Stem cells

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Cells,Medicine term, repair and regeneration of dental tissues

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Stem cells

  1. 1. STEM CELLS Repair and Regeneration of Oral Tissues
  2. 2. What are Stem Cells? • Stem cells are a class of undifferentiated cells that are able to differentiate into specialized cell types. Commonly, stem cells come from two main sources: • Embryos formed during the blastocyst phase of embryological development (embryonic stem cells) and • Adult tissue Both types are generally characterized by their potency, or potential to differentiate into different cell types (such as skin, muscle, bone, etc.).
  3. 3. Sources : • Blood of the umbilical cord • Adipose tissues • Brain • Skin • Intestine • Bone marrow • Different parts of tooth ; the dental pulp, root apical papilla, tooth germs
  4. 4. Properties : • Stem cells are capable of cell renewal • They have the potential to differentiate along different cell lineages that include adipogenic, cementogenic, neurognic, osteogenic, and chondrogrnic cells
  5. 5. Organ and tissue regeneration • Tissue regeneration is probably the most important possible application of stem cell research. Stem cells could potentially be used to grow a particular type of tissue or organ if directed to differentiate in a certain way. Stem cells that lie just beneath the skin, for example, have been used to engineer new skin tissue that can be grafted on to burn victims. •
  6. 6. • TISSUE ENGINEERING : It focuses on the fabrication of new tissues to replace damaged tissues and provides new horizons for periodontal regeneration. • GENE THERAPY : Gene transfer, which is insertion of a transgene into a host cell to achieve expression of periodontal cell activity and regeneration capacity.
  7. 7. • IMPLANTOLOGY : Implantology have focused on creating new generation of bioactive surfaces for improving the integration, stability, and ensure clinical performances of implant.
  8. 8. Mechanism of repair in oral tissues : • The absence of ameloblasts prevents the repair of enamel. • Dentine is capable of repair with basic mechanisms, but scar tissues that forms become mineralized. • The repair of dental supportive tissues depends on the degree of damage. • Oral mucosa has many similarities to skin and uses the same principle of repair, wounds of oral mucosa, especially the gingiva often heals without the formation of scar tissues.

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