Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Existential and Psychological Health as Products of Intrinsic Goal Attainment                  Nick Stauner          Perso...
2
OutlineIntro: existential & psychological well-being (WB)Hypothesis: goal attainment boosts all kinds of WBMethod: two-par...
Existential well-beingMeaning in life*    • Subjective clarity & significance of one’s own life        1. “I understand my...
Psychological well-beingMeaning in life*    • Subjective clarity & significance of one’s own lifePsychological well-being ...
Meaning vs. subjective well-being*• Parenthood paradox†    ◦ Decreases positive affect    ◦ Changes life’s meaning (?)*Bau...
Meaning vs. subjective well-being*• Parenthood paradox†    ◦ Decreases positive affect    ◦ Changes life’s meaning (?)• Gu...
Goals as sources of meaning“The degree and kind of meaning a person finds in life  derives from the emotionally compelling...
Effect of goal attainment on SWBAttainment increases subjective well-being*    • Predicts concurrent and future changes   ...
Autonomy vs. controlledness*Self-rated reasons for pursuing a goal    +2 Intrinsic         ◦ Fun, enjoyment, and interest ...
Intrinsic vs. extrinsic content*Goal’s self-rated help toward “possible futures”         Intrinsic         + Having many c...
Depth of meaning*Ordinal categorization of sources of meaning1. Hedonistic pleasure & comfort2. Personal potential, growth...
Hypotheses1. Goal attainment boosts psychological well-   being and meaning in life.                                      ...
Hypotheses1. Goal attainment boosts psychological well-   being and meaning in life.2. Effects are stronger from goals tha...
Subjective Well-Being & MeaningPositive and Negative Affect Schedule*    • Amount of 20 emotions in past few weeks        ...
Subjective Well-Being & MeaningPositive and Negative Affect Schedule*    • Amount of 20 emotions in past few weeks        ...
Psychological Well-Being*6 subscales of 9 items each, rated 1 – 6 (forced) 1. Environmental mastery    (-) “I often feel o...
ProcedureTime 1: 75-min. survey at quarter’s beginning    • Well-being measured    • Goals listed and rated    • Lots of o...
Goal assessmentList 10 goals and why they’re being pursued    • E.g., “Save money for a conference.”        ◦ Why? “Becaus...
Participants407 undergraduates at UC Riverside• Young adults (M = 19.6 | SD = 2.3 | range = {17 – 44} )• 69% female (282 f...
Family income bracket frequencies200     185160120                 7980                         49                51      ...
22
Exclusion criteriaAttrition  • 11.5% (47 didn’t return for time 2)Completion time  • 12.5% (45 excluded)Inter-item invaria...
Main effects of goal attainment*Multiple regression to predict well-being change    • Predictors = time 1 well-being & tim...
Main effects of goal attainment*Multiple regression to predict well-being change   • Predictors = time 1 well-being & time...
Main effects of goal attainment*Multiple regression to predict well-being change    • Predictors = time 1 well-being & tim...
Main effects of goal attainment*Multiple regression to predict well-being change    • Predictors = time 1 well-being & tim...
Main effects of goal attainment*Multiple regression to predict well-being change    • Predictors = time 1 well-being & tim...
Main effects of goal attainment*Predictor                   β      pPsychological well-being .10     < .004   Environmenta...
Well-being compositeWell-being unidimensional at the subscale level     ◦ Most subscale correlations > .50 in magnitude   ...
