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Introduction to human anatomy

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Introduction to human anatomy

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO ANATOMY The word ‘Anatome’ is Greek origin meaning cutting up (Ana- up; tome – process of cutting). Anatomy is the basic medical science, which deals of the structure of human body and their relationship. Anatomy is subdivided according to the method of description into: 1) Gross (macroscopic) anatomy Regional anatomy Systemic anatomy 2 2/3/2023 BY.Nigatu.A
  2. 2. 2) Microscopic anatomy ( = Histology) 3) Other subdivisions: Clinical anatomy Surgical anatomy Surface anatomy Radiological anatomy Developmental anatomy Embryology 3 2/3/2023 BY.Nigatu.A
  3. 3. Gross (macroscopic) anatomy: which deals with the body details which are seen by the naked eye. It is studied by means of dissection of the body. It is further subdivided in to: a) Regional anatomy: study of a discrete portion of the body. E.g. upper limb, lower limb, thorax etc b) Systemic anatomy: study of a particular system as it is traced throughout the whole body, e.g. Reproductive system, Respiratory system…etc. 4 2/3/2023 BY.Nigatu.A
  4. 4. Microscopic anatomy Which deals with the fine details of the body (cells and tissues). It is studied by the use of microscopic techniques is also called Histology Applied (Clinical) anatomy: Emphasizes aspects of body structure and function important in the practice of medicine, dentistry, and the allied health sciences. It stresses clinical application. 5 2/3/2023 BY.Nigatu.A
  5. 5. Surgical anatomy: is the study of anatomy in connection with surgical operations and surgical procedures (e.g. anatomy of surgical incisions, anatomy of surgical exposures…..). Surface anatomy is the study of the surface landmarks of the underlying body points, muscles and tendons. e.g. surface anatomy of the heart, the lung or the main nerves and vessels). . 6 2/3/2023 BY.Nigatu.A
  6. 6. Radiological anatomy: is the study of anatomy using radiological techniques e.g. X-rays, CT scan, ultrasound and MRI to demonstrate the bones or some internal organs as the heart, lungs, kidneys, stomach and intestine Developmental anatomy: study of changes in an individual from conception to old age. • Embryology: study of the developmental changes that occur before birth (from fertilization to birth) 7 2/3/2023 BY.Nigatu.A
  7. 7. 1.2 Level of Structural Organization Chemical/molecular Level: interaction of atoms Cell Level: functional unit of life Tissue Level: group of similar cells and the materials surrounding them Organ Level: one or more tissues functioning together E.g. heart, lung, kidney… Organ System Level: group of organs functioning together e.g. respiratory, cardiovascular systems…. Organism Level: any living thing. 8 2/3/2023 BY.Nigatu.A
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  9. 9. 1.2.1 Anatomical positions It is the position of the human body which is used as reference in describing the position and relations of the various anatomical structures. The person is standing erect The arms straight by the sides with the palms facing forwards- supine position The legs close together with the feet parallel and the toes directed forwards The head and eyes are facing forwards 10 2/3/2023 BY.Nigatu.A
  10. 10. Human Body Regions • The human body region is divided in to two major regions: 1. Axial body regions 2. Appendicular body regions Axial body regions consists of the head, neck, and the trunk. Trunk may be categorized as the thorax and Abdominopelvic cavity, separated by a dome- shaped structure called the diaphragm. 11 2/3/2023 BY.Nigatu.A
  11. 11. 2. Appendicular body regions • Appendicular body regions consists of the appendages also called extremities or Limbs Upper limbs- includes the brachium, Antebrachium (forearm), carpus or wrist, manus or the hand and the digits (fingers) Lower Limbs- the thigh, the leg ( crus) , tarsus and the toes ( digits)  N.B. In strict anatomical terms, “arm” refers only to that part of upper limbs b/n the shoulder & the elbow, while the “leg” refers the part of the lower limbs b/n the knee and ankle. 12 2/3/2023 BY.Nigatu.A
  12. 12. 1.2.Anatomical planes: flat imaginary line that divide the body or an organs A. sagittal plane: midsagital plane • It is the vertical plan which passes exactly in the middle of the body thus dividing it longitudinally into symmetrical right and left halves. • It is called because it is situated it the direction of the sagittal suture of the skull. 13 2/3/2023 BY.Nigatu.A
  13. 13. B. Coronal plane It is the vertical plane which lies at a right angle to the median plane. It divides the body longitudinally into anterior and posterior parts. N.B. It is called coronal because it is situated in the direction of the coronal suture of the skull. C. Horizontal plane It is a transverse plane which runs horizontally at a right angle to the vertical plane. It divides the body into upper and lower parts. 14 2/3/2023 BY.Nigatu.A
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  15. 15. Divisions of Abdominopelvic region used to describe the location of abdominal organs and the pain associated with abdominal problems , to address such type of problems the two methods are commonly used : a four-quadrant pattern :- For general clinical descriptions, clinicians use 4 quadrants defined by 2 planes Transumbilical plane Median plane: Nine-region organizational description: Clinicians subdivide abdominal cavity in to 9 regions to locate abdominal organs or pain sites demarcated by 4 planes 16 2/3/2023 BY.Nigatu.A
  16. 16. 17 Four quadrants Nine regions RMCP LMCP L1 L5 2/3/2023 BY.Nigatu.A
  17. 17. Organs of the Abdominopelvic Regions 18 2/3/2023 BY.Nigatu.A
