats fragments) (lipids) •Fatty acids+ glycerol4. Small •Lipase •Fats •Fatty acids+ glycerol intestine •Maltase •Maltose •Glucose •Sucrase •Sucrose •Glucose and fructose •Peptidase •Peptides •aminoacids
  50. 50. Small intestine structure
  51. 51. Absorption in the small intestines
  52. 52. Assimilation It is the final stage of digestion. When the soluble food absorbed into the blood stream is used to provide energy and materials for growth and repair of body tissues.
  53. 53. assimilationFood material AssimilationGlucose •Provides energy. •Stored in liver and muscles.Fatty acids+ •Energy reserves.glycerol •It is stored in liver and in under skin.Amino acids •Repairs damages in body parts. • Forms enzymes, hormones. •Responsible for growth
  54. 54. Egestion The removal of undigested food or waste moves to large intestines where water is absorbed from them, making a semi solid. This is Faeces. It is stored in the large intestine called rectum. It is sent out of the body through anus.
  55. 55. RESPIRATION The process of releasing energy from organic molecules for use by cells. During respiration glucose is broken down, and the energy released is stored in the compound ATP. Energy released by the compound ATP is used by organisms to perform life functions.
  56. 56. Respiration is the release of energy fromglucose or another organic chemical.Aerobic Respiration requires oxygen.Anaerobic Respiration does not requireoxygen and releases less energy.
  57. 57. Respiration Respiration: is the release of energy from food,takes place in animal and plant cells. Aerobic Respiration requires: Glucose, Oxygen. Aerobic Respiration produces: Energy,Carbon Dioxide, Water. Anaerobic Respiration requires: Glucose. Anaerobic Respiration produces:Energy (not as much),Carbon Dioxide,Lactic Acid or Alcohol.
  58. 58. Anaerobic respirationC6H12O6 2C2 H5OH + ethanol 2CO 2 + EnergyYeast can carry out respiration in the absence of oxygen.
  59. 59. Anaerobic respiration in humansDuring vigorous physical exercise.Glucose Lactic acid + Energy
  60. 60. BREAK DOWN OF GLUCOSE BY ANAEROBICPATHWAYS IN MUSCLE CELLS In cytoplasmGlucose (6C) Pyruvate (3C) + Energy Lack of oxygen in muscle cells Lactic acid (3C) + Energy
  61. 61. ANAEROBIC PATHWAY FOR GLUCOSE BREAKDOWN IN YEAST In cytoplasmGlucose (6C) Pyruvate (3C) + Energy Absence of oxygen in yeast Ethanol (2C) + CO2 + Energy
  62. 62. Aerobic pathway for glucose break down inmitochondria In cytoplasmGlucose (6C) Pyruvate (3C) + Energy Presence of oxygen in mitochondria Water + CO2 + Energy
  63. 63. Aerobic respiration Anaerobic respirationPresence of oxygen. Absence of oxygen.6 Carbon glucose 6 Carbon glucose 3Carbon3Carbon pyruvate pyruvate ethanol or lacticCO2, water inside acidmitochondria. in cytoplasm.More energy is released. Very less energy is released.It takes place in most of It takes place in yeastcells like RBC, Brain (ethanol fermentation),cells, heart muscle cells. muscle cells (lactic acid) muscle cramps during muscle exercise.
  64. 64. Types of respiration
  65. 65. What form of energy used by cells? The energy used during cellular respiration is used to synthesis ATP. ATP – Adenosine Tri Phosphate (currency of cells) ATP is the fuel to all cell activities. ATP s are broken down to release energy which can be used by cells to carry out movement in molecules, biochemical reactions.
  66. 66.  Endothermic reactions (reactions that absorbs heat from outside source) use ATP to drive their reactions. The terminal phosphate linkages are broken down using water (hydrolytic reactions). 1 ATP = 30.5 KJ/mol is released. ATP can be used for: Muscle contractionProtein making and cell repairsConduction of nerve impulse messagesMolecules to enter and exit plasma membrane.
  67. 67. ADP + PHOSPHATE EnergyADP~PHOSPHATE ATP
  68. 68. DiffusionThe process by which molecules spreadfrom areas of high concentration, to areasof low concentration. When the moleculesare even throughout a space - it is calledEQUILIBRIUM.