Correlations of well-being indices*Time 1 index        NA     SWLS ML-P     EM    SA    Purp. PR    PG    Auto.Positive Af...
Correlations of well-being indices*Time 2 index        NA     SWLS ML-P     EM    SA    Purp. PR    PG    Auto.Positive Af...
Well-being compositeWell-being unidimensional at the subscale level     ◦ Most subscale correlations > .50 in magnitude   ...
Time 1 parallel analysis scree plot* Eigenvalues*N = 290       Factors            34
Time 2 parallel analysis scree plot* Eigenvalues*N = 270       Factors            35
Well-being compositeWell-being unidimensional at the subscale level     ◦ Most subscale correlations > .50 in magnitude   ...
Moderation by goal content  Self-categorized type*          Attainment β           p     df1. Health                      ...
Main effects of goal characteristicsPredicting T2 well-being from T1 well-being and…Extrinsic reward: β = -.09, p < .02   ...
Effect of self-rated goal importance on well-being change  Change in well-being                         Importance (β = .0...
Effect of self-rated goal investment on well-being change  Change in well-being                         Investment (β = .0...
Main effect of time frameβ = .08, p < .03    • “What is your time frame for accomplishing this goal?”       5             ...
Interactions with goal characteristics*Extrinsic pressure x attainment: β = -.09, p < .05    • “Do you pursue this goal be...
Standardized effects of goal attainment & extrinsic motivation on well-being change      Change in well-being             ...
Standardized effects of goal attainment & extrinsic motivation on well-being change      Change in well-being             ...
Standardized effects of goal attainment & extrinsic motivation on well-being change      Change in well-being             ...
Interactions with goal characteristics*Extrinsic pressure x attainment: β = -.09, p < .05    • “Do you pursue this goal be...
Standardized effects of goal attainment & intrinsic motivation on well-being change      Change in well-being             ...
Standardized effects of goal attainment & intrinsic motivation on well-being change      Change in well-being             ...
Standardized effects of goal attainment & intrinsic motivation on well-being change      Change in well-being             ...
Interactions with goal characteristics*Extrinsic pressure x attainment: β = -.09, p < .05    • “Do you pursue this goal be...
Standardized effects of goal attainment & attainability on well-being change      Change in well-being                    ...
Standardized effects of goal attainment & attainability on well-being change      Change in well-being                    ...
Standardized effects of goal attainment & attainability on well-being change      Change in well-being                    ...
ConclusionsGoal attainment boosts meaning & PWB  • Hypothesis 1 confirmed!Goal attainment effect on well-being is moderate...
Theoretical implicationsThe goal attainment process builds and links  positive, existential, and motive psychologyMixed ev...
Limitations & recommendationsLimitations    •   Short time span    •   Difficulty distinguishing existential from affectiv...
PHIN       57
Planned analysesObjective criteria of goal categories, depth of meaning, value  concordance, coherence & conflictAttainmen...
Meaning vs. PWB-Purpose1. I understand my life’s meaning2. My life has a clear sense of purpose3. I have a good sense of w...
Meaning vs. PWB-Purpose1.   I enjoy making plans for the future and working to make them a reality2.   My daily activities...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

