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Steward, Paulette Session Pp 090904


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Session with podcast on IASL 2009

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Steward, Paulette Session Pp 090904

  1. 1. Web 2.0: Knowledge and Use by a Select Group of Teacher-Librarians in Jamaica Paulette Stewart, PhD University of the West Indies Mona 04. 09. 09
  2. 2. “All the world’s a stage, and all the men and women merely players. They have their exits and their entrances and one man in his lifetime plays many parts.” (Shakespeare 1600)
  3. 3. In this 21st Century, it is clearly evident that the academic world has become one stage and the technologies are the players. They become outdated as quickly as they are invented, and one innovation in its lifetime has played many parts in delivering information in various formats to students.
  4. 4.  Web 2.0 is a concept that began with a conference brainstorming session between O'Reilly and MediaLive International.  This new version of the World Wide Web offers superior interactivity in many forms, for example, wikis, blogs, podcasting and social networks. While Web 2.0 is recognized for its social value, it has facilitated learning in an academic setting.
  5. 5.  Web 2.0 allows students to be exposed to teaching strategies that are more exciting and suited for their learning style.  Students now have quick and ready access to information that once seemed far fetched and impossible and they are also able to generate and share information because of the opportunities for particpation and dialogue afforded by the social network.
  6. 6. 1. To find out how knowledgeable a select number of teacher librarians are about Web 2.0 tools and the educational activities for which they have used them. 2. To determine if there are any barriers that would prevent these teacher librarians from using these tools in their library instruction. 3. This research will be a significant and valuable resource in the field of librarianship in Jamaica.
  7. 7.  It is extremely necessary that studies are conducted to provide information professionals with empirical evidence of how knowledgeable librarians are about new innovations and how they use them in library instruction.  This research is of interest because social learning is now being promoted as a method of increasing students’ participation and improving their academic achievement.
  8. 8. Knowledge of Web 2.0 Tools The literature has shown that school librarians are very much knowledgeable about Web 2.0 tools. The article “Web 2.0 and Library Programmes” points out that there are many teacher-librarians, classroom teachers and educational technologists who use blogs and other Web 2.0 applications to share their knowledge, their practice and their thoughts about the changing educational environment.
  9. 9. Knowledge of Web 2.0 Tools Teacher-librarians have been leaders of Web 2.0 technologies as they are taught to adopt creative ways for students to express their learning using blogs and wikis. They also use tools such as to create electronic pathfinders, iGoogle to help students organize and efficiently access information, and Voicethread to share student-created book talks. (White 2007)
  10. 10. The Use of Web 2.0 as an Educational tool in School Libraries Kirkland (2007) reported that there are many teachers and teacher-librarians who are using social software to enhance students’ learning. However she further mentioned that while there are many examples of Web 2.0 technologies being used in schools, adoption is sporadic.
  11. 11. The Use of Web 2.0 as an Educational tool in School Libraries It was reported in the Becta School research on Web 2.0 that, the majority of teachers questioned had never used Web 2.0 applications in lessons, despite being frequent users of technology in their personal and professional lives. Their main concerns involved a lack of time to familiarise themselves with the technology (Becta Report, 2008).
  12. 12. The Use of Web 2.0 as an Educational tool in School Libraries Librarians are now launching blogs, not only to give updates on resources but also to provide an avenue for interaction among students and host collaborative discussions. (Richardson 2007)
  13. 13. The Use of Web 2.0 as an Educational tool in School Libraries The Web is available 24/7 and according to Kretz (2007) this generation is expecting to use it whenever they want to, and on whatever devise they have available to them. These users prefer to work collaboratively, and doing so on blogs wikis, podcasts and on online social networks among others is only natural.
  14. 14. The Use of Web 2.0 as an Educational tool in School Libraries The blog has become a tool for communicating timely information as well as excellent tools for sharing news and events information. It can be used to contribute information on wikis, the most popular being Wikipedia. Podcasting allows persons to send audio files and according to Kretz (2007), “This is a way to syndicate content and make it automatically available to remote subscribers’ (36).
  15. 15. Types of Social Networking Supported by LM Programs, 2008 Intranet 50% Podcasting 41% Wiki 30% Type of social networking (SN) Internet forum / 29% bulletin board Blog 25% Collaborative 23% editor Virtual school / 20% course / etc Social 16% bookmarking Social library 12% 0% 15% 30% 45% 60% Percent of respondents supporting SN type
  16. 16. The Use of Web 2.0 as an Educational tool in School Libraries Richardson (2007) gave the following examples of use of blogs in school libraries:  One of the earliest and best school library blogs comes from Galileo High School in San Francisco, where the librarian uses a "Li-Blog-ary" to identify resources for classes, update the school community on new offerings, link to online databases, and publish student reviews.
