The seven life processes 1 Move 2 Reproduce 3 Sensitive 4 Nutrition 5 Excrete 6 Respire 7 Grow
Difference between living and non-living thingLIVING THINGS NON-LIVING THINGSMovement- body, Even though there ismolecules movement they are not alive.Nutrition It is not taking place.Excretion There is no excretion.Growth Growth is not taking place.Respiration – breathing There is no respiration.Reproduction It is not taking place.Sensitivity There is no sensory organs.
What is a living thing? Imagine that you are space traveler who lands on an unknown planet. How could you determine if what you are looking at is alive. Ex. A rock and a blade of grass.
What are the life processes? NUTRITION TRANSPORT RESPIRATION EXCRETION SYNTHESIS GROWTH REGULATION REPRODUCTION
Nutrition Includes the activities involved in ingestion (obtaining food from the environment) and digestion (processing food for use by the organism). It also includes egestion (removal of solid wastes)
How organisms grow? Living organisms need to grow, they need energy for living and growth. This is accomplished by breaking down food to produce energy. Life on earth depends on obtaining energy by breaking down carbon-based compounds (carbohydrates, fats and proteins).
FATS CARBOHYDRATES PROTEINS OXIDATION- REDUCTION REACTIONS ENERGY
Molecular movements inside cells Maintaining living structures Energy Growth of bodyTo run series of biochemicalreactions inside cells
Chemical reactions inside cells Oxidation-reduction reactions are most common inside cells to breakdown molecules of glucose or fatty acid or amino acid (molecules used by cells). These reactions use oxygen. Living organisms use oxygen to carryout oxidation-reduction reactions, so they are called as cellular respiration.
How do organisms obtain their nutritionSinglecellular organisms These organism live with one cell. They carry out all life processes with its single cell. They are not having any specific organ system for taking in food, exchange of gases or removal of wastes. The entire surface of the organism is in contact with the environment. Single cellular organisms carryout Simple Diffusion process to meet some of the life processes.
Multicellular organisms Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to single-cell organisms. To form a multicellular organism, these cells need to identify and attach to the other cells.
Multicellular continues…. All cells are not in direct contact with environment. Simple diffusion is insufficient and will not meet the requirements of all the cells.
FOOD OXYGENDigestive system digests Respiratory system iscomplex food and responsible for inhaling O2.absorbs simpler form of Then O2 is transported tonutrients and then all cells.transported to cells. Transport systemBody cells need both to perform biochemicalreactions to produce energy Excretion
How do living things get their food? Green plants and some bacteria make their own food. They use raw materials like water and carbon dioxide(inorganic raw materials). Green plants and some bacteria are autotrophs.
What is an autotroph?An organism capable of making its own foodfrom inorganic substances, using light orchemical energy. Plants are autotrophs. They takein light (the sun) and convert this into food orenergy. E.g. plants , bacteria and algae.What is a heterotroph?An organism that must ingest complex organicsubstances in order to create energy. Theseorganisms use biocatalysts called enzymes.Examples of heterotrophs are humans. Humansmust ingest food in order to create energy. Theydo this through digestion. Other e.g. animals,
photosynthesis Absorption of light energy by chlorophyll.
Conversion of light energy into chemical energy.
Splitting of water molecules into Hydrogen and oxygenand 1pair of electrons.
Desert plants takes up carbon dioxide and prepare starch at night. Light energy is absorbed by the chlorophyll during day time.
Nutrition in green plants Green plants are also called autotrophic organisms, as they can produce their own food. Autotrophic = auto+ trophic, means- making food by self without depending other living beings. Green plants produce food by photosynthesis process, so they are known as producers in the environment.
Leaves tested for starch-IODINETEST Variegated leaf
Opening and closing of stomataStomata: They are tiny openings or pores,found mostly on the underside of a plant leafand used for gas exchange.The pore is formed by a pair of specialized cellsknown as guard cells which are responsible forregulating the size of the opening.
Roots of leguminous plants can absorb nitrate / nitrite compounds (nitrogen source) from the soil. Rhizobium bacteria helps in converting atmospheric nitrogen into organic nitrates/nitrites.
