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  1. 1. Uses of Minerals
  2. 2. Properties of Gems <ul><li>Gems or Gemstones are highly prized minerals because they are rare and beautiful. </li></ul><ul><li>Most gems are special varieties of a particular mineral. </li></ul><ul><li>They are clearer, brighter, and more colorful than common samples of that mineral. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Imperial State Crown – made for Queen Victoria of England in 1838. It includes several precious gems, namely: 2,868 diamonds, 273 pearls, 17 sapphires, 11 emeralds, and 5 rubies.
  4. 4. Minerals and their Gems
  5. 5. Beryl and Emerald <ul><li>Beryl is named for the element beryllium. Some crystals reach several meters in length. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Spinel and Ruby Spinel <ul><li>A red spinel in the British crown jewels has a mass of 352 carats. A carat is 0.2g </li></ul>
  7. 7. Zoisite and Tanzanite <ul><li>Purplish-blue examples of zoisite were discovered in 1967 near Arusha, Tanzania. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Topaz <ul><li>The most valuable examples are yellow, pink, and blue varieties. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Olivine and Peridot <ul><li>Olivine composes a large part of Earth’s upper mantle. It is also present in moon rocks. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Garnet and Almandine <ul><li>Garnet is a common mineral found in a wide variety of rock type. The red color of the variety almandine is caused by iron in its crystal structure. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Quartz and Amethyst <ul><li>Quartz make up about 30% of Earth’s crust. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Corundum and Blue Sapphire <ul><li>The blue color of sapphire is caused by iron or titanium in corundum. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Important Gems <ul><li>All gems are prized, but some are truly spectacular and have played an important role in history. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Cullinan Diamond <ul><li>Found in South Africa in 1905 </li></ul><ul><li>Largest uncut Diamond ever discovered </li></ul><ul><li>3,106.75 carats (about 621 g) </li></ul><ul><li>Cut into 9 main stones and 96 smaller ones </li></ul><ul><li>The largest is Cullinan 1 or Great Star of Africa </li></ul>
  15. 15. Cullinan 1 or Great Star of Africa <ul><li>Its mass is 530.20 carats (106 g) </li></ul><ul><li>It’s now part of the British monarchy’s crown jewels (Royal Scepter). </li></ul>
  16. 17. The nine largest pieces of the Cullinan Diamond.
  17. 18. The Cullinan IV (upper, 63.60 carats) and Cullinan III (lower, 94.40 carats), set in a pendant brooch.
  18. 19. The Cullinan VI (lower, 8.80 carats) and Cullinan VIII (upper, 6.80 carats)
  19. 20. The Cullinan II Diamond. Note the two tiny platinum loops on the edges. This is so the stone can be worn as a brooch, alone or with the Cullinan I attached. However, it usually resides in the front of the Imperial State Crown.
  20. 22. Blue Hope Diamond <ul><li>The most notorious of all diamonds. </li></ul><ul><li>Purchased by Henry Philip Hope around 1830 </li></ul><ul><li>Because the entire family as well as a later owner suffered misfortune, the Hope diamond gained reputation for bringing its owner bad luck. </li></ul>
  21. 23. Hope Diamond <ul><li>45.52 carats (about 9 g) </li></ul><ul><li>Currently displayed in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC </li></ul>
  22. 24. Useful Gems <ul><li>Diamond – useful as industrial abrasives and cutting tools </li></ul><ul><li>Rubies – used to produce specific types of laser light </li></ul><ul><li>Quartz – used in electronics and time pieces </li></ul>
  23. 25. Useful Elements in Minerals <ul><li>Ore – a mineral or rock that contains a useful substance that can be mined at a profit. </li></ul><ul><li>Smelting – a substance is melted to separate it from unwanted materials that may remain </li></ul><ul><li>Ilmenite and Rutile – contain titanium </li></ul>
  24. 26. Magnetite – contains iron (for frying pan and ships)
  25. 27. Hematite – contains iron (for frying pan and ships)
  26. 28. Bauxite – contains aluminum (for bicycles, soft-drink cans, foil, and lightweight parts for airplanes and cars)
  27. 29. Titanium Containing Ore <ul><li>Titanium is used in automobile body parts, manufacture of aircraft, eyeglass frames, and sport equipments such as tennis rackets and bicycles, and wheelchairs used by people who want to race or play basketball. </li></ul>
  28. 30. Ilmenite
  29. 31. Rutile (protruding from a quartz crystal)
  30. 32. Rutile (with a center of hematite)
  31. 33. Birthstones
  32. 34. January - Garnet
  33. 35. By her who in January was born No gem save garnets shall be worn They will ensure her constancy True friendship and fidelity.
  34. 36. February - Amethyst
  35. 37. The February born shall find Sincerity and peace of mind, Freedom from passion and from care, If they, the amethyst will wear.
  36. 38. March - Aquamarine
  37. 39. April - Diamond
  38. 40. She who from April dates her years, Diamonds shall wear, lest bitter tears For vain repentance flow.
  39. 41. May - Emerald
  40. 42. Who first beholds the light of day In spring's sweet, flower month of May And wears an Emerald all her life Shall be a loved and a loving wife.
  41. 43. June - Moonstone
  42. 44. June - Pearl
  43. 45. By her who in June was born No gem save Pearls shall be worn They will ensure her constancy True friendship and fidelity.
  44. 46. July - Ruby
  45. 47. The gleaming Ruby should adorn, All those who in July are born, For thus they'll be exempt and free, From lover's doubts and anxiety.
  46. 48. August - Peridot
  47. 49. Wear a Peridot or for thee, No conjugal fidelity, The August born without this stone, `Tis said, must live unloved; alone.
  48. 50. September - Sapphire
  49. 51. A maiden born when autumn leaves Are rustling in September's breeze, A Sapphire on her brow should bind; To bring her joy and peace of mind.
  50. 52. October - Opal
  51. 53. October's child is born for woe, And life's vicissitudes must know, But lay an opal on her breast, And hope will lull those woes to rest.
  52. 54. October - Tourmaline
  53. 55. November - Topaz
  54. 56. Who first comes to this world below In dreary November's fog and snow, Should prize the topaz amber hue, Emblem of friends and lovers true.
  55. 57. November - Citrine
  56. 58. December - Turquoise
  57. 59. If cold December gave you birth The month of snow and ice and mirth Place on your hand a turquoise blue; Success will bless whate'er you do.
  58. 60. December – Blue Topaz