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Introduction to Poetry

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Introduction to basic terminology in poetry - poetic devices and figurative language.

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Introduction to Poetry

  1. 1. Poetry Terms andPoetry Terms and ExplanationsExplanations English 10English 10
  2. 2. Poetry ArrangementPoetry Arrangement Form:Form: Physical arrangement of the wordsPhysical arrangement of the words on the pageon the page Free Verse:Free Verse: No formal pattern, syllableNo formal pattern, syllable arrangement or rhyme schemearrangement or rhyme scheme I celebrate myself, and sing myself,I celebrate myself, and sing myself, And what I assume you shall assume,And what I assume you shall assume, For every atom belonging to me as good belongs to you.For every atom belonging to me as good belongs to you. I loaf and invite my soul,I loaf and invite my soul, I lean and loaf at my ease observing a spear of summer grass.I lean and loaf at my ease observing a spear of summer grass. (from Walt Whitman(from Walt Whitman Song of MyselfSong of Myself))
  3. 3. Stanza: consists of two or more lines of poetryStanza: consists of two or more lines of poetry that together form one of the divisions of athat together form one of the divisions of a poempoem I heard a fly buzz when I died;I heard a fly buzz when I died; The stillness round my formThe stillness round my form Was like the stillness in the airWas like the stillness in the air Between the heaves of storm.Between the heaves of storm. The eyes beside had wrung them dry,The eyes beside had wrung them dry, And breaths were gathering sureAnd breaths were gathering sure For that last onset, when the kingFor that last onset, when the king Be witnessed in his power.Be witnessed in his power. I willed my keepsakes, signed awayI willed my keepsakes, signed away What portion of me IWhat portion of me I Could make assignable,-and thenCould make assignable,-and then There interposed a fly,There interposed a fly, With blue, uncertain, stumbling buzz,With blue, uncertain, stumbling buzz, Between the light and me;Between the light and me; And then the windows failed, and thenAnd then the windows failed, and then I could not see to see.I could not see to see. (Emily Dickenson(Emily Dickenson DyingDying)) There are four stanzas.
  4. 4. Sounds (Figurative Language)Sounds (Figurative Language) Alliteration:Alliteration: repetition of initialrepetition of initial consonant soundsconsonant sounds JoanJoan sslitheredlithered ssideways like aideways like a ssneakyneaky ssnake.nake. Assonance:Assonance: repetition of vowel soundrepetition of vowel sound GrGreeeed as dd as deeeep as the sp as the seaea Consonance:Consonance: repetition of final soundsrepetition of final sounds in two or more wordsin two or more words She had a fouShe had a foundnd a soua soundnd mimindnd..
  5. 5. ““I’m a poet and didn’t know it!”I’m a poet and didn’t know it!”  Rhyme:Rhyme: repetition of end sounds, usually at the samerepetition of end sounds, usually at the same place in different lines.place in different lines.  Rhyme scheme:Rhyme scheme: pattern formed by rhymes at the endpattern formed by rhymes at the end of the lineof the line From Edgar Allan Poe’s AloneFrom Edgar Allan Poe’s Alone From childhood’s hour I have notFrom childhood’s hour I have not beenbeen AA As others were; I have notAs others were; I have not seenseen AA As others saw; I could notAs others saw; I could not bringbring BB My passions from a commonMy passions from a common springspring. B. B From the same source I have notFrom the same source I have not takentaken CC My sorrow; I could notMy sorrow; I could not awakenawaken CC My heart to joy at the sameMy heart to joy at the same tone;tone; DD And all I loved, I lovedAnd all I loved, I loved alone.alone. DD
  6. 6. RhythmRhythm Rhythm: pattern or beat of stressed andRhythm: pattern or beat of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of poetryunstressed syllables in a line of poetry Iambic pentameterIambic pentameter
  7. 7. Iambic PentameterIambic Pentameter  IambIamb  Short syllable (Short syllable ( ) followed) followed by a Long syllable ( / )by a Long syllable ( / )  MeterMeter  form of measurement (i.e. distance, music)form of measurement (i.e. distance, music)  PentaPenta  means 5means 5  5 short syllables5 short syllables  5 long syllable5 long syllable  = 10 syllable per line= 10 syllable per line  da-dum, da-dum, da-dum, da-dum, da-dumda-dum, da-dum, da-dum, da-dum, da-dum
  8. 8. Figurative Language: devicesFigurative Language: devices used to create strong imageryused to create strong imagery Simile:Simile: uses words like and as to createuses words like and as to create an unlikely comparisonan unlikely comparison The bowl of noodles lookedThe bowl of noodles looked likelike a hive ofa hive of snakes.snakes. Metaphor:Metaphor: direct comparison using adirect comparison using a linking verb (creates a stronger imagelinking verb (creates a stronger image than a simile)than a simile) II amam the storm that ruined her chances ofthe storm that ruined her chances of winning the championship.winning the championship.