  17. 17. The Use of Web 2.0 as an Educational tool in School Libraries  The library blog of Mission Read at Chiddix Junior High School in Illinois involves students in online conversations  Kirkland (2007) made mention of a secondary school library that runs a blog, engaging students in conversation about the books they are reading, and these students are involved in podcasting their own book reviews
  18. 18. The Use of Web 2.0 as an Educational tool in School Libraries  Kirkland (2007) further mentioned that students are using podcasting as a presentation format for everything from book reviews to interviews and research reports. An interesting example given by Kirkland (2007) is that of a high school that podcasts its daily radio programme so that members of the school community can listen in when, where and how they want.  Social bookmarking is used by students to collaborate on collecting resources for research.
  19. 19. The Use of Web 2.0 as an Educational tool in School Libraries At another school, a teacher librarian is using a blog for literature circles, while the wiki is providing an ideal format for collaborative writing, and is being used very effectively to develop higher order thinking skills through conversation and collaboration.
  20. 20. The Use of Web 2.0 as an Educational tool in School Libraries Podcast has created for libraries a new way of communication. This means of communication is an excellent medium of diseminating information because of the personal feel of hearing the person’s voice.(Farakas 2007)
  21. 21. The Use of Web 2.0 as an Educational tool in School Libraries Facebook can be important to the library because it is one of the fastest growing social networks and it provides a convenient way for users to access the library’s content and services. Facebook can serve as an excellent marketing tool for libraries. Making the content and services available in Facebook greatly improves the visibility of your library services (LibGuides).
  22. 22. The Use of Web 2.0 as an Educational tool in School Libraries An example of the use of MySpace in library outreach is the Denver Public Library integration of their MySpace account with eVolver the library’s Web site for teen. The sites have a similar look, and the Myspace account links back to teen reviews of book, movies, and other media on the eVolver site.
  23. 23. The Use of Web 2.0 as an Educational tool in School Libraries Some libraries have made their MySpace page a portal to library services, with links to their catalogue, virtual reference services, and remote access instructions for the databases (Farkas 2007)
  24. 24. Research design A qualitative research design was used because the researcher wanted to search for understanding and to find out how the participants are thinking and why they think the way they do in relation to the research being conducted. (Fraenkel and Wallen)
  25. 25. Population The population consisted of approximately one hundred and twenty trained librarians who were trained in the Department of Library and Information Studies at the University of the West Indies, Mona. These are high school teacher librarians who teach information literacy as well as another subject in the school’s curriculum.
  26. 26. Sample Purposive sampling was used to select the participants because the researcher wanted to ensure that the sample was uniquely suited to the intent of the study (Fraenkel And Wallen 2008).
  27. 27. The sample consisted of twenty teacher librarians (three males and seventeen females) who are known to have some knowledge of some of the Web 2.0 tools. They attended at least one of the training workshops on some of the Web 2.0 tools that was conducted by the Library and Information Association of Jamaica (LIAJA), the Jamaica Library Service, and the Association of Caribbean University, Research and Institutional Libraries (ACURIL) These librarians respresented both the urban and rural areas in Jamaica.
  28. 28. Data collection instrument The data collection instruments was a semi-structured interview. Semi-structured interviews were used because the researcher would be able to ask further questions for clarification of any vague responses received from the respondents. Also, all respondents would answer the same questions and the researcher would collect comprehensive data in a systematic way
  29. 29. The research objectives that guided the study were:  To find out how knowledgeable a select group of Jamaican librarians are about five of the Web 2.0 tools; (podcast, wiki, blog, Facebook, and MySpace)  To establish the levels of use of Web 2.0 tools by a select group of Jamaican teacher librarians;  To find out the barriers and issues, if any that have affected implementation of Web 2.0 as an educational tool.
  30. 30. Figure 2: Teacher Librarians Years of Teaching Experience Years of Experience 6 4 2 # of Teachers 0 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 10 11 14 18 20 The findings show that the majority of teacher librarians are adequately experienced in that their years of service as indicated in Figure 2 above show a range from 1 to 20 years.
