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Vernacular architecture

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Random notes on vernacular architecture

Vernacular architecture

  1. 1. & SOME INFORMATION AND REFERENCE FOR ARCHITECTURAL VILLAGE BY:NIDHYA.C
  2. 2.  TEXTS ARE LITTLE LONG.  IT IS MEANT ONLY FOR READING PURPOSE AND NOT TO BE TREATED AS PRESENTATION.  THERE MAY BE DISCONNECTION FROM ONE SLIDE TO OTHER.  IN SOME SLIDES URLS ARE GIVEN IN YELLOW.HAVE A LOOK AT THAT FOR REFERENCE.
  3. 3.  Vernacular architecture the simplest form of addressing human needs.  Architects are embracing regionalism and cultural building traditions, given that these structures have proven to be energy efficient and altogether sustainable.  These low-tech methods of creating housing which is perfectly adapted to its locale are brilliant, for the reason that these are the principles which are more often ignored by prevailing architects.
  4. 4.  At the spin of the 21st century, the style of Indian Architecture took a sharp turn towards a new contemporary mode with the century. The nation saw a drastic change in the modern built environment. The foremost element of our ancient history of architecture that characterizes our traditional Indian architecture and planning is the use of Vernacular material and construction techniques and planning strategies.
  5. 5.  Indian vernacular planning involves planning and designing a built environment with the informal, functional design of structures. It is mostly found in rural areas of India, with structures built using local materials and designed and planned to meet up with all the needs and requirements of the local residents. The structures built are not just made by using vernacular materials but even the planning is done keeping in mind the necessities of native society and culture.  The builders and planners of these structures are untrained in formal architectural design. This is reflected in their work which reflects the rich diversity of India's climate, the local building materials, and the elaborate variations in the social customs and craftsmanship. The rich vernacular tradition of India starts from the natural settings of the site, and responds to metaphysical concerns, climate, local skills, construction materials and appropriate technology.
  6. 6.  The climates in India are divided in 5 climatic zones.  Hot & Dry climate This zone lies in western and central India, namely Jaisalmer, Jodhpur etc. This region is flat, sandy, and rocky and sparsely vegetated with cacti thorny bushes. Due to low humidity the climate is dry. During summers, winds blowing are very hot and sand storms are alos common. Due to low water level and meagre vegetation, the houses are commonly made using twigs, mud, clay and stone.  Warm & humid climate The warm and humid region covers the coastal region of India. Cities like Mumbai, Chennai, and Kolkata all lay in this region. The high humidity encourages abundant vegetation. The main criterion of designing in this region is to reduce heat gain and provide shading.  Composite climate The composite zone envelopes the entire central part of India. Allahabad, Kanpur and New Delhi are some of the cities that experience this type of climate. Civil Engineering and Urban planning.  Moderate climate The moderate climate region experiences mild to warm summer and cool winters. The need for home heating in winters is greater than summer cooling. Few opening on external side other than doors are a must. Most of the time cooking and sleeping in rural India is done outdoors during the summers. The mountains of Great Diving range keep the winters cold and summers pleasantly warm.  Cold climate The cold climate is characterized as 2 classes: cold and sunny and cold and cloudy. Ladakh experiences cold and sunny type of climate. This region enjoys very little vegetation and is considered as a cold desert. The structures are innovative in design uses materials like stone, mud and clay. The houses are very close to each other. Cities like Kashmir, Sikkim, Shimla and upper part of Assam hill station from south India all experience cold and cloudy climate. This kind of climate requires buildings to be heated throughout the year. Thin mud and bamboo are used for walls on the upper floor and brick or bamboo for upper floors. Roof is made using stone slabs or country tiles. The roofs hang from all sides, providing protection of core spaces from all sides.