Heterotrophic nutrition Heterotrophic nutrition is classified into three types : (i) Saprophytic nutrition (ii) Parasitic nutrition (iii) Holozoic nutrition. SAPROPHYTIC NUTRITION : Organisms obtaining nutrients from dead and decaying organic matter are called saprophytes and their mode of nutrition is called saprophytic nutrition. Many species of bacteria and different types of fungi are saprophytes.
Heterotrophic nutrition in non green plantsTypes: Saprophytes: These organisms get their food from dead and decaying plants and animals. They release digestive enzymes to break down complex organic matter into simpler ones. E.g. Fungi, Bacteria.
PARASITIC NUTRITION : If an organism depends on another living organism for nutrition, its mode of nutrition is called parasitic nutrition. Such organisms are called parasites and the organism from which they obtain nutrition is called host. The host organism is harmed by the parasite. Parasitic nutrition is observed in some bacteria, fungi, flowering plants like cuscuta and animal like ascaris.
HOLOZOIC NUTRITION : Holozoic nutrition involves intake of parts of plants or animals or an organism as a whole by the process of ingestion which is then digested and absorbed. Some examples are amoeba, frog, insects, human being, etc.
Nutrition in humans Digestion: The conversion of complex food into simple soluble forms. Parts of digestive system: Teeth – biting, chewing food. Alimentary canal - it consists of several organs oesophagus, stomach, the small and large intestines, rectum and anus. Digestive glands - secrete digestive juices.
H u m a n N u t r it io nINGESTION taking of food into to the mouthDIGESTION break down of food into small soluble piecesABSORPTION taking in of useful food into the bloodstreamASSIMILATION use of food for growth, repair and energyEGESTION removal of unused food from the body.
NUTITION IN HUMAN BEINGS Human alimentary canal
Assimilation It is the final stage of digestion. When the soluble food absorbed into the blood stream is used to provide energy and materials for growth and repair of body tissues.
assimilationFood material AssimilationGlucose •Provides energy. •Stored in liver and muscles.Fatty acids+ •Energy reserves.glycerol •It is stored in liver and in under skin.Amino acids •Repairs damages in body parts. • Forms enzymes, hormones. •Responsible for growth
Egestion The removal of undigested food or waste moves to large intestines where water is absorbed from them, making a semi solid. This is Faeces. It is stored in the large intestine called rectum. It is sent out of the body through anus.
RESPIRATION The process of releasing energy from organic molecules for use by cells. During respiration glucose is broken down, and the energy released is stored in the compound ATP. Energy released by the compound ATP is used by organisms to perform life functions.
Respiration is the release of energy fromglucose or another organic chemical.Aerobic Respiration requires oxygen.Anaerobic Respiration does not requireoxygen and releases less energy.
Respiration Respiration: is the release of energy from food,takes place in animal and plant cells. Aerobic Respiration requires: Glucose, Oxygen. Aerobic Respiration produces: Energy,Carbon Dioxide, Water. Anaerobic Respiration requires: Glucose. Anaerobic Respiration produces:Energy (not as much),Carbon Dioxide,Lactic Acid or Alcohol.
Anaerobic respirationC6H12O6 2C2 H5OH + ethanol 2CO 2 + EnergyYeast can carry out respiration in the absence of oxygen.
Anaerobic respiration in humansDuring vigorous physical exercise.Glucose Lactic acid + Energy
BREAK DOWN OF GLUCOSE BY ANAEROBICPATHWAYS IN MUSCLE CELLS In cytoplasmGlucose (6C) Pyruvate (3C) + Energy Lack of oxygen in muscle cells Lactic acid (3C) + Energy
ANAEROBIC PATHWAY FOR GLUCOSE BREAKDOWN IN YEAST In cytoplasmGlucose (6C) Pyruvate (3C) + Energy Absence of oxygen in yeast Ethanol (2C) + CO2 + Energy
Aerobic pathway for glucose break down inmitochondria In cytoplasmGlucose (6C) Pyruvate (3C) + Energy Presence of oxygen in mitochondria Water + CO2 + Energy
Aerobic respiration Anaerobic respirationPresence of oxygen. Absence of oxygen.6 Carbon glucose 6 Carbon glucose 3Carbon3Carbon pyruvate pyruvate ethanol or lacticCO2, water inside acidmitochondria. in cytoplasm.More energy is released. Very less energy is released.It takes place in most of It takes place in yeastcells like RBC, Brain (ethanol fermentation),cells, heart muscle cells. muscle cells (lactic acid) muscle cramps during muscle exercise.