2012 Presentation - Existential and Psychological Health as Products of Intrinsic Goal Attainment

661 views

Published on

Stauner, N. (2012). Existential and psychological health as products of intrinsic goal attainment. Presented in the Proseminar for Current Research in Personality Psychology, April 19, University of California, Riverside.

  • Be the first to comment

2012 Presentation - Existential and Psychological Health as Products of Intrinsic Goal Attainment

  1. 1. Existential and Psychological Health as Products of Intrinsic Goal Attainment Nick Stauner Personality Assessment Lab University of California, Riverside 1
  2. 2. 2
  3. 3. OutlineIntro: existential & psychological well-being (WB)Hypothesis: goal attainment boosts all kinds of WBMethod: two-part self-report internet surveyResults: multiple regression (IV=attainment; DV=∆WB) A. Exclusion criteria B. Main effects of attainment on well-being C. Other main effects, interactions, and moderatorsRecap summary 3
  4. 4. Existential well-beingMeaning in life* • Subjective clarity & significance of one’s own life 1. “I understand my life’s meaning.” 2. “My life has a clear sense of purpose.” 3. “I have a good sense of what makes my life meaningful.” 4. “I have discovered a satisfying life purpose.” 5. “My life has no clear purpose.”*Steger, Frazier, Oishi, & Kaler, 2006 4
  5. 5. Psychological well-beingMeaning in life* • Subjective clarity & significance of one’s own lifePsychological well-being (PWB)† • Multidimensional theory of well-being 1. Environmental mastery 4. Autonomy 2. Self-acceptance 5. Positive relations 3. Purpose 6. Personal growth*Steger et al., 2006 †Ryff, 1989; Ryff & Keyes, 1995 5
  6. 6. Meaning vs. subjective well-being*• Parenthood paradox† ◦ Decreases positive affect ◦ Changes life’s meaning (?)*Baumeister, 1991 †Lyubomirsky & Boehm, 2010 6
  7. 7. Meaning vs. subjective well-being*• Parenthood paradox† ◦ Decreases positive affect ◦ Changes life’s meaning (?)• Guerrilla warfare! ◦ Not the most pleasant lifestyle one could choose… ◦ Not for the weak of conviction!*Baumeister, 1991 †Lyubomirsky & Boehm, 2010 7
  8. 8. Goals as sources of meaning“The degree and kind of meaning a person finds in life derives from the emotionally compelling qualities of the person’s goal pursuits.”*“Goals appear to be prime constituents of the meaning-making process…Goals are an important source of personal meaning…Goals are used to construct meaning.”†*Klinger, 1998 †Emmons, 1999 8
  9. 9. Effect of goal attainment on SWBAttainment increases subjective well-being* • Predicts concurrent and future changes • Short and long-termProgress increases vitality, self-actualization† • May increase psychological well-being! (p < .10)*Brunstein, 1993; Sheldon & Kasser, 1998; Sheldon & Elliot, 1999†Sheldon, Kasser, Smith, & Share, 2002 9
  10. 10. Autonomy vs. controlledness*Self-rated reasons for pursuing a goal +2 Intrinsic ◦ Fun, enjoyment, and interest in the experience +1 Identified ◦ Belief in value and importance of the goal -1 Introjected ◦ “Ought” feeling to avoid shame, guilt, or anxiety -2 Extrinsic ◦ Reward, praise, or approval from othersMain effect on SWB & attainment interaction*Sheldon & Kasser, 1995, 1998, 2001; Sheldon, Ryan, Deci, & Kasser, 2004 10
  11. 11. Intrinsic vs. extrinsic content*Goal’s self-rated help toward “possible futures” Intrinsic + Having many close and caring relationships + Being fulfilled and having a very meaningful life + Helping to make the world a better place Extrinsic - Being known and/or admired by many people - Looking good and appearing attractive to others - Getting a lucrative job and lots of nice possessionsMain effect on SWB & attainment interaction*Sheldon & Kasser, 1995, 1998, 2001; Sheldon, Ryan, Deci, & Kasser, 2004 11
  12. 12. Depth of meaning*Ordinal categorization of sources of meaning1. Hedonistic pleasure & comfort2. Personal potential, growth, creativity, & self-actualization3. Service to others and commitment to a larger societal or political cause4. Transcend individuality and encompass cosmic meaning and ultimate purpose*Reker & Wong, 1988; Reker, 2000 12
  13. 13. Hypotheses1. Goal attainment boosts psychological well- being and meaning in life. 13
  14. 14. Hypotheses1. Goal attainment boosts psychological well- being and meaning in life.2. Effects are stronger from goals that are: A. Autonomously motivated ◦ More enjoyable, important, & meaningful ◦ Less obligatory or extrinsically rewarded B. Intrinsically oriented and deeply meaningful ◦ More prosocial & self-transcendent ◦ Less materialistic or self-indulgent 14