  69. 69. Diffusion contd….. Molecules will always move down the concentration difference, toward areas of lesser concentration. Think of food coloring that spreads out in a glass of water, or air freshener sprayed in a room.
  70. 70. Water movement in plants
  71. 71. Diffusion in plants Plants exchange gases through stomata. The large intracellular space ensures cells are in contact with environment air. CO2 and O2 are exchanged by diffusion here. Direction of diffusion depends on environmental conditions and requirements of plants. Night no photosynthesis occurs CO2 exchange. Day CO2 used by plants  Photosynthesis  no CO2 released to air. O2 is released.
  72. 72. Diffusion in terrestrial animals Animals respire using different organs. Terrestrial animals use lungs for breathing. These animals have respiratory system. That has large surface area that is in close contact with air as well as they are protected inside our body, because they are so delicate to carry out diffusion of gases. These organs have special mechanism to carry out breathing and diffusion of gases
  73. 73. Diffusion in aquatic animalsBreathing rate iscomparativelyfaster in aquaticanimals.Takes inwater bymouth
  74. 74. Respiration in humans
  75. 75. Gas exchange in alveoli
  76. 76. The circulatory system in humans3 distinct components Blood - fluid circulates in our body. Blood vessels- tubes that help the blood to circulate. Heart - pumping organ that circulates the blood around the body.
  77. 77. Composition of bloodPLASMA(55%) BLOOD CELLS(45%Red blood cells ) White blood cells Platelets(Erythrocytes) (Leucocytes) (thrombocytes)
  78. 78. Red blood cells Disc shaped. O2 and CO2 transport. 1 cubic millimetre of blood has5 million RBC. Haemoglobin
  79. 79. White blood cells Colourless and larger than RBC. Protects your body against infection by killing bacteria.
  80. 80. HUMAN HEART Pulmonary artery Pulmonary vein septum
  81. 81. Single circulation infishes, amphibiansand reptiles
  82. 82. Blood pressure
  83. 83.  Blood pressureForce exerted by blood on the walls of artery. It is greater in arteries than in veins. The Pressure of blood inside the artery during ventricular systole (contraction) is called systolic pressure. Pressure in artery during ventricular diastole (relaxation) is called diastolic pressure. The normal systolic pressure -120mm Hg. The normal diastolic pressure-80 mmHg.
  84. 84. Maintenance by platelets
  85. 85. Lymph Lymph or tissue fluid is involvedin transportation. The almost colourless fluid that bathes body tissues and is found in the lymphatic vessels that drain the tissues of the fluid that filters across the blood vessel walls from blood. Lymph carries lymphocytes that have entered the lymph nodes from the blood.
  86. 86. Transport in plants
  87. 87.  Water absorbed into roots through root hair cells Water carried to leaves through xylem vessels Water evaporates from underside of leaves Water escapes through holes called stomata As water evaporates, more is sucked up xylem Stomata open and close to control water loss Open – O2 and CO2 enter and exit Closed – Reduce water loss
  88. 88.  Water is absorbed in plants by young roots and in the dermal cells by osmosis Cell sap of the epidermal cells has higher concentration than water in the soil Root hairs significantly increase water absorption Root hairs increase the root surface area and catchment space for water uptake
  89. 89. Diffusion and osmosis
  90. 90. osmosisVisit the site:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yYx_9y0I1Hg&feature=related
  91. 91. Osmosis in plants
  92. 92. transpiration
  93. 93. substances
  94. 94. Excretion in humans
  95. 95.  i) Kidneys Place of filtration and reabsorption ii) Ureter Urine flows from the collecting tubes in the kidneys to the ureter (a pipe) iii) Urinary Bladder Urine flows from ureter to this place where it is temporarily stored iv) Urethra Periodically, urine is EXCRETED from the bladder through the urethra
  96. 96. Urine formation
  97. 97. EXCRETION
  98. 98. Oxygen- waste product. Photosynthesis Water – transpiration Dead cells/wasteExcretion in plants stored in leaves - removed by falling leaves Waste products Plants excretes are stored in waste into soil cellular vacuoles

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