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Species and Habitat Management 
Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of 
British Native Orchid Occurrence
Species and Habitat Management 
Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of 
British Native Orchid Occurrence 
The Warbur...
Species and Habitat Management 
Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of 
British Native Orchid Occurrence 
The Warbur...
Species and Habitat Management 
Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of 
British Native Orchid Occurrence 
Orchids at...
Species and Habitat Management 
Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of 
British Native Orchid Occurrence 
Orchids at...
Species and Habitat Management 
Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of 
British Native Orchid Occurrence 
Orchids at...
Species and Habitat Management 
Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of 
British Native Orchid Occurrence 
Orchids at...
Species and Habitat Management 
Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of 
British Native Orchid Occurrence 
Orchids at...
Species and Habitat Management 
Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of 
British Native Orchid Occurrence 
Pyramidal ...
Species and Habitat Management 
Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of 
British Native Orchid Occurrence 
Pyramidal ...
Species and Habitat Management 
Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of 
British Native Orchid Occurrence 
Pyramidal ...
23 
Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of 
British Native Orchid Occurrence 
2005 
237 
10 
1993 
9 
1014 
7 
1208 ...
Species and Habitat Management 
Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of 
British Native Orchid Occurrence 
Pyramidal ...
Species and Habitat Management 
Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of 
British Native Orchid Occurrence 
Pyramidal ...
Species and Habitat Management 
Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of 
British Native Orchid Occurrence 
Pyramidal ...
Species and Habitat Management 
Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of 
British Native Orchid Occurrence 
Pyramidal ...
Species and Habitat Management 
Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of 
British Native Orchid Occurrence 
Pyramidal ...
Species and Habitat Management 
Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of 
British Native Orchid Occurrence 
Pyramidal ...
Species and Habitat Management 
Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of 
British Native Orchid Occurrence 
Pyramidal ...
Species and Habitat Management 
Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of 
British Native Orchid Occurrence 
Pyramidal ...
Species and Habitat Management 
Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of 
British Native Orchid Occurrence 
Pyramidal ...
3 
Species and Habitat Management 
Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of 
British Native Orchid Occurrence 
Pyramid...
Species and Habitat Management 
Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of 
British Native Orchid Occurrence 
Pyramidal ...
Species and Habitat Management 
Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of 
British Native Orchid Occurrence 
Pyramidal ...
Species and Habitat Management 
Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of 
British Native Orchid Occurrence 
Pyramidal ...
Species and Habitat Management 
Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of 
British Native Orchid Occurrence 
Pyramidal ...
Species and Habitat Management 
Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of 
British Native Orchid Occurrence 
Pyramidal ...
Species and Habitat Management 
Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of 
British Native Orchid Occurrence 
Pyramidal ...
Species and Habitat Management 
Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of 
British Native Orchid Occurrence 
Pyramidal ...
4597 
patches 
Species and Habitat Management 
Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of 
British Native Orchid Occurre...
Species and Habitat Management 
Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of 
British Native Orchid Occurrence 
Pyramidal ...
Classification and Regression Tree Analysis
Rules for terminal node 2 
IF 
HABITAT = A 2.1.0. Scrub - Dense 
Classification and Regression Tree Analysis 
B 2.2.0. Neu...
Rules for terminal node 5 
IF 
CANOPY = Open 
AND 
HABITAT = A 1.1.1. Broadleaved Woodland 
AND 
SOIL TYPE = 2 
THEN PYR =...
Rules for terminal node 5 
IF 
CANOPY = Open 
AND 
HABITAT = A 1.1.1. Broadleaved Woodland 
AND 
SOIL TYPE = 2 
THEN PYR =...
Species and Habitat Management 
Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of 
British Native Orchid Occurrence 
Pyramidal ...
Species and Habitat Management 
Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of 
British Native Orchid Occurrence 
Pyramidal ...
Species and Habitat Management 
Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of 
British Native Orchid Occurrence 
Pyramidal ...
The End…
Conservation Strategy Mapping: Terrestrial Orchids
Conservation Strategy Mapping: Terrestrial Orchids
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Conservation Strategy Mapping: Terrestrial Orchids

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In light of the lack of precise habitat definitions for many terrestrial orchid species, it was the overall aim of this study to gain a more accurate and quantitative understanding of the factors that determine orchid occurrence and to demonstrate how these data could be used to inform orchid conservation. We have developed a novel approach to ecological research and conservation strategy development that, if adopted, could facilitate empirically-based conservation projects that are more easily and effectively implemented by non-specialist conservation practitioners at a local level. Our approach integrates two techniques that are increasingly being used in ecological research and conservation biology and which have great potential to facilitate targeted and applicable studies of this type. The first is GIS, which has recently emerged as a powerful tool for studying landscape ecology and for developing conservation strategy at a landscape level. The second is the data analysis technique of Classification and Regression Tree Analysis (CART). Our method integrates the power of GIS and CART analysis to characterise the determinants of orchid dispersion and the combination of these factors that represent ‘good’ or potential habitat for the species.