  9. 9. Metaphors and Simile use aMetaphors and Simile use a vehicle and a tenor in theirvehicle and a tenor in their comparisons.comparisons. VehicleVehicle: the image ( or activity or: the image ( or activity or concept) used to represent or “figure”concept) used to represent or “figure” something else.something else. Tenor:Tenor: the thing which is representedthe thing which is represented (may be implied, not explicitly stated)(may be implied, not explicitly stated)
  10. 10. Example of Tenor andExample of Tenor and VehicleVehicle TheThe bowl of noodlesbowl of noodles looked like alooked like a hive ofhive of snakes.snakes. Tenor Vehicle “drives” image to your head
  11. 11. More Figurative LanguageMore Figurative Language  Personification:Personification: animals, inanimate objects or ideasanimals, inanimate objects or ideas are given human emotions or qualitiesare given human emotions or qualities  The fireThe fire swallowedswallowed the small village.the small village.  OnomatopoeiaOnomatopoeia: use of words to indicate the sound: use of words to indicate the sound they refer tothey refer to  Snort, clank, buzz, sizzleSnort, clank, buzz, sizzle  Hyperbole:Hyperbole: over exaggeration of something to helpover exaggeration of something to help audience understandaudience understand  ““I am so hungry, I could eat a cow”I am so hungry, I could eat a cow”  Idiom:Idiom: A common phrase used in everyday languageA common phrase used in everyday language meant to be taken figuratively rather than literallymeant to be taken figuratively rather than literally  ““t’s raining cats and dogs outside; As dumb as a box of rocks;t’s raining cats and dogs outside; As dumb as a box of rocks; Out of my league; etcOut of my league; etc
  12. 12. Figurative Language Con’tFigurative Language Con’t  Symbolism:Symbolism: the act of using a person, place, thing,the act of using a person, place, thing, activity or idea that stands for something else that can beactivity or idea that stands for something else that can be either concrete or abstracteither concrete or abstract  Tone:Tone: attitude the writer takes toward a character orattitude the writer takes toward a character or situation in their writing, usually enforced with wordsituation in their writing, usually enforced with word choicechoice  Theme:Theme: the overall meaning or message of the poem,the overall meaning or message of the poem, insight into human nature or lifeinsight into human nature or life  Dramatic situation:Dramatic situation: the plot of the poem (the speaker,the plot of the poem (the speaker, the setting, the events)the setting, the events)
  13. 13. AllusionAllusion  is a brief reference to a place, event, literaryis a brief reference to a place, event, literary work,work, mythmyth, or work of art, either directly or by, or work of art, either directly or by implication.implication.  Can be a very effective literary device so long asCan be a very effective literary device so long as the reader is familiar with the reference.the reader is familiar with the reference.  I am noI am no cowardly lioncowardly lion..  This mistake will be ourThis mistake will be our icebergiceberg..  We’ve got our ownWe’ve got our own Benedick and BeatriceBenedick and Beatrice at thisat this party.party.  Don’t be such aDon’t be such a ScroogeScrooge..