  7. 7.  VAASTU SHASTRA- is the science of construction and architecture that is found in Indian subcontinent, these survive as manuals on design, layout, measurements, ground preparation, space arrangement and spatial geometry. It incorporates traditional Hindu and Buddhist beliefs. The designs are based on integrating architecture with nature and ancient Indian beliefs utilizing perfect geometric patterns (yantra), symmetry and directional alignments  VAASTU PURUSHA MANDALA-is a part of Vaastu Shastra and constitutes of mathematical design. It is the metaphysical plan of a building that incorporates the supernatural forces. Mandala is the specific name given to a plan which symbolically represents the cosmos
  8. 8.  MANDALAS - all functions are assigned special spaces. For example: Northeast for the home shrine, southeast for the kitchen, master bedrooms in southwest and the cowshed in the northwest and grain storage. All other spaces are use for multi purposes [6]. • MANDALAS FOR CITY PLANNING – the technique of mandala was also used for city planning. The first of its kind was Jaipur, designed in 1700s. It covered the natural features as well as other functional aspects like military needs, pre- existing infrastructure and modified the grid according to the topography
  9. 9.  Timber – is one of the most frequently available and natural yet native building materials. Of the various advantages, it is non- toxic, does not leak chemical vapour into the building and is safe to handle and touch. It is quite easy to work with, renewable, a very good insulator and readily available. • Adobe - is a natural building construction material that is made from clay, sand, water, and a kind of fibrous or organic material (sticks, straw or manure), usually shaped into bricks using moulds and dried in the sun. • Stone- Stone is another one of the major building materials that is indigenous for Indian architecture. It is a versatile material and it can be used from the foundation to the parapet in a building. • Clay- Clay is used for buildings sustainable, traditional buildings. These buildings are of 2 types: one when the walls are made directly with the mud mixture and the other being walls built by stacking air-dried building blocks called mud bricks. • Rammed earth – type of building construction which utilises natural raw materials such as earth, chalk, lime or gravel. Rammed-earth walls are simple to construct. They are non-combustible, thermally massive, durable and very strong. • Fly-ash-Sand-lime-Gypsum Bricks – used for residential housing walls and all other types of building construction as well as boundary walls. They are environment friendly, excellent strength, dry quickly, and have reduced water absorption and shrinkage. • Compressed Earth Blocks - energy efficient, eco-friendly with excellent surface finish. It is a cost effective material with goof thermal insulation. • Clay Fly-ash Burnt bricks – environment friendly, energy efficient and locally manufactured material. Civil Engineering and Urban Planning:An International Journal(CiVEJ) Vol.2,No.1, March 2015 42 • Micro concrete Roofing Tiles - MCR tiles are a cost-effective and extremely versatile roofing material. MCR tiles can be used to make attractive roofs on villa houses, farm houses, pavilions and gazebos and also used in highway constructions. In regions with heavy rainfall, these tiles are used at length for cladding material as it offers both waterproofing and aesthetic appeal. It has been used expansively in cost effective housing schemes, poultry farms, restaurants and workplaces
  10. 10.  JAIPUR- GRID MANDALS  GUJARAT- COURT YARD TYPE  AUROVILLE- The Auroville Earth Institute was created in 1989, and started a new era in earth and indigenous architecture. The value of earth and other indigenous materials as building materials has been accepted for its economic worth, as well as for its comfort and quality, which endorses vernacular development . Maximum of the projects in Auroville are designed and built with compressed stabilised earth blocks (CSEB), as this technology has a lot of benefits. Stabilised rammed earth has started gaining prominence and a few projects have already implemented this technique
  11. 11. MAHARASHTRA – WARLI HOUSE RAJASTHAN- BHONGA KERALA-PADHMANABAPURAM PALACE
  12. 12.  A village is a clustered human settlement or community , larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town, with a population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand. Though often located in rural areas, the term urban village is also applied to certain urban neighbourhoods. Villages are normally permanent, with fixed dwellings; however, transient villages can occur. Further, the dwellings of a village are fairly close to one another, not scattered broadly over the landscape, as a dispersed settlement.
  13. 13.  Architecture village is a type of mostly self- contained community, built by landowners, architects and industrialists to house their workers. Although the villages are located close to the workplace, they are generally physically separated from them and often consist of relatively high quality housing, with integrated community amenities and attractive physical environments. "Model architecture" is used in the sense of an ideal to which other developments could aspire.
  14. 14. ‘A contemporary architecture can only emerge from the countryside’
  15. 15.  A visit to a building by Uttam Kain makes a fine complement to a visit to a Gujral building: both reveal the way in which the criteria can be applied to create and architecture that is rooted in tradition yet demonstrably contemporary.  Uttam Jain, based in Bombay, is well known for his Rajasthan buildings in which determined use is made of local buildings materials and skills. Jain also resolved to create a building that is not only locally apposite, with regard to materials and design, but also of ‘national significance’ with an ‘image that reflects’ all India. This, felt Jain, was incumbent upon him because of the status and national importance of the institute.