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Conservation Strategy Mapping: Terrestrial Orchids

  1. 1. Species and Habitat Management Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of British Native Orchid Occurrence
  2. 2. Species and Habitat Management Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of British Native Orchid Occurrence The Warburg Reserve, Oxfordshire A heterogeneous mosaic of rich and diverse habitats –  BBOWT’s Flagship Reserve – SSSI.  265 acres (about 100 hectares).  Originally SSSI listed due to orchid diversity and abundance – 19 species have been recorded.  Also important for several other animal and plant species.
  3. 3. Species and Habitat Management Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of British Native Orchid Occurrence The Warburg Reserve, Oxfordshire A heterogeneous mosaic of rich and diverse habitats –
  4. 4. Species and Habitat Management Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of British Native Orchid Occurrence Orchids at the Warburg Reserve, Oxfordshire Bee Orchid – Ophrys apifera
  5. 5. Species and Habitat Management Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of British Native Orchid Occurrence Orchids at the Warburg Reserve, Oxfordshire Broad-Leaved Helleborine – Epipactis helleborine
  6. 6. Species and Habitat Management Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of British Native Orchid Occurrence Orchids at the Warburg Reserve, Oxfordshire Fly Orchid – Ophrys insectifera
  7. 7. Species and Habitat Management Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of British Native Orchid Occurrence Orchids at the Warburg Reserve, Oxfordshire Military Orchid – Orchis militaris
  8. 8. Species and Habitat Management Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of British Native Orchid Occurrence Orchids at the Warburg Reserve, Oxfordshire Pyramidal Orchid – Anacamptis pyramidalis
  9. 9. Species and Habitat Management Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of British Native Orchid Occurrence Pyramidal Orchid Study Warburg has unique collection of historical orchid data. • Hand drawn maps traced from OS Map. • Individual plants mapped for each species each year – 1988 to 2001. • 29 maps for 1993 orchid survey data.
  10. 10. Species and Habitat Management Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of British Native Orchid Occurrence Pyramidal Orchid Study All 29 maps scanned, georeferenced and rectified.
  11. 11. Species and Habitat Management Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of British Native Orchid Occurrence Pyramidal Orchid Study Locations of orchids digitised using a 2m x 2m grid
  12. 12. 23 Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of British Native Orchid Occurrence 2005 237 10 1993 9 1014 7 1208 818 26 Species and Habitat Management Pyramidal Orchid Study
  13. 13. Species and Habitat Management Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of British Native Orchid Occurrence Pyramidal Orchid Study Warburg has unique collection of historical orchid data.  This complete 10 year data set allowed for population trends to be determined. 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1990 1995 2000 2005 Year Number of PYR Flower Spikes
  14. 14. Species and Habitat Management Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of British Native Orchid Occurrence Pyramidal Orchid Study Design of the Study - AIM – To determine the habitat determinants of orchid dispersion.  If you look up pyramidal orchid habitat in a book it says – “…dry, well drained grassland on chalk, limestone or other calcium rich soils…”  There are places where this is accurate and others where it is not. SO…If you want to conserve them how do you know what to do?