  14. 14. Sonnets  Sonnets are a specific form of poetrySonnets are a specific form of poetry  They are difficult to write/ construct because ofThey are difficult to write/ construct because of the restrictions – poets consider it a challenge tothe restrictions – poets consider it a challenge to write to the mold!write to the mold!  Sonnet means…Sonnet means… a “little sound” or “little song” in the Italiana “little sound” or “little song” in the Italian languagelanguage  Two forms of sonnets:Two forms of sonnets: Italian sonnetItalian sonnet Shakespeare/ English sonnetShakespeare/ English sonnet
  15. 15. Sonnet FormSonnet Form  A sonnet has 14 lines.A sonnet has 14 lines.  A sonnet has 3 quatrains and one coupletA sonnet has 3 quatrains and one couplet  A sonnet does not have breaks between stanzasA sonnet does not have breaks between stanzas  A sonnet must be written in iambic pentameterA sonnet must be written in iambic pentameter  A sonnet must follow a specific rhyme scheme,A sonnet must follow a specific rhyme scheme, depending on the type of sonnet.depending on the type of sonnet.  A sonnet can be about any subject, though they areA sonnet can be about any subject, though they are often about love or nature.often about love or nature.  A sonnet introduces a problem or question in theA sonnet introduces a problem or question in the beginning, and a resolution is offered after the turn.beginning, and a resolution is offered after the turn.
  16. 16. English Sonnet FormEnglish Sonnet Form  Quatrain: a stanza consisting of four linesQuatrain: a stanza consisting of four lines  Couplet: a stanza consisting of two linesCouplet: a stanza consisting of two lines  Let me not to the marriage of true mindsLet me not to the marriage of true minds Admit impediments. Love is not loveAdmit impediments. Love is not love Which alters when it alteration finds,Which alters when it alteration finds, Or bends with the remover to remove:Or bends with the remover to remove: O no! it is an ever-fixed markO no! it is an ever-fixed mark That looks on tempests and is never shaken;That looks on tempests and is never shaken; It is the star to every wandering bark,It is the star to every wandering bark, Whose worth's unknown, although his height be taken.Whose worth's unknown, although his height be taken. Love's not Time's fool, though rosy lips and cheeksLove's not Time's fool, though rosy lips and cheeks Within his bending sickle's compass come:Within his bending sickle's compass come: Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks,Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks, But bears it out even to the edge of doom.But bears it out even to the edge of doom.      If this be error and upon me proved, If this be error and upon me proved,    I never writ, nor no man ever loved.   I never writ, nor no man ever loved.  Rhyme Scheme: English sonnets ALWAYS follow theRhyme Scheme: English sonnets ALWAYS follow the same rhyme schemesame rhyme scheme  ABAB, CDCD, EFEF, GGABAB, CDCD, EFEF, GG Quatrains (3) Couplet (1)
  17. 17. How to Read PoetryHow to Read Poetry  How many times do you think you need to read throughHow many times do you think you need to read through a poem?a poem? 5 x’s5 x’s  First Read Through: Read it to get an idea of the poem –First Read Through: Read it to get an idea of the poem – length, punctuation, try to find an overall themelength, punctuation, try to find an overall theme  Second Read Through: Read it to help understand it –Second Read Through: Read it to help understand it – look for the dramatic situationlook for the dramatic situation  Third Read Through: Read it to look for figurativeThird Read Through: Read it to look for figurative language – what specifically is the author trying to saylanguage – what specifically is the author trying to say through images and wordsthrough images and words  Fourth Read Through: Read it to look for the theme –Fourth Read Through: Read it to look for the theme – what is the message of the poemwhat is the message of the poem  Fifth Read Through: Read it to ENJOY it!!Fifth Read Through: Read it to ENJOY it!!

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