  16. 16.  This determination to create a building of national significance while also relying on, and responding to, local building practices and traditions, permitted Jain a great freedom in choice of imagery. Thus, arriving at the main entrance is ‘like arriving at a city gate in a city wall or like arriving at the temple door’. These likenesses are, admits Jain, perhaps ‘not obvious but are relevant to India’. Pursuing the temple metaphor, entering the building one goes from light to darkness, a primary sensation felt on entering a cave like Hindu temple or, as Jain says,.. from known to unknown’. The nearby ancient cave temples at Jageshwari and Elephanta are cited by Jain as inspirations. The route through the building is also, in a way, a temple-like experience: one’s progress, towards the inner sanctum of director’s office orientated toward ‘the higher part’ of the site and towards the source of light at the open ends of the barrel-vaulted and colonnaded corridors invokes, says Jain, the vaulted roof at the cave temples. This serpentine route – the ‘snakewalk’ as Jain terms it – is utilised by Jain to ‘filter out’ users of the building as they progress from the entrance court. As Jain puts it ‘the plan is like a hand – the palm is the common area, the court, with the fingers branching to different uses’. This analogy is, of course, inspired by the mandala that ancient Tantric symbol used for ordering both sacred and profane space to create a series of, usually circular, concentric courts with only initiates, or those in power, having access to the inner space or sanctum - in this case the director’s office.
  17. 17.  The mandala is primarily a Hindu and Buddhist image but Jain does not hesitate to invoke forms from other religions. There is, in the Institute, a reference to Mughal toplit spaces and to geometric garden (combined with terracing as in Hindu wells like Modhera) but, as with the Mandala-these references are not too literal or laboured. ‘Indian-ness comes not from dress but from feeling and sense of thinking’ says Jain.  Respect for the hot climate and the nature of the site (on the very edge of the municipal area of Bombay and bordered by a permanent and sizeable shanty town) are major forces in the evolution of the design. Hence the shady spacious verandahs attached to all the buildings which are linked by the meandering barrel-vaulted corridors. The buildings themselves are, as Jain puts it ‘porous’ to allow generous horizontal and vertical cross ventilation. The squatter colony is acknowledged by a certain blankness in the elevations that look directly towards its sprawling mass. But the most intriguing and unusual piece of passive solar control is Jain’s two-skinned facades. This device-‘like’, as Jain says using another physical analogy, ‘eyelids’- allows the plan and the facade to be organized independently so that the placing of windows in rooms follows one logic while, externally, the wall is pierced by windows in places ‘where they look right’. This creation of what is effectively a decorative screen over a random array of functionally disposed openings does not do much for the view from some of the rooms but, says Jain, ‘works superbly climatically’, and is an improvement on the traditional Chhaja or Jaali (overhanging cornice) as it not only shades the window openings but also channels breezes into the rooms.  Local building materials are not used by Jain just for reasons of visual continuity with existing structures but also because transportation is very expensive in India. And even if materials were brought in they would not be greatly different in quality to those found or made locally. The large scale use of steel is generally just not an option because of its prohibitive price, and even wood is increasingly scarce and so too becoming expensive. The usual materials, as at this building, are concrete, local stone and brick (often made on site). This limited choice can lead to feats of remarkable ingenuity on the part of Indian designers, architects and engineers. As the renowned engineer Mahendra Raj puts it, ‘In India most elements are made on site-anything is possible structurally but is often achieved by extraordinary means.’
  18. 18.  At Jain’s Institute, two types of local stone (one quarried as part of the site excavations) have been used for both structural and facing work. The facing stone (not that quarried on site) has been applied to a composite structure of reinforced concrete frame with brick panel infill.  The labour force, as is common in India, is made up primarily of villagers who have either been forced by crop failure to leave the land or who have got work on the building site during a nonproductive agricultural season. The consequence of employing this labour force is that the entire family lives on site with children being roped in and women labouring at least as hard as the men. Construction in India is very labour intensive and it is these people who provide the labour with even basic machinery rarely used. Here, it seems, a simple financial equation comes into play: the moment wages rise to a level that makes it cheaper to use a machine than a gang of labourers, then a machine will be bought. If this happens not only will many people be relieved of back-breaking labour, they will also be relieved of a job. The resolution, of this riddle-mechanisation leads to the release of human beings from excessive physical toil leads to unemployment-is one of the many problems of nineteenth-century Europe that India will have to face and solve for itself as it moves remorselessly towards greater industrialisation.  The more skilled workers on the site, such as plasterers, are usually full- time members of the building industry although bricklayers and masons are usually practised if not highly-skilled seasonal workers. Finishing trades-electricians, joiners-move in a separate world and are invariably full time.
