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Road run off and reasons for
failure ‐ Fingle Brook A30 study
regarding impacts on the river Teign
Sean Comber, Will Blake...
Content
• Brief background
• Roads as a source of contamination
• The A30
• Results collected
• Conclusions
Background
• Water Framework Directive is driving higher
expectations for water quality and lower
standards
• Large areas ...
• Fingle Brook only moderate
status (based on fish)
• Part of The Dart and Teign River
Improvement Project (DTRIP)
• Catch...
Recent fish data
What are the pressures on Fingle
Brook?
• Sewage effluent (Whiddon Down)
• Mines (Whiddon Down - Cu some Pb;
Drewsteignton...
Fingle Brook catchment
• ~ 5km of A30 runs parallel to Fingle Brook
• ~ 10,900,000 l/yr of runoff
• (13,961,250 l/yr from Whiddon Dn WwTW)
109200...
Metals in vehicle and road materials (mg/kg)
Metals in runoff
0.01
0.1
1
10
100
1000
0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000
Concentration(µg/l)
Average daily traffic
Cd
Cu
Pb...
Work so far
• Environment Agency cannot hope to provide detailed
monitoring on sub-catchment level
• Plymouth University w...
Sediment investigations
Metals elevated above probable effect levels
(Canadian standards - mg/kg) for some metals
Variables
Freshwater
(TEL)
Fresh...
Mean metal levels in sediment (mg/kg)
SAMPLE Zn Cu Cr
ROAD DUST 756 282 183
LAGOON 785 113 176
SOIL 69 25 138
BANK 141 35 ...
Water Quality?
Metal Speciation & Toxicity
Most toxic
Intermediate
toxicity
Low toxicity
DOC
Humic
M-Org
CO3
2-
S2-
OH-
NO...
Water quality – New standards (EQS)
• Important to assess bioavailability (Cu, Zn, Ni,
(Mn, Pb)) – site specific
EQS avail...
Sample sites
• Sampled during
dry period
(baseline) and 2
rain events (Dec
‘13 and Jan ‘14)
Sites number: 1 = road runoff; 2 = outlet from wetland; 3 =
inflow to river; 4 = u/s of inflow; 5 = d/s of inflow
A-D = oc...
Sites number: 1 = road runoff; 2 = outlet from wetland; 3 =
inflow to river; 4 = u/s of inflow; 5 = d/s of inflow
A-D = oc...
Sites number: 1 = road runoff; 2 = outlet from wetland; 3 =
inflow to river; 4 = u/s of inflow; 5 = d/s of inflow
A-D = oc...
Detailed water quality survey to determine sources of metals
1) Downstream of STW
2) Upstream of Widdon Down mine site
3) ...
Low flow data
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Cu(µg/l)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Zn(µg/l)
0.00
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
Cd(µg/l)
0
5...
Main inputs to Fingle Brook under low
flows (µg/l)
• High flow samples collected 18/11/14
Site Cu Ni Zn Co Se Cd Pb
3A Wid...
Conclusions & future work
• The sewage works input is a low constant flow, with most metals
present, Zn being the most sig...
Possible mitigation options?
Cheap, but manpower intensive………
WRT CaBA/CRF Conference 02/12/14 - Sean Comber
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WRT CaBA/CRF Conference 02/12/14 - Sean Comber

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In December 2014 WRT held a Catchment Based Approach and Catchment Restoration Fund Conference in Exeter. The University of Plymouth's Sean Comber gave a summary of their work with WRT to examine the effects of road run-off on the Upper River Teign.

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WRT CaBA/CRF Conference 02/12/14 - Sean Comber