  31. 31. The number of years is also an indication that these librarians are teaching long enough to be aware of the five Web 2.0 tools selected for this research. The respondents with the least experience should be equally knowledgeable especially since they are just completing library school traiinng and have done the course in Information Technology.
  32. 32. Figure 3: How teacher librarians became knowledgable about Web 2.0 Teacher Librarian Introduction to Web 2.0 65 % 25 % 25 % 35 % 5% 5% 5% Library Internet Reading Text Friends Jamaica ACURIL Library School Association Library Workshop Service Workshop This finding above is important as it reveals that the Library Associations in Caribbean Region are making efforts to inform and train librarians about current technologies in their field. The Library and Information Association of Jamaica has conducted workshops in this area and ACURIL and the Jamaica Library Service have held conferences, pre-conference and workshops on the topic of Web 2.0.
  33. 33. Table 1: Educational Activites that can be provided by Web 2.0 Blogs Wikis MySpace Facebook Podcast To write comments Journal entries Literature circle Conduct interviews about any lesson that was taught Create literature circle, Group assignments Post notices and Distribute and upload Provide graphic reading clubs assignments assignments representations for lessons Online discussion on a Can create their own Post class readings Share pictures related to To teach Public specific topics Wiki as a project specific lessons Speaking Publish poems written Students can gather Use to disseminate and Teachers and students Use to select by students information on class acquire information can post questions and appropriate background assignments and make comments music for a specific present it for others to class session see
  34. 34. Table 1: Educational Activites that can be provided by Web 2.0 Blogs Wikis MySpace Facebook Podcast Students can respond to Illustration of a family Drama or role playing class mates views on Tree story characters Make comments on Create a biography Listening their classmates work comprehension Create newsletter Discussion on various topics Use for revision of Interactive games lessons
  35. 35.  The educational activities identified revealed that respondents are aware of some of the educational activities that the Web 2.0 can facilitate.  However, a number of examples given by 15% of the respondents show limited or incorrect knowledge. For example, some respondents thought that they could use podcast to have video conferencing sessions and play interactive games or that the use of Wiki meant that they used Wikipedia.  This means that these teacher librarians need to have further training or they need to research more on these tools so that their misconceptions can be corrected.
  36. 36. Figure 4: The Most Knowledgeable Web 2.0 Tools by Respondents The Most Knowledgeable Web 2.0 Tools MySpace Facebook Podcast Wikis Blogs 0% 10 % 20 % 30 % 40 % 50 % 60 % Blogs Wikis Podcast Facebook MySpace Serie1 26 % 7% 0% 56 % 11 % The probable reason Facebook is known by so many of the respondents is that it is is reported to be one of the fastest growing social networking site ((LibGuides, 2007). The least known Web 2.0 tool of the five discussed in this research is Podcast. This is understandable because according to the literature Podcast is one of the newest social software tools (Farkas 2007).
  37. 37. The level of use of Web 2.0 Tools by teacher librarians  Eighty percent (80%) of these teacher librarians confirmed that they have not used any of the Web 2.0 tools in their library instructions.  Facebook is used by 15% of the respondents for Virtual Literature Circle.  Wiki is used by 5% of the respondents..
  38. 38.  Figure 6: Reasons for none use of Web 2.0 Tools in Library Instruction Reasons for Non-Use of Web 2.0 11 10 5 3 2 1 1 Serie1 No Internet Lack of Not Enough No Limited Students Heavy Connection Knowledge Computers Computers Library Lack Workload Instruction Computer Access at Home The lack of sufficient knowledge of Web 2.0 educational tools is the main reason given by 55% of the respondents for the none use of these tools. This implies that respondents’ knowledge of these tools is limited and much more training is needed.
  39. 39. The level of use of Web 2.0 Tools by teacher librarians  The 20% who indicated that they use one or two of these tools in their library instruction have indicated various frequency of use. Two respondents use it monthly, one use it weekly and one rarely use it. Fifty percent (50% or 10) of those who do not use these tools in the library replied that their heavy work load is the factor that prevents use. They explained that the number of sessions that they have to teach another subject other Information Literacy are too many.