  19. 19.  Freshly plastered brick walls are hacked by the electricians and plumbers installing conduits and pipes. ‘There is’ says Jain ‘lots of overlap in our thinking and so in our working but making good is cheap, certainly cheaper than trying to organise because drawings are not used for detailed work.’ Odd practice, but no irreparable damage need be done to the building. But the lack of finish and poor detailing can, and does, cause grave loss of quality. Equally certain is that this is a problem that the Indian architectural profession must solve as quickly as possible.
  20. 20.  Raj Rewal  These points and approaches can be expanded by reference to the work of a number of other contemporary Indian architects.  A group of buldings by Raj Rewal in Delhi reveals an ingenious fusion of Western and Eastern traditions; but it also reveals some of the pifalls in attempting to apply vernacular forms – that have evolved organically and in response to particular social and climatic conditions – to a modern brief and building programme.  The Asian Games village in South Delhi (see p32) was built between 1981- 82 to the designs of Rewal with the detailed design of one portion being undertaken by Sachdev & Eggleston. Initially the village housed athletes attending the 9th Asian games. The layout of the ‘village’ is complex though geometrically repetitive. The units of housing (200 houses, 500 apartments) are arranged to form a pattern of courts inspired by the traditional courtyard housing and village forms of Rajasthan. There is also a sprinkling of traditional detail-such as pierced parapets which allow draughts to waft into shaded exterior spaces.  This courtyard pattern, which traditionally reflected complex patterns of habitation, is here used merely as a device to make an interesting urban grain, to allow for the integration of different housing types and to facilitate a certain amount of cross ventilation and to create shade for interior and exterior spaces.
  21. 21.  The scheme was generally held as a triumph when completed- and indeed it was, in so far as Rewal had to battle against the unimaginative and entrenched attitudes of the authorities which saw, in the deliberate complexity and casbah-like quality of the designs, only confusion reminiscent of the squalid and overcrowded old city centre. This official dullness is particularly hard to understand since the idea of lower- income housing being arranged around courts and of complex balconied form had been pioneered as early as 1973 by the Design Group with their excellent Yumana apartments which stand near the Asian village in South Delhi. Achieving this complexity of form also demanded a good deal of dedication from the architects for the amount of time spent on drawing details and supervising construction was far greater than that needed for the usual barracklike form of housing that has too often been run up by the Public Works Department. Though far superior in concept and construction to the usual PWD - designed housing schemes the Asian Games ‘village’ is, of course, not a village at all. There is no significant mix of uses and the complexity of form is - despite the sensible hierarchy of spaces ranging from courts serving clusters of a dozen dwellings to the single main square ultimately without any real meaning. The complexity is, after all, only ingenious urban pattern-making and reflects neither the structure of occupancy or complex social organisations that led to the evolution of the traditional courtyard house.  ‘As the engineer Mahendra Raj says, everything can be achieved by the use of ‘extraordinary means’ - even the similitude of concrete panels’
  22. 22.  The method of construction is also revealing. The houses are of reinforced-concrete frame with brick infill and then finished with aggregate render. The render is divided into panels with horizontal strips ‘expressing’ the floor slabs and vertical panels looking, to the architect’s delight, like precast concrete panels. As the engineer Mahendra Raj says, everything can be achieved by the use of ‘extraordinary means’ - even the similitude of concrete panels. The division of the render in panels also has the more useful, if mundane, function, of providing expansion joints and dividing the facade into areas that can be easily rendered in one go so avoiding cracks and colour change.  Much of the thinking is continued in Rewal’s current chef d’oeuvre-the National Institute of Immunology (Nil) which forms part of the Delhi University campus (see p39). Here complexity is achieved by the use of diagonal axes that cut with geometrical precision through, and link, the different elements of the Institute. Courts are again used-but larger and, in the case of the court-cumamphitheatre in the research scholars’ hostel, with really striking effect. Also the craggy site-of extraordinary grandeur considering its location in the suburbs of south Delhi-has clearly inspired the architect and allowed him to deploy his axes with maximum effect. Thus the image from a distance is, in form and profile-though not in detail- of a Rajasthan citadel. Within the Institute, Rewal displays a sensitivity tb the potential of vistas and constrasts types, levels and forms of external spaces in a manner reminiscent of Fatehpur Sikri and Jaipur. This is a romantic building-a romance intensified by the rusty glow of the wall surfaces. The construction method at the Institute is similar to the Asian Games ‘village’ except that chips of local red stone have been mixed in with the render used in the horizontal bands marking floor slabs while stone from the site, was also used for walling. It is an object building, sitting on an acropolis that, its critics may say, holds no lessons for those concerned with the pressing problem of how to design in the Indian city. But perhaps the building’s aloof isolation only reflects the relation an academic institution has with Indian urban society generally. Two other buildings by Rewal must be mentioned for the light they throw on two fundamental issues: the potential offered by the use of local buildings material and the problems of reconciling an overtly contemporary design with a traditional setting.