  15. 15. Species and Habitat Management Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of British Native Orchid Occurrence Pyramidal Orchid Study Design of the Study - AIM – To determine the habitat determinants of orchid dispersion.  I wanted to examine what other factors were effecting orchid dispersion. • So I designed a method that used GIS and CART to find out. Broad habitat type Soil Type Aspect Footpath associations Slope Light Levels - Spring Soil pH Light Levels – Summer
  16. 16. Species and Habitat Management Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of British Native Orchid Occurrence Pyramidal Orchid Study Habitat Soil Type Aspect Footpaths Slope Soil pH Light Spring Light Summer
  17. 17. Species and Habitat Management Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of British Native Orchid Occurrence Pyramidal Orchid Study Habitat Soil Type Aspect Footpaths Slope Soil pH Light Spring Light Summer
  18. 18. Species and Habitat Management Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of British Native Orchid Occurrence Pyramidal Orchid Study Habitat Soil Type Aspect Footpaths Slope Soil pH Light Spring Light Summer
  19. 19. Species and Habitat Management Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of British Native Orchid Occurrence Pyramidal Orchid Study Habitat Soil Type Aspect Footpaths Slope Soil pH Light Spring Light Summer
  20. 20. Species and Habitat Management Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of British Native Orchid Occurrence Pyramidal Orchid Study Habitat Soil Type Aspect Footpaths Slope Soil pH Light Spring Light Summer
  21. 21. Species and Habitat Management Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of British Native Orchid Occurrence Pyramidal Orchid Study Habitat Soil Type Aspect Footpaths Slope Soil pH Light Spring Light Summer
  22. 22. 3 Species and Habitat Management Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of British Native Orchid Occurrence Pyramidal Orchid Study Habitat Soil Type Aspect Footpaths Slope Soil pH Light Spring Light Summer
  23. 23. Species and Habitat Management Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of British Native Orchid Occurrence Pyramidal Orchid Study Habitat Soil Type Aspect Footpaths Slope Soil pH Light Spring Light Summer
  24. 24. Species and Habitat Management Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of British Native Orchid Occurrence Pyramidal Orchid Study Habitat Soil Type Aspect Footpaths Slope Soil pH Light Spring Light Summer
  25. 25. Species and Habitat Management Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of British Native Orchid Occurrence Pyramidal Orchid Study Habitat Soil Type Aspect Footpaths Slope Soil pH Light Spring Light Summer
  26. 26. Species and Habitat Management Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of British Native Orchid Occurrence Pyramidal Orchid Study Habitat Soil Type Aspect Footpaths Slope Soil pH Light Spring Light Summer
  27. 27. Species and Habitat Management Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of British Native Orchid Occurrence Pyramidal Orchid Study Habitat Soil Type Aspect Footpaths Slope Soil pH Light Spring Light Summer
  28. 28. Species and Habitat Management Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of British Native Orchid Occurrence Pyramidal Orchid Study Habitat Soil Type Aspect Footpaths Slope Soil pH Light Spring Light Summer
  29. 29. Species and Habitat Management Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of British Native Orchid Occurrence Pyramidal Orchid Study Habitat Soil Type Aspect Footpaths Slope Soil pH Light Spring Light Summer
  30. 30. 4597 patches Species and Habitat Management Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of British Native Orchid Occurrence Pyramidal Orchid Study Habitat Soil Type Aspect Footpaths Slope Soil pH Light Spring Light Summer
  31. 31. Species and Habitat Management Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of British Native Orchid Occurrence Pyramidal Orchid Study Orchid data combined with habitat variables 2085 Pyramidal orchid positive patches Habitat Soil Type Aspect Footpaths Slope Soil pH Light Spring Light Summer
  32. 32. Classification and Regression Tree Analysis
  33. 33. Rules for terminal node 2 IF HABITAT = A 2.1.0. Scrub - Dense Classification and Regression Tree Analysis B 2.2.0. Neutral Grassland B 3.1.0. Calcareous Grassland AND SLOPE <= 5.5 AND LIGHT JUNE > 3.5 THEN PYR = Present
  34. 34. Rules for terminal node 5 IF CANOPY = Open AND HABITAT = A 1.1.1. Broadleaved Woodland AND SOIL TYPE = 2 THEN PYR = Present
  35. 35. Rules for terminal node 5 IF CANOPY = Open AND HABITAT = A 1.1.1. Broadleaved Woodland AND SOIL TYPE = 2 THEN PYR = Present Rules for terminal node 7 IF BUFFERDIST = 5 AND SOIL TYPE = 1 AND HABITAT = A 1.1.1. Broadleaved Woodland A 1.3.1. Mixed Woodland A 2.2.0. Scrub - Scattered THEN PYR = Present
  36. 36. Species and Habitat Management Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of British Native Orchid Occurrence Pyramidal Orchid Study CART analysis also scores the importance of the variables…
  37. 37. Species and Habitat Management Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of British Native Orchid Occurrence Pyramidal Orchid Study Creating a Conservation Strategy Map  Key variables used to create map of optimum habitat.  Variables weighted according to importance scores derived from model.
  38. 38. Species and Habitat Management Using GIS to Examine the Key Determinants of British Native Orchid Occurrence Pyramidal Orchid Study Creating a Conservation Strategy Map  Key variables used to create map of optimum habitat.  Variables weighted according to importance scores derived from model. Colony growth after changed management Colony growth after changed Colony growth management after changed management Colony growth after changed management No prospect of colonisation – possible site for translocation
  39. 39. The End…

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