What form of energy used by cells? The energy used during cellular respiration is used to synthesis ATP. ATP – Adenosine Tri Phosphate (currency of cells) ATP is the fuel to all cell activities. ATP s are broken down to release energy which can be used by cells to carry out movement in molecules, biochemical reactions.
Endothermic reactions (reactions that absorbs heat from outside source) use ATP to drive their reactions. The terminal phosphate linkages are broken down using water (hydrolytic reactions). 1 ATP = 30.5 KJ/mol is released. ATP can be used for: Muscle contractionProtein making and cell repairsConduction of nerve impulse messagesMolecules to enter and exit plasma membrane.
DiffusionThe process by which molecules spreadfrom areas of high concentration, to areasof low concentration. When the moleculesare even throughout a space - it is calledEQUILIBRIUM.
Diffusion contd….. Molecules will always move down the concentration difference, toward areas of lesser concentration. Think of food coloring that spreads out in a glass of water, or air freshener sprayed in a room.
Diffusion in plants Plants exchange gases through stomata. The large intracellular space ensures cells are in contact with environment air. CO2 and O2 are exchanged by diffusion here. Direction of diffusion depends on environmental conditions and requirements of plants. Night no photosynthesis occurs CO2 exchange. Day CO2 used by plants Photosynthesis no CO2 released to air. O2 is released.
Diffusion in terrestrial animals Animals respire using different organs. Terrestrial animals use lungs for breathing. These animals have respiratory system. That has large surface area that is in close contact with air as well as they are protected inside our body, because they are so delicate to carry out diffusion of gases. These organs have special mechanism to carry out breathing and diffusion of gases
Diffusion in aquatic animalsBreathing rate iscomparativelyfaster in aquaticanimals.Takes inwater bymouth
The circulatory system in humans3 distinct components Blood - fluid circulates in our body. Blood vessels- tubes that help the blood to circulate. Heart - pumping organ that circulates the blood around the body.
Composition of bloodPLASMA(55%) BLOOD CELLS(45%Red blood cells ) White blood cells Platelets(Erythrocytes) (Leucocytes) (thrombocytes)
Red blood cells Disc shaped. O2 and CO2 transport. 1 cubic millimetre of blood has5 million RBC. Haemoglobin
White blood cells Colourless and larger than RBC. Protects your body against infection by killing bacteria.
HUMAN HEART Pulmonary artery Pulmonary vein septum
Single circulation infishes, amphibiansand reptiles
Blood pressureForce exerted by blood on the walls of artery. It is greater in arteries than in veins. The Pressure of blood inside the artery during ventricular systole (contraction) is called systolic pressure. Pressure in artery during ventricular diastole (relaxation) is called diastolic pressure. The normal systolic pressure -120mm Hg. The normal diastolic pressure-80 mmHg.
Lymph Lymph or tissue fluid is involvedin transportation. The almost colourless fluid that bathes body tissues and is found in the lymphatic vessels that drain the tissues of the fluid that filters across the blood vessel walls from blood. Lymph carries lymphocytes that have entered the lymph nodes from the blood.
Water absorbed into roots through root hair cells Water carried to leaves through xylem vessels Water evaporates from underside of leaves Water escapes through holes called stomata As water evaporates, more is sucked up xylem Stomata open and close to control water loss Open – O2 and CO2 enter and exit Closed – Reduce water loss
Water is absorbed in plants by young roots and in the dermal cells by osmosis Cell sap of the epidermal cells has higher concentration than water in the soil Root hairs significantly increase water absorption Root hairs increase the root surface area and catchment space for water uptake
i) Kidneys Place of filtration and reabsorption ii) Ureter Urine flows from the collecting tubes in the kidneys to the ureter (a pipe) iii) Urinary Bladder Urine flows from ureter to this place where it is temporarily stored iv) Urethra Periodically, urine is EXCRETED from the bladder through the urethra
Oxygen- waste product. Photosynthesis Water – transpiration Dead cells/wasteExcretion in plants stored in leaves - removed by falling leaves Waste products Plants excretes are stored in waste into soil cellular vacuoles