  23. 23.  THE SLIDE SHARE LINK IS GIVEN BELOW:  http://www.slideshare.net/rajatkatarne/arc hitectural-case-study-of-iim-ahemdabad-by- louis-i-khan
  24. 24.  REFER TO THE BELOW LINK  https://www.mica.edu/Programs_of_Study/Und ergraduate_Programs/Architectural_Design.html  SEE THE SLIDES –SOME ARE INTRESTING MODELS  The traditionally multidisciplinary nature of architectural education is amplified at MICA by a vibrant collaboration with the College's cutting edge fine arts programs. Students in architectural design will be able to interact with other disciplines and community partners through a rigorous curriculum that integrates theory with studio-based research and includes a variety of community-engaged projects in both core and elective studio coursework.
  25. 25.  THE COLLEGE DESIGN SEEMS TO BE INTRESTING REFER TO THE BELOW LINK WHICH CONTAIN SLIDE SHARE CONTENT  http://www.slideshare.net/rasulinajeebullah /caka
  26. 26.  Most of the traditional and modern buildings built as vernacular buildings are well lit and well ventilated/climate responsive to reduce the use of artificial lighting and air condition systems. There was a strong use of microclimatic management of making use of water bodies in forms of canals, pools or fountains etc in open spaces like the courtyards. This helped to modify the unfavourable climatic impacts of hot and dry climate. The thick walls were used to introduce time lags in the fluctuating diurnal cycle
  27. 27.  It is one of the most important aspects of architecture both in terms of quantity as well as in terms of its qualitative aspects like glare. Most of our buildings had grills and fenestration/façade work done to control and manipulate light by means of strategies like Jalis or double windows with wooden Louvers etc. Many religious buildings such as mosques or masjids and temples also used similar strategies to control light and air movement
  28. 28.  Wind scoops used to allow the entry of cool breeze in the hot desert zones. Micro climatic modifications included the beginning of the system of dripping cool water. This was made possible by the installation of a pot at the top of the scoop. Lavish and prolific buildings like palaces and forts made inventive use of water to cool the edifice envelope. The walls used to have water pipes entrenched inside the walls covered to cool down the masonry walls; the water was cooled in a natural manner. This was done by making it run over surfaces and exposing it to the atmosphere ex. Hawa Mahal, Jaipur
  29. 29.  The choice we make regarding the materials used, decides the life cycle of the building. The buildings which are built of low cost materials give higher returns as the operating charges are low. Materials that are seemingly high cost and more energy and resource intensive in their manufacturing etc can be used to generate more benefits over their entire lifestyle as well as disposal and recycling potentials. This is the lifecycle approach where the project is looked at from the point of view of its entire life from inception, construction phase, operations all the way unto disposal
  30. 30.  LOOK AT - https://lbre.stanford.edu/architect/guidelin es_standards (Reference)
  31. 31.  THE BELOW LINK PROVIDES A PDF-  https://fsdesignstudio.files.wordpress.com/2 015/03/unit-3.pdf
  32. 32.  http://universaldesign.ie/Web-Content- /Hubert-Froyen-Lecture-130521.pdf  Installing standard electrical receptacles higher than usual above the floor so they are in easy reach of everyone;Selecting wider doors,Making flat entrancesInstalling handles for doors and drawers that require no gripping or twisting to operate -such as louver or loop handles;storage spaces within reach of both short and tall people.
