Phases and Milestones

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Phases and Milestones

  1. 1. Project Management: Phases • Phases • Milestones
  2. 2. Phases • Only certain projects are possible to divide into phases. • It may be counter productive to divide a project into phases. For example if it is possible for activities to overlap, then there is no point on waiting to get started solely because of ‘phases’.
  3. 3. Milestones • The completion of a phase almost always results in a milestone. • Even if a project is not divided into phases it is worth identifying ‘significant events’ to label s milestones • Milestones can be used to measure project success.
  4. 4. Milestone Characteristics: • A good milestone should leave no doubt as to whether it has passed or not. • A milestone should be measurable • A milestone should be meaningful • The best milestones do not need further definition
  5. 5. The Stage-Gate Process: • This is a process that many companies implement to ensure project success. • It’s theory is that at the end of each project ‘phase’ the project will be reviewed. • If the project does not pass this review then the project will be investigated or even prevented from continuing.
  6. 6. Stage-Gate Example: Note: an efficient Stage-Gate model should not have more than 6 gates. This is because the project team may end up concentrating on the gate reviews more than on the project itself.
  7. 7. Stage-Gate Advantages: • Allows for early identification of issues or project failures. This can allow the company to save resources. • The process provides structure to the project process • Help prevent project team members persuing personal interests or goal, or ‘pet-projects’ emerging.
  8. 8. Stage-Gate Disadvantages: • ‘Gatekeepers’, who review the project, can be reluctant to close the project. This is because it can have great impact on a company’s reputation or share price. – Read up on the failed NHS IT Project: http://www.theguardian.com/society/2013/sep/1 8/nhs-records-system-10bn – Also, consider the Edinburgh Tram Project. Do you think that this project should have been closed a long time ago?
  9. 9. • As mentioned before, Stage-Gate can become counter-productive if more than 6 gates are in place. • The process can also result in low morale, as project team members may feel that it is likely the project may be stopped.
  10. 10. Further Reading: • Kerzner, Chapter 2.12 • Maylor Chapter 4

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