Contracts & Agreements as per Business Law


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Contracts & Agreements as per Business Law

  2. 2. CONTRACT- In the words of Pollock, ‗every agreement and promises enforceable by law is contract‘. Section 2(h) of the Indian Contract Act, 1872 states that ‗an agreement enforceable by law is contract‘. This definition gives us two ingredients—an agreement and ‗enforceable by law‘. E.g. - An agreement to buy certain specific goods at an agreed price lets say 100 bags at Rs 1430 per bag is a contract becoz it gives rise to a duty enforceable by law and in case of default on the part of either party an action for breach of contract could be enforced. AGREEMENT An agreement means a promise and a reciprocal set of promises forming consideration for each other—Section 2(e). All contracts are agreements but all agreements are not contracts. CONTRACT = Agreement + Enforceable by law
  3. 3. PROMISE-As per Section 2(b) of the Contract Act, a proposal when accepted becomes a promise. PROPOSAL-Section 2(a) states that ‗when one person signifies another person his willingness to do or abstain from doing anything with a view to obtaining the assent of that other to such an act or abstinence, he is said to make a proposal‘. A Proposal is also known as an offer. So, Characteristics Of An Agreement: Plurality Of Persons Consensus-adidem
  4. 4. Promisor: A person making the proposal (offer) is known as a promisor. He is also known as an offeror. We can also recognize him as a proposor. Promisee: A person accepting the proposal (offer) is known as a promisee. He is also known as an offeree. We can also recognize him as an acceptor. PROMISOR PROMISEE
  5. 5. Offer and acceptance Intention to create legal Relations Lawful consideration Capacity of parties Free consent Lawful object Writing and Registration Certainty Possibility Of Performance Not Expressly declared void
  6. 6. On the Basis of the Mode of Formation On the Basis of Performance On the Basis of Validity or Enforceability Express contract Executed contract Valid contract Implied contract Executory contract Void contract Quasi-contract Unilateral contract Voidable contract Bilateral contract Illegal agreement Unenforceable contract
  7. 7. On the basis of formation: 1. Express contract: Where the terms of the contract are expressly agreed upon in words (written or spoken) at the time of formation, the contract is said to be express contract. Example A says to B ‗Will you purchase my bike for 20,000?‘ B says ‗Yes‘ to A. 2. Implied contract: An implied contract is one which is inferred from the acts or conduct of the parties or from the circumstances of the cases. Where a proposal or acceptance is made otherwise than in words, promise is said to be implied. Example A stops a taxi by waving his hand and boards it. There is an implied contract that A will pay the prescribed fare on reaching his destination. Withdrawal of cash from the ATM of a bank.
  8. 8. 3. Quasi contract: A quasi contract is created by law. Thus, quasi contracts are strictly not contracts as there is no intention of parties to enter into a contract. It is legal obligation which is imposed on a party who is required to perform it. A quasi contract is based on the principle that a person shall not be allowed to enrich himself at the expense of another. For example, suppose that vacationing physician Jane Doe is driving down the highway and finds Joe Bloggs lying unconscious on the side of the road. Doe renders medical aid that saves Bloggs's life. Although the injured, unconscious Bloggs did not solicit the medical aid and was not aware that the aid had been rendered, he received a valuable benefit, and the requirements for a quasi contract were fulfilled. In such a situation, the law will impose a quasi contract.
  9. 9. On the basis of performance: 1. Executed contract: An executed contract is one in which both the parties have performed their respective obligation. Example A sells his car to B for 1 lakh. A delivered the car and B paid the price. This is an executed contract. 2. Executory contract: An executory contract is one where one or both the parties to the contract have still to perform their obligations in future. Thus, a contract which is partially performed or wholly unperformed is termed as executory contract. Example A sells his car to B for 1 lakh. If A is still to deliver the car and B is yet to pay the price, it is an executory contract.
  10. 10. 3. Unilateral contract: A unilateral contract is one in which only one party has to perform his obligation at the time of the formation of the contract, the other party having fulfilled his obligation at the time of the contract or before the contract comes into existence. Example Alap promises to pay 1000 to anyone who finds his lost cellphone. Bansi finds and returns it to Alap. From the time Bansi found the cell phone, the contract came into existence. Now Alap has to perform his promise, i.e., the payment of 1000. 4. Bilateral contract: A bilateral contract is one in which the obligation on both the parties to the contract is outstanding at the time of the formation of the contract. Bilateral contracts are also known as contracts with executory consideration. Example A promises to sell his car to B for 1 lakh and agrees to deliver the car on the receipt of the payment by the end of the week. The contract is bilateral as both the parties have exchanged a promise to be performed within a stipulated time.
  11. 11. On the basis of validity: 1. Valid contract: An agreement which has all the essential elements of a contract is called a valid contract. A valid contract can be enforced by law. 2. Void contract[Section 2(g)]: A void contract is a contract which ceases to be enforceable by law. A contract when originally entered into may be valid and binding on the parties. It may subsequently become void. – There are many judgments which have stated that where any crime has been converted into a "Source of Profit" or if any act to be done under any contract is opposed to "Public Policy" under any contract—than that contract itself cannot be enforced under the lawReasons: Supervening Impossibility( marriage) Subsequent Illegality( wheat-pvt trading) Repudiation of a voidable contract( lack of free concent) Uncertain Future event( c dies)
  12. 12. 3. Voidable contract[Section 2(i)]: An agreement which is enforceable by law at the option of one or more of the parties thereto, but not at the option of other or others, is a voidable contract. If the essential element of free consent is missing in a contract, the law confers right on the aggrieved party either to reject the contract or to accept it. However, the contract continues to be good and enforceable unless it is repudiated by the aggrieved party. Lack of free consent 4. Illegal contract: A contract is illegal if it is forbidden by law; or is of such nature that, if permitted, would defeat the provisions of any law or is fraudulent; or involves or implies injury to a person or property of another, or court regards it as immoral or opposed to public policy. These agreements are punishable by law. These are void-ab-initio. ―All illegal agreements are void agreements but all void agreements are not illegal.‖ 5. Unenforceable contract: Where a contract is good in substance but because of some technical defect cannot be enforced by law is called unenforceable contract. These contracts are neither void nor voidable. Bill of exchange become unenforceable after three years
  13. 13. Matter Void Agreement Illegal Agreement What Void agreement is It is prohibited by not prohibited by law. law. Effect on collateral transaction Any agreement which is collateral to the void agreement is enforceable. Punishment It is not punishable. May not void ab initio. Void ab initio Any agreement or transaction which is collateral to illegal agreement is not enforceable. It is punishable. Always void ab initio.