  18. 18. Anatomical Terminology Superior (cranial)- Toward the head or to the upper part of the structure (above) • Eg. Of usage -The heart is superior to the diaphragm • Inferior ( caudal) :- Away from the head or toward the lower parts of the structure ( below) Eg. The liver is inferior to the diaphragm 2/3/2023 BY.Nigatu.A 19
  19. 19. Directional terms … • Anterior ( ventral ):- Nearer to or at the front of the body. – The sternum is anterior to the heart • Posterior ( dorsal) :- Nearer to or at the back of the body. – The esophagus is posterior to the trachea 2/3/2023 BY.Nigatu.A 20
  20. 20. Directional terms … • Medial :- Nearer to the mid line of the body or a structure. The heart is medial to the lungs • Lateral :- Further from the mid line of the body or a structure. The eyes are lateral to the nose • Ipislateral :- On the same side of the body. The right arm and right leg are epsilateral • Contra lateral:- On the opposite side of the body. The right and left kidneys are conrtalateral 2/3/2023 BY.Nigatu.A 21
  21. 21. Directional terms … • Proximal :- Nearer to the attachment of the extremity (limb) to the trunk or a structure further from the point of origin. – The elbow is proximal to the wrist. • Distal :- Further from the attachment of an extremity (limb) to the trunk or a structure further from the point of origin. – The fingernails are at the distal ends of the fingers 2/3/2023 BY.Nigatu.A 22
  22. 22. Directional terms … • Superficial :- closer to or toward or on the surface of the body. – The skin is superficial to the muscles • Deep :- further or away from the surface of the body. – The bones are deep to the muscles 2/3/2023 BY.Nigatu.A 23
  23. 23. Directional terms … • Parietal :- Pertaining to or forming the outer wall of a body cavity. – Parietal pleura - pleura attached to the thoracic wall • Visceral :- Pertaining to the covering of an organ (viscus) with in the ventral body cavity. – visceral pleura – pleura covering the lungs 2/3/2023 BY.Nigatu.A 24
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  25. 25. Internal and external Internal: refers to a position nearer to the cavity of the viscous External: refers to a position away from the cavity of the viscous Middle It is a term which refers to a position between two points as follows: Between anterior and posterior Between superior and inferior Between internal and external 26 2/3/2023 BY.Nigatu.A
  26. 26. Terms of movement Flexion and extension Flexion: bending of the joint so as to decrease the angle b/n joints. Extension: is the reverse of flexion, i.e. it increase the angle b/n the joints. Adduction and abduction Adduction: is the movement of the limb medially towards the median plane Abduction: is the reverse of adduction, i.e. it moves the limb laterally away from the median plane. 27 2/3/2023 BY.Nigatu.A
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  29. 29. Circumduction – It is a series(sum) of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction movements which follow one another in succession. 30 2/3/2023 BY.Nigatu.A
  30. 30. Pronation and supination pronation: The palm of the hand turns backwards or downwards supination: The palm faces forwards of upwards Opposition: approximation of the thumb to the other fingers. 31 2/3/2023 BY.Nigatu.A
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  32. 32. Other movements: Elevation: moving up Protraction: moving anteriorly Depression: moving down Retraction: moving posteriorly 33 2/3/2023 BY.Nigatu.A
  33. 33. Inversion and eversion These movements occur in the foot at the subtalar (talocalcaneonavicular) joint inversion: The sole of the foot (its inferior surface) is directed inwards. eversion: the sole is directed outwards. 34 2/3/2023 BY.Nigatu.A
  34. 34. Body cavities  Spaces with in the body that contains, protectes, and suports and separet internal organes.  They are two types : Dorsal cavity protects the nervous system, and is divided into two subdivisions Cranial cavity is within the skull and encases the brain Vertebral cavity runs within the vertebral column and encases the spinal cord  Ventral cavity houses the internal organs (viscera), and is divided into two subdivisions: -Thoracic and Abdominopelvic cavity. 35 2/3/2023 BY.Nigatu.A
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  37. 37.  Thoracic cavity is subdivided into pleural cavities, the mediastinum, and the pericardial cavity Pleural cavities – each houses a lung Mediastinum – contains the pericardial cavity, and surrounds the remaining thoracic organs It extends anteriorly from sternum up to vertebrae posteriorly. Pericardial cavity – encloses the heart The abdominopelvic cavity is separated from the superior thoracic cavity by the dome-shaped diaphragm 38 2/3/2023 BY.Nigatu.A
  38. 38.  Abdominopelvic cavity composed of two subdivisions Abdominal cavity – contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs Pelvic cavity – lies within the pelvis and contains the Urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum 39 2/3/2023 BY.Nigatu.A
  39. 39. Ventral Body Cavity Membranes  Parietal membrane- lines internal body walls  Visceral membrane- covers the internal organs  Serous fluid- separates the two membranes - used for lubrication & reduce friction 40 2/3/2023 BY.Nigatu.A
  40. 40. Systems of the body The 11 human systems • Integumentary • Skeletal • Muscular • Nervous • Endocrine • Circulatory Cardiovascular Lymphatic • Respiratory • Digestive • Urinary • Reproductive • Immune 41 2/3/2023 BY.Nigatu.A
  41. 41. Quiz 1.Write the three Thoracic cavity subdivision 2. write the two body cavity 3. write the three anatomic plane 4. Write the three Ventral Body Cavity Membranes 5. Write the two major body regions 2/3/2023 BY.Nigatu.A 42