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  1. 1. Trouble Urinating
  2. 2. <ul><li>Low stream pressure </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Blood deposits within urine or semen </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Swelling in the legs </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Discomfort in pelvic area </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Bone and joint pain </li></ul>
  7. 7. Symptoms of Prostate Cancer
  8. 8. <ul><li>Prostate cancer is a form of cancer that originates in the prostate gland. (a gland in the male reproductive system) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Causes of Prostate Cancer
  10. 10. <ul><li>Testosterone – does not cause prostate cancer directly but can encourage its growth. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Age- Men over 50 are shown to be more at risk because of biochemical reactions that promote unhealthy cellular growth. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Diet – research shows that a diet consisting of a high amount of animal fat helps prostate cancer to grow. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Genetics- genetic flaws are responsible for many research has shown that a genetic defect keep some men from developing a certain enzyme. That could mount a defense against cells vulnerable to cancer-causing agents in the environment. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Hereditary- if a close relative has had prostate cancer the risk of having prostate cancer for one increases. </li></ul><ul><li>Specifically because of the possibility of the common genes 1 and 2 (HPC1, HPC2) and HPCX. </li></ul><ul><li>African American men are at higher risk. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>All men who reach the age of 80 have and 80% chance of getting prostate cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Prostate cancer occurs 60% more often in African American men than white men however African and Japanese men have a lower chance and their risk increases if they migrate to the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>Hereditary Prostate cancer occurs about 5-10% of the time. </li></ul><ul><li>Smokers and those exposed to heavy metals are the most common prostate cancer patients. </li></ul>Whose at risk for prostate cancer
  16. 16. Treatment
  17. 17. The stages of cancer <ul><li>Stage A- the earliest stage where the cancer has just been identified, a prognosis cannot be made without first knowing how progressed the cancer cells are . </li></ul><ul><li>Stage B- Cancer is confirmed within several areas of the prostate. </li></ul><ul><li>Stage C- Cancer has spread throughout the prostate and possibly spread to other tissues in close proximity or bladder, </li></ul><ul><li>Stage D- The cancer is no longer contained primarily in the prostate. Stage D1, has cancer is confined to the pelvic area. D2, if it has spread to the bones. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Prostate Cancer <ul><li>Prostate cancer is a form of cancer that can develop within the male prostate gland of the reproductive system. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually begins in the peripheral zone, worst cases start around the prostatic urethra </li></ul>
  19. 19. Prostate cancer 2 <ul><li>In cases of carcinoma the cancerous cells spread from the prostate and invade the stroma ( the connective tissue of the prostate) to expand to the seminal vessels from there malignant cells may invade the lymphatic system and spread to the regional lymph nodes traveling to the lungs and liver. If malignant cells enter the blood stream then it can be carried to the bones. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Treatments <ul><li>Chemotherapy is a common treatment using chemicals. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cure” Varies depending on the severity </li></ul><ul><li>Cryotherapy – A probe is inserted that delivers liquid nitrogen into the prostate which freezes the tissue and eliminates the cancerous cells but is only effective for cancer that is contained in smaller amounts </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cure” varies depending on chance of reoccurrence. </li></ul><ul><li>Hormone Therapy- Taking estrogen pills in order to counteract the testosterone that the cancer feeds off of. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cure” rate is usually a few months. Works best with pelvic contained or D1 stages of cancer. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Prevention
  22. 22. Prevention & Precautions <ul><li>Studies show that men in their 20’s who ejaculate (no intercourse) at least 5 times a week have a decreased rate of pelvic cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Not smoking, plenty of exercise and keeping a low fat high fiber diet helps. </li></ul><ul><li>Eating Tomato based foods twice a week helps to reduce the chance of prostate cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Lyposene and antioxidants can help decrease the risk of Prostate cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>High amounts of promiscuity has been shown to cause an dramatic increase in the chance of prostate cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure to heavy metals too much iron, zinc ,cobalt etc. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Screenings <ul><li>It is suggested that ALL men over the age of 40 start a regular screening process for their prostate exams because most prostate cancer starts small and the sooner its caught the better. </li></ul><ul><li>Self exams should be given every six months inbetween regular doctor visits. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Process of self examination <ul><li>Inserting a finger or two into the rectum and feeling for lumps. </li></ul><ul><li>Using lubrication or latex gloves can aid in comfort. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the tips of your fingers to rub back and forth on your prostate gland. Which should feel like a hard nodule inconsistent texture or enlargement of gland may mean something more. </li></ul>