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Group 6 presentation

  1. 1. The Right Stuff: Fashioning an Identity through Clothing in a Junior School By Jon Swain Group 6: Nicolle Hiddleston, Sara Dixon, Avery Moore, Hunter Harvin, Chahat Hamirani
  2. 2. Abstract <ul><li>“ This article explores the key role played by clothing as an expression of individual and collective identity amongst 10-11 year-olds.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The article proposes that a relaxed enforcement of school uniform created a space for pupils to use clothing as a means of gaining recognition, of generating common bonds, and of sharing interests and intimacy within the peer group cultures.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ There is a specific concentration on boys’ cultures…” </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>The purpose of this study was to explore the role clothing played in the expression of identity among middle school-aged children. </li></ul><ul><li>Specifically, the author wanted to determine how clothing choices of the students contributed to the social construction of masculinity in a working-class school. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Background and Methodology <ul><li>Focus of the study was a class of 10-11 year olds at a junior school (elementary) </li></ul><ul><li>Working-class citizens </li></ul><ul><li>An increasing number of disadvantaged families were populating the surrounding area. </li></ul><ul><li>The author identified the main surrounding structures of the students as family, friends, community figures, and popular culture. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Part One of Uniform Policy: Regulation and Control <ul><li>Uniform policy was proposed in1995. It consists of several color options for tops and bottoms. </li></ul><ul><li>The major component of the policy is the color of the tops. </li></ul><ul><li>Westmoor Abbey is relatively lenient due to other priorities and parental opposition. </li></ul><ul><li>Average compliance is between 80% and 95%. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Part Two of Uniform Policy: Regulation and Control <ul><li>Many color options given, but students disobeyed the rules. </li></ul><ul><li>The school made rules for clothing colors but nothing for shoes. </li></ul><ul><li>Result = students show resistance to policy. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to enforce rules because of parents. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Teachers, Teaching and Dress Codes <ul><li>Teachers had a dress code too. </li></ul><ul><li>Students also influenced the teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>Author discusses the influence it had on him. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Masculinities and Culture <ul><li>School plays a prominent role in the formation of masculine identity. </li></ul><ul><li>“ In the know” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Not only adhere to the right look…also much talk about the right subjects, use the right speech, the right body language, etc.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Masculinity established through resistance to clothing policy; those who didn’t resistant were subject to ridicule. </li></ul><ul><li>Identities have different meanings in different places. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Pupil Cultures and Pupil Networks <ul><li>“ Pupil cultures” refer to a “way of life”, or “shared guidelines.” </li></ul><ul><li>Networks help to develop both individual and collective identities. </li></ul><ul><li>Three main groups of boys within the culture: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominant/Hegemonic Group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complicit but Marginalized Group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subordinated Group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Nothing classifies somebody more than the way he or she classifies.” </li></ul><ul><li>Fashion as a cultural capital in gaining advancement in social hierarchy. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uniting & Differentiating. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Looking Right, and Wearing the Right Stuff <ul><li>Designer Labels (pay more for a Reebok logo) </li></ul><ul><li>Getting noticed, standing out (having hand-me-downs gets you noticed but not in the right way) </li></ul><ul><li>Shoes had the greatest 'currency' in terms of status (they stand out the most more than anything on your body for guys) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Look, style, expense came before comfort and mobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs were ignored a majority of the time (not until you begin to spend your own money does cost actually set in, too late though because habit has been learned) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Examples <ul><li>Levi's Rebel: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group depicting cultural identity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nike Shoes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ This one looks hard.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Louboutin Red Sole: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ This one’s worth 100 pounds.” </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Subordinated Forms of Masculinity: Gays and Boffs <ul><li>Stereotyping is learned through family and peers (textbook) </li></ul><ul><li>If a boy were to wear anything other than the accepted attire, he ran the risk of being called a “gay” or “boff”. </li></ul><ul><li>Gay- connoted as non-masculine and effeminate (not conceptualized in terms of sexuality). </li></ul><ul><li>Boff- directed towards anyone who didn’t comply with the appropriate subculture of the class. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural attire and perceptions of identity are highly localized . </li></ul>
  13. 13. Conclusions <ul><li>In this class, clothing played a dominant role in the formation of one’s identity, particularly in the expression and construction of masculinity. </li></ul><ul><li>Dangers of not conforming to social and cultural norms. </li></ul><ul><li>Expressions of identity vary based on interactions of co-cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>“ There was a cultural need to conform and perform to the masculine boundaries in play.” </li></ul>