Diversity in higher education


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Diversity in higher education

  1. 1. Diversity in Higher Education<br />Nicole Beachum<br />Sam Callister<br />Kate Starnes<br />
  2. 2. Higher education has not always promoted diversity<br />College was reserved for white males in the upper class of society<br />Essentially, colleges practiced ethnocentrism<br />Cambridge and Oxford<br />
  3. 3. Originally, higher education originated to educate clergy and church officials<br />Over time, the goals of higher education have extended to include: <br />Multiple career paths<br />Diverse student body<br />Technical programs of study<br />Goals of Higher Education<br />
  4. 4. Throughout history, minorities have been denied access to higher education<br />Over time, campuses started to become segregated<br />Today, thanks to many laws, court rulings, and proactive groups, higher education becoming more diverse<br />Access Denied<br />
  5. 5. 1866: Civil Rights Act of 1866 <br />1896: Plessy v. Ferguson <br />1954: Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas<br />1962: First African American enrolled in college at the University of Mississippi<br />1964: Civil Rights Act of 1964<br />Pivotal Movements<br />
  6. 6. 1965: President Johnson signed the Executive Order 11246<br />1978: Regents of University of California v. Bakke<br />1988: Civil Rights Restoration Act<br />2003: Grutter v. Bollinger<br />Pivotal MovementsContinued…<br />
  7. 7. 2003: Gratz v. Bollinger<br />2008: Grutter case upheld for University of Texas in Austin<br />2010: Christian Legal Society v. Martinez<br />Pivotal MovementsContinued…<br />
  8. 8. The above court cases and amendments increased access to higher education to minority students<br />Although colleges are allowed to use race to increase the overall diversity of students on campus, this must be outlined in admission plans and be backed by proper documentation<br />Race is not to be used for any other reason in admission policies and procedures<br />Affirmative Action in Admissions<br />
  9. 9. Students desire to interact with students with diverse backgrounds<br />However, students need assistance with knowing how to interact with those different from them<br />Therefore, colleges must help students explore diversity in a safe but beneficial environment for everyone<br />Students and Diversity<br />
  10. 10. Since faculty members tend to remain on campus the longest, it is essential to understand their views of diversity <br />Faculty within Engineering, Mathematics, and Sciences score low on “Diversity Advocacy”<br />Faculty within English, Education and Fine Arts departments score high on “Diversity Advocacy”<br />Faculty and Diversity<br />
  11. 11. Male faculty members tend to score lower on “Diversity Advocacy”, especially if they are in the Engineering and Math/Science departments<br />Female faculty members tend to score higher on “Diversity Advocacy”, especially if they are in the English, Education, and Fine Arts arenas<br />Gender and Diversity<br />
  12. 12. Along with increasing diversity within the student body, administrators and faculty must also be diverse<br />3 recommendations for higher education<br />Increase faculty and staff diversity<br />New programs and training for faculty in low diversity advocacy fields <br />Promote civic engagement and responsibility<br />Diversity on Campus<br />
  13. 13. 7,006 accredited higher education institutions <br />1,195 Community Colleges <br />105 Historically Black Colleges and Universities <br />268 Hispanic Serving Institutions <br />34 Tribal Colleges and Universities <br />Higher Education Now<br />
  14. 14. US Population, Actual and Projected Population for Years 2008 and 2050<br />
  15. 15. Minority representation in faculty, administrators, and governing boards do not matching minority representation in the student body <br />Student population: 35% minority<br />Institution presidents: 14% minority<br />Executive and administrative staff: 19% minority<br />Diversity Representation<br />
  16. 16. Full-time faculty: 22% minority<br />Part-time faculty: 25% minority<br />Governing board of public institutions: 22% minority<br />Governing board of independent institutions: 12% minority<br />Diversity RepresentationContinued…<br />
  17. 17. Projected Minority Student Enrollment increase by Race 1990, 2004, & 2015<br />
  18. 18. If we are not diligent in our recognition, acceptance, and awareness of diverse peoples, our higher education will suffer serious growing pains in the near future<br />According to Milligan, we can only strengthen America as a whole if we enhance new minds and views on diversity<br />Importance of Diversity<br />
  19. 19. Student organizations like Student Think Tank (STT) are doing their part to promote diversity in higher education<br />Recommendations by STT:<br />“Improve how information about the college is disseminated”<br />Open savings account to be set up for elementary school students of low socioeconomic status to save for college<br />Student Think Tank<br />
  20. 20. However, student organizations cannot combat a lack of diversity alone—this must be done from the top down<br />Administrators, faculty members, and governing boards must also be diverse and promote diversity education, awareness and acceptance for real change to occur<br />Beyond Students<br />
  21. 21. Colleges across the country must actively recruit diverse individuals to fill faculty, staff, and administrative positions on the college campus<br />Student bodies are ever-changing, but faculty and upper-level administrators are relatively consistent; therefore, the change must occur on this level as well<br />Recruitment<br />
  22. 22. “The most certain test by which we judge whether a country is really free is the amount of security enjoyed by minorities.”<br />John Dalberg Quote<br />
  23. 23. Betts, K., Urias, D., Chavez, J., & Betts, K. (2009, April 29). Empirical Research: Higher Education and Shifting U.S. Demographics: Need for Visible Administrative Career Paths, Professional Development, Succession Planning & Commitment to Diversity. Retrieved April 15, 2010, from Academic Leadership The Online Journal: http://www.academicleadership.org/emprical_research/623_printer.shtml<br />Brunner, B., & Haney, E. (2007).Civil rights timeline: Milestones in the modern civil rights movement. Retrieved from http://www.infoplease.com/spot/civilrightstimeline1.html<br />Cantrell v. Granholm, 473 F. 3d 237 (2008).Retrieved from http://www.mied.uscourts.gov/Opinions/lawsonpdf/06-15024%20Prop%202%20Opinion%20Granting%20MSJ.pdf<br />Civil Rights Act of 1866, 42 U.S.C. § 1981.<br />References<br />
  24. 24. Downes, K. P., & Dun, L. M. (2009). Understanding Diversity: White College Students’ Perceptions of Ethnic and Cultural Diversity.<br />Harper, S.R. (2008). Creating inclusive campus environments for cross-cultural learning and student engagement. United States: National Association of Student Personnel Administrators (NASPA).<br />Hebel, S. (2007, July 26). Student Think Tank Offers 25 Ideas to Raise Socioeconomic Diversity of Enrollments. Home - The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved July 18, 2010, from http://chronicle.com/article/Student-Thonk-Tank-Offers-25<br />Jaschik, S. (2010).New venue for anti-bias debate. Retrieved from http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2010/06/29/supreme<br />Jaschik, S. (2009).Court win for affirmative action. Retrieved from http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2009/08/18/texas<br />
  25. 25. Milligan, D., 291.,& 000. (n.d.).Cultural Diversity in Higher Education.Department of Mathematics & Statistics. Retrieved July 18, 2010, from http://www.math.usf.edu/mug/diversity<br />Park, J. J., & Denson, N. (2009). Attitudes and Advocacy: Understanding Faculty Views on Racial/ Ethnic Diversity. Journal of Higher Education , 415-438.<br />Preserving diversity in higher education (2004). Retrieved from http://www.equaljusticesociety.org/compliancemanual/Preserving_Diversity_In_Higher_Education.pdf<br />Sidanius, J., Levin, S., van Laar, C., & Sears, D. O. (2008). The Diversity Challenge: Social Identity and Intergroup Relations on the College Campus. New York: Russel Sage Foundation.<br />U.S. Const. amend. XIX.<br />