  33. 33.  http://www.universaldesignstudio.com/
  34. 34.  First year studio space  First year architecture and design students share a large studio on level one of the Wigan Street building. Hours for either architecture or design students are allocated as per the University teaching timetable. After hours the studio is available for both architecture and design students for course work, completing projects and assignments.  Students using this studio have a work area, adjustable ergonomic chair and a personal locker allocated for Trimester one and two.
  35. 35.  Years two to four students have their own large architecture or design studio space. These are separate, discipline specific studio spaces, located throughout the Vivian Street and Wigan Street buildings. They are furnished with modelling tables, lockers and storage, CAD/Design computers, and adjustable ergonomic chairs within a discipline-specific configuration. They are good tutorial/ meeting spaces.
  36. 36.  The fifth year School of Architecture studios are equipped with individually assigned desks and computer workstations, model and craft tables and storage lockers. These are assigned to the School’s thesis year students in the MArch (Prof).  Access hours  The studio spaces are available during term time during building access hours.
  37. 37.  REFER THE BELOW LINK  http://uvamagazine.org/photo_essay/studio _space
  38. 38.  Portable A1 Drawing Board.  Large Adjustable Set Square.  Drawing Instruments – Protractor & Compass. When it comes to choosing a Compass you will be better off buying one with an extension bar (for drawing larger circles) and an adapter for technical pens and fineliners. This means that you won’t have to purchase another one later on in the Architecture Course!  300mm Scale Rule With The Following Scale 1:1,1:100, 1:20,1:200, 1:5,1:50, 1:1250, 1:2500.  A Metal Ruler With A Cutting Edge (bevelled).  Black Lead Drawing Pencils in 2H to 4B.  Mechanical Drawing Pencils.  Erasers. A soft eraser and an ink eraser will be useful.  Various Pens For Sketching, Such As Fineliners, Felt Tips & Coloured Markers.  Rotring Rapidograph Technical Drawing Pens In Sizes 0.18, 0.25, 0.35 & 0.5. A Rotring Rapidograph College Set is also available and works out to be extremely good value! This set contains 3 Rotring Rapidograph Pens in sizes 0.25, 0.35 & 0.5 and other drawing instruments required for your Architecture Course.  A3 / A2 Detail Paper Pad Or Roll Of Detail Paper.  Sketchbooks In A5, A4 & A3 Sizes.
  39. 39.  A2 Self Healing Cutting Mat.  Scalpel & 10A Blades.  Heavy Duty Knife (Retractable) & Replacement Blades
  40. 40.  High Capacity Memory Sticks, CD-Rs, CD-RWs, DVDs To Save, Store & Retrieve Your Work.  Good Quality Digital Camera With Spare Memory Cards & Case.  ‘Studio Craft & Technique: The Architecture Student’s Handbook’.
  41. 41.  High Capacity Memory Sticks, CD-Rs, CD-RWs, DVDs To Save, Store & Retrieve Your Work.  Good Quality Digital Camera With Spare Memory Cards & Case.  ‘Studio Craft & Technique: The Architecture Student’s Handbook’.
  42. 42.  Workshop resources include two installations providing students with high-quality Rapid Prototyping and Fabrication facilities. The workshop now includes a space of 20 square metres dedicated to a 60-watt Universal Laser Cutter, a Stratasys 3000 fused depositional modeller, and the computers required to control them. The laser cutter is used to cut and engrave a wide variety of 18”x31” sheet materials, of which the most common are acrylic, MDF, plywood, matt card, chipboard, and styrene. The fused depositional modeller, or rapid prototyping machine, builds models in three dimensions (10”x10”x10”) in ABS, high impact ABS, elastomeric material or investment casting wax.  Using fused deposition modelling technology, students can build models from the following materials : ABS, high-impact ABS, elastomer, or investment casting wax. The files must be in stereolithographic (stl) format, a common export option in most CAD packages.  Main Shop105.5 sq.mt.Office and Supply Store27.1 Assembly Room29.1 Metal Shop63.4 Total251.3 sq.mt.The Workshop also maintains a Supply Store which allows students to purchase materials through the use of student purchase cards. The Supply Store maintains a stock of the most often used materials for sale to students, while most common modeling and building materials can be ordered through the Workshop within a few delivery days.  For information on the X-660 Laser Cutter, click here
  43. 43.  MODERNITY IN VILLAGE  TRANSFORMING VILLAGE  MIXTURE OF VERNACULAR WITH MODERN ARCHITECTURE
  44. 44. THANK YOU
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Random notes on vernacular architecture

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