Repair and Regeneration of Oral Tissues
What are Stem Cells?
• Stem cells are a class of undifferentiated cells that
are able to differentiate into specialized cell types.
Commonly, stem cells come from two main sources:
• Embryos formed during the blastocyst phase of
embryological development (embryonic stem cells)
• Adult tissue
Both types are generally characterized by their
potency, or potential to differentiate into different
cell types (such as skin, muscle, bone, etc.).
• Blood of the umbilical cord
• Adipose tissues
• Bone marrow
• Different parts of tooth ; the dental pulp, root
apical papilla, tooth germs
• Stem cells are capable of cell renewal
• They have the potential to differentiate along
different cell lineages that include adipogenic,
cementogenic, neurognic, osteogenic, and
Organ and tissue regeneration
• Tissue regeneration is probably the most
important possible application of stem cell
research. Stem cells could potentially be used to
grow a particular type of tissue or organ if
directed to differentiate in a certain way. Stem
cells that lie just beneath the skin, for
example, have been used to engineer new skin
tissue that can be grafted on to burn victims.
• TISSUE ENGINEERING :
It focuses on the fabrication of new tissues to
replace damaged tissues and provides new
horizons for periodontal regeneration.
• GENE THERAPY :
Gene transfer, which is insertion of a transgene
into a host cell to achieve expression of
periodontal cell activity and regeneration
• IMPLANTOLOGY :
Implantology have focused on creating new
generation of bioactive surfaces for improving
the integration, stability, and ensure clinical
performances of implant.
Mechanism of repair in oral tissues :
• The absence of ameloblasts prevents the repair of
• Dentine is capable of repair with basic
mechanisms, but scar tissues that forms become
• The repair of dental supportive tissues depends on
the degree of damage.
• Oral mucosa has many similarities to skin and uses
the same principle of repair, wounds of oral
mucosa, especially the gingiva often heals without
the formation of scar tissues.