  40. 40. other reasons for none-use:  not enough computers are in their library- 25%  lack of Internet connection -15%  no computers in the library- 5%  does not make sense to teach using these tools because the users did not have computers and Internet connection in their homes – 5%  Limited library instruction
  41. 41. The level of use of Web 2.0 Tools by teacher librarians  The high percentage of none use discovered cannot be good when the academic benefits that can be gained from using these tools are clearly obvious.  Students will view the library as out-dated  The library will not attract students especially if they can get to use these tools elsewhere
  42. 42. Barriers that affect use Personal barriers have been reported have been summarised as: 1. Lack of knowing how to use these tools for educational purposes. (55%) 2. Heavy administrative workload which leaves little or no time to use technology as part of the library instruction. (50%) 3. Lack of interest. (5%) 4. One respondent (5%)lamented that she would have used them if she knew how to incorporate them in her library lessons.
  43. 43. School barriers are summarized as:  Lack of Internet connection – 15%  No computer/insufficient computers for students to use- 30%  School policy bans students from using the social networks in their school – 20%  Students are not computer literate – 20%
  44. 44.  Library activities are not integrated into the schools’ curriculum, as such there was evidence of disconnect in the classroom curriculum and the library curriculum - 40%  The principals and the classroom teachers are unaware of these tools and so no arrangement is made to have them integrated in the schools’ curriculum – 10%
  45. 45.  It is good that these librarians have recognised their deficiency in using these tools.  The banning of these sites from the library is evidence that these administrators are not aware of the benefits and the safety methods that can be practiced to ensure privacy
  46. 46.  The American Association of School Librarians (2008) also highlights the fact that the social networks that are more vulnerable to online predators are the ones that are usually banned by district or school policy. However, if all staff members are educated about these tools and the e-safety methods it is likely that they would agree to use them.
  47. 47.  Administrators and classroom teachers are also unaware of the educational benefits that their students can derive from using these tools. Sandbury (2009) revealed that human and technological barriers are holding back the use of these learning tools in many classrooms
  48. 48. The information gathered from these teacher librarians revealed that they have limited knowledge of these Web 2.0 tools and the majority of them have not been using the Web 2.0 tools in their library instruction. These teacher librarians gained some knowledge about some of these tools from workshops and conferences that they have attended. It was obvious that they were more familiar with Facebook and MySpace than the other Web 2.0 tools.
  49. 49. The least known tool was podcast. A lack of in-depth knowledge about these tools was evident on more than one occasions. The lack of computers/sufficient computers, plus the lack of Internet conection were given as reasons for the none use of these tools. In some schools the school policy banned these sites and only in one instance was the teacher librarian concerned about privacy
  50. 50. There is concern for the image of the school library because the majority of their users are aware of some these tools, though they use them only for social communication. They will view the library as an “old fashion place” because it does not meet their technological needs. As users, they may exit the school library and forget the entrance.
  51. 51. BY RESPONDENTS  Fifty percent of the respondents emphasized that the Ministry of Education should revise the curriculum to show an integration of these tools into the relevant subject areas.  Eighty percent mentioned that they need proper training in this area.  Forty percent want all the teachers and administrators to be sensitized and trained about these tools.
  52. 52. BY RESPONDENTS  Fifty percent (50%) of the respondents want their non- library teaching sessions to be reduced or terminated so that they will have sufficient time to use these tools with students in the library.  Forty percent of these teacher librarians want the timetable to reflect double sessions so that the librarian and the students can have sufficient time to use these tools.
  53. 53. Based on the findings the following recommendations are made;  When library conferences are held, participants at these conferences should also include Education officers from the Ministry of Education, principals, teachers and students.  This will allow them to realize that the library is to be an integral part of the school and the library activities should be integrated into the school’s curriculum.
  54. 54. Based on the findings the following recommendations are made;  The Library and Information Association of Jamaica (LIAJA)and the Association of Caribbean University, Research and Institutional Libraries (ACURIL) need to collaborate and plan a series of workshops to train teacher librarians how to use these tools in their library instruction.  These workshops should include a lot of practical sessions to reinforce the concepts taught.
  55. 55. These library associations should introduce principals and other school administrators to these tools and educate and train them along with the teacher librarians.
  56. 56. The International Association of School Librarianship (IASL) should have the slogan , “No Librarian left Behind” and work with its Regional Directors to ensure that workshops are being conducted for teacher librarians in all the vital areas of librarianship . This international body could help to advocate on the behalf of libraries in the information poor regions for computers to be place in all school libraries.
  57. 57. THANK YOU QUESTIONS Web 2.0 Knowledge and Use by a Select Group of Teacher-Librarians in Jamaica Paulette Stewart, PhD University of the West Indies Mona 04. 09. 09