  1. 1. Road run off and reasons for failure ‐ Fingle Brook A30 study regarding impacts on the river Teign Sean Comber, Will Blake, Rupert Goddard, Chris Rowett, Alex Taylor
  2. 2. Content • Brief background • Roads as a source of contamination • The A30 • Results collected • Conclusions
  3. 3. Background • Water Framework Directive is driving higher expectations for water quality and lower standards • Large areas of SW not compliant • For a number of reasons – P from WwTW/Agric/Industry – Legacy mine issues – Obstructions – Road runoff/urban runoff
  4. 4. • Fingle Brook only moderate status (based on fish) • Part of The Dart and Teign River Improvement Project (DTRIP) • Catchment Restoration Funds available for assisting meeting WFD status by 2027 Teign Catchment Fingle Brook
  5. 5. Recent fish data
  6. 6. What are the pressures on Fingle Brook? • Sewage effluent (Whiddon Down) • Mines (Whiddon Down - Cu some Pb; Drewsteignton Quarry – limestone, may be metals before that) • Road runoff • Agriculture
  7. 7. Fingle Brook catchment
  8. 8. • ~ 5km of A30 runs parallel to Fingle Brook • ~ 10,900,000 l/yr of runoff • (13,961,250 l/yr from Whiddon Dn WwTW) 109200000 ?
  9. 9. Metals in vehicle and road materials (mg/kg)
  10. 10. Metals in runoff 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 Concentration(µg/l) Average daily traffic Cd Cu Pb Zn A30 average 2-way daily traffic Data from: Harrison et al., 1985, Hewitt and Rashed, 1992, Legret and Pagotto, 1999, Bäckström et al., 2003
  11. 11. Work so far • Environment Agency cannot hope to provide detailed monitoring on sub-catchment level • Plymouth University working with WRT and EA to increase knowledge base • Student projects: – 3rd Year dissertation (Chris Rowett – metal bioavailability in runoff water from Whiddon Down settlement pond; Rachel Giles - Effects of Road Salt Runoff on Freshwater Organisms – Brighton Stream) • Small contracts: – Investigation of water and sediment quality relating to A30 road runoff into Fingle Brook, upper Teign catchment, Devon (March, 2014) – Assessing significance of sources of metals to Fingle Brook under low and high flow conditions (July – December 2014)
  12. 12. Sediment investigations
  13. 13. Metals elevated above probable effect levels (Canadian standards - mg/kg) for some metals Variables Freshwater (TEL) Freshwater (PEL) Fingle Brook channel sediments Lead 35 91.3 113 Chromium 37.3 90 184 Copper 35.7 197 38 Zinc 123 315 285 TEL = Threshold Effect Level (below which no impacts) PEL = Probable Effect Level (above which expect negative impacts)
  14. 14. Mean metal levels in sediment (mg/kg) SAMPLE Zn Cu Cr ROAD DUST 756 282 183 LAGOON 785 113 176 SOIL 69 25 138 BANK 141 35 175 MAIN CHANNEL SED 285 38 184 NORTH TRIB SED (drain input) 321 65 190 NORTH TRIB SED (no drain input) 164 30 167 SOUTH TRIB SED (drain input) 212 33 172
  15. 15. Water Quality? Metal Speciation & Toxicity Most toxic Intermediate toxicity Low toxicity DOC Humic M-Org CO3 2- S2- OH- NO3 - M+ M++ M-Inorg Fulvics X EDTA
  16. 16. Water quality – New standards (EQS) • Important to assess bioavailability (Cu, Zn, Ni, (Mn, Pb)) – site specific EQS available based on measurement of Ca, pH, dissolved organic carbon and dissolved metal – set by EU &UK • Other EQS set by UK
  17. 17. Sample sites • Sampled during dry period (baseline) and 2 rain events (Dec ‘13 and Jan ‘14)
  18. 18. Sites number: 1 = road runoff; 2 = outlet from wetland; 3 = inflow to river; 4 = u/s of inflow; 5 = d/s of inflow A-D = occasions during rain event 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 DissolvedCuconcentration(µgl-1) Sample location
  19. 19. Sites number: 1 = road runoff; 2 = outlet from wetland; 3 = inflow to river; 4 = u/s of inflow; 5 = d/s of inflow A-D = occasions during rain event
  20. 20. Sites number: 1 = road runoff; 2 = outlet from wetland; 3 = inflow to river; 4 = u/s of inflow; 5 = d/s of inflow A-D = occasions during rain event 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 DissolvedZnconcentration(µgl-1) Sample location
  21. 21. Detailed water quality survey to determine sources of metals 1) Downstream of STW 2) Upstream of Widdon Down mine site 3) Input of Widdon Down mine site 4) Downstream of Widdon Down mine site 5) Upstream of Drewsteignton quarry 6) Input of Drewsteignton quarry 7) Downstream of Drewsteignton quarry 8) Upstream of Millfarm road drain 9) Input Millfarm road drain 10) Downstream Millfarm road drain 11) Upstream of Redlake road drain 12) Input of Redlake road drain 13) Downstream of Redlake road drain 14)Upstream of Lower Puddicombe road drain 15) Input of Lower Puddicombe road drain 16) Downstream of Lower Puddicombe road drain 17) Upstream of Veet Mill road drain 18) Input of Veet Mill road drain 19) Downstream of Veet Mill road drain 20) Upstream of Fingle Brook input into the River Teign (Fingle Bridge) 21) Input of Fingle Brook into the River Teign (Fingle Bridge) 22) Downstream of Fingle Brook input into the River Teign (Fingle Bridge)
  22. 22. Low flow data 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Cu(µg/l) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Zn(µg/l) 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 Cd(µg/l) 0 5 10 15 20 Pb(µg/l) Red bars denote EQS exceedance
  23. 23. Main inputs to Fingle Brook under low flows (µg/l) • High flow samples collected 18/11/14 Site Cu Ni Zn Co Se Cd Pb 3A Widdon Down mine site 0.63 5.10 4.4 0.52 1.85 0.02 0.2 6A Drewsteignton quarry 0.25 0.28 3.5 0.01 10.13 0.05 0.2 9A Millfarm road drain 5.34 2.57 13.2 0.17 0.17 0.02 27.1 18A Veet Mill road drain 2.05 8.84 13.2 0.62 0.17 0.12 0.6 15A Lower Puddicombe drain 2.68 8.34 17.3 3.10 0.56 0.26 5.8 12A Redlake road drain 7.56 1.79 8.6 0.11 0.34 0.03 12.4
  24. 24. Conclusions & future work • The sewage works input is a low constant flow, with most metals present, Zn being the most significant • Mine water low/constant flow high Se, Co, Mn, Ni, Zn, Cd, Mo, Fe • Road runoff sporadic but high in Zn, Pb, Cu, Mo, Cd • Contribution from field drains seems low • Overall metal concs are not exceptionally high, but high enough to warrant further investigation (especially Pb) • Wetland exhibits poor efficiency for metal removal • Road runoff flow has obvious impacts on stream’s hydrology (potentially greatest impact on stream ecology) – wetland needs improving + consider others along older sections of A30 • High flow full stream survey complete, awaiting analytical results • Combine flow data with concentrations to try an apply some source apportionment to the key inputs
  25. 25. Possible mitigation options? Cheap, but manpower intensive………

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