  15. 15. Subjective Well-Being & MeaningPositive and Negative Affect Schedule* • Amount of 20 emotions in past few weeks ◦ E.g., “Strong,” “Afraid,” rated 1 – 5Satisfaction with Life Scale† • 5 cognitive evaluations of global life satisfaction ◦ E.g., “I am satisfied with my life,” rated 1 – 7Meaning in Life Questionnaire‡ – Presence • 5 cognitive evaluations of global life meaning ◦ E.g., “My life has no clear purpose,” rated 1 – 7*Watson, Tellegen, & Clark, 1988†Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985; ‡Steger et al., 2006 15
  16. 16. Subjective Well-Being & MeaningPositive and Negative Affect Schedule* • Amount of 20 emotions in past few weeks ◦ E.g., “Strong,” “Afraid,” rated 1 – 5Satisfaction with Life Scale† • 5 cognitive evaluations of global life satisfaction ◦ E.g., “I am satisfied with my life,” rated 1 – 7Meaning in Life Questionnaire‡ – Presence • 5 cognitive evaluations of global life meaning ◦ E.g., “My life has no clear purpose,” rated 1 – 7*Watson, Tellegen, & Clark, 1988†Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985; ‡Steger et al., 2006 16
  17. 17. Psychological Well-Being*6 subscales of 9 items each, rated 1 – 6 (forced) 1. Environmental mastery (-) “I often feel overwhelmed by my responsibilities.” 2. Self-acceptance (+) “In general, I feel confident and positive about myself.” 3. Purpose (-) “My daily activities often seem trivial and unimportant to me.” 4. Autonomy (-) “I tend to be influenced by people with strong opinions.” 5. Positive relations (+) “I know I can trust my friends, and they know they can trust me.” 6. Personal growth (-) “I am not interested in activities that will expand my horizons.”*Springer & Hauser, 2006; Ryff, 1989; Ryff & Keyes, 1995 17
  18. 18. ProcedureTime 1: 75-min. survey at quarter’s beginning • Well-being measured • Goals listed and rated • Lots of other personality measures…*Time 2: 45-min. follow-up at quarter’s end Well-being measured again Time 1 goals embedded & rated retrospectively*Stay tuned for many more results in the future! 18
  19. 19. Goal assessmentList 10 goals and why they’re being pursued • E.g., “Save money for a conference.” ◦ Why? “Because the hotel is expensive!”“Categorize your goals” task (8 categories)Goal ratings* (mostly scaled 1 – 4) Time 1: intrinsic, identified, introjected, extrinsic pressure, extrinsic reward, etc…. Time 2: progress + success = “attainment”*List is not comprehensive; excludes those without hypotheses. 19
  20. 20. Participants407 undergraduates at UC Riverside• Young adults (M = 19.6 | SD = 2.3 | range = {17 – 44} )• 69% female (282 females, 125 males)• Ethnically diverse & representative of UCR population 42% East Asian 27% Hispanic or Latino 14% European 6% African 5% Western or South Asian 5% multiracial• Religion: mostly Christian, unaffiliated, or unknown 51% Christian 22% atheist/agnostic/no affiliation 15% missing 8% Buddhist 2% Muslim 1% Hindu 2% other• 43% freshmen, 24% sophomores, 24% juniors, 8% seniors, 6 others• 89% full-timers (Mean credits = 13 | SD = 4)• 58% single (238 singles | 159 spoken for | 12 it’s-complicateds)• 29% working: mean hrs. = 15, SD = 9 20
  21. 21. Family income bracket frequencies200 185160120 7980 49 51 4040 0 <$50K <$75K <$100K <$125K >$125K 21
  22. 22. 22
  23. 23. Exclusion criteriaAttrition • 11.5% (47 didn’t return for time 2)Completion time • 12.5% (45 excluded)Inter-item invariance: • 20% (63 partially excluded)Applied before performing any other analyses 23
  24. 24. Main effects of goal attainment*Multiple regression to predict well-being change • Predictors = time 1 well-being & time 2 attainment • Dependent = time 2 well-beingSubjective well-being (SWB) SWB = Life Satisfaction + Positive Affect - Negative Affect Predictor β p Time 1 SWB .64 < 2 x 10-16 Attainment .17 < .0002 • Successful replication of the goal attainment boost†*All df = {266 – 276} †Sheldon & Elliot, 1999 24
  25. 25. Main effects of goal attainment*Multiple regression to predict well-being change • Predictors = time 1 well-being & time 2 attainment • Dependent = time 2 well-beingSubjective well-being: Attainment β = .17, p < .001 **Whitney, 2006 25
  26. 26. Main effects of goal attainment*Multiple regression to predict well-being change • Predictors = time 1 well-being & time 2 attainment • Dependent = time 2 well-beingSubjective well-being: Attainment β = .17, p < .001Psychological well-being (PWB) Predictor β p Time 1 PWB .80 < 2 x 10-16 Attainment .10 < .004*All df = {266 – 276} 26
  27. 27. Main effects of goal attainment*Multiple regression to predict well-being change • Predictors = time 1 well-being & time 2 attainment • Dependent = time 2 well-beingSubjective well-being: Attainment β = .17, p < .001Psychological well-being: Attain. β = .10, p < .004Meaning in life Predictor β p Time 1 Meaning .69 < 2 x 10-16 Attainment .10 < .03*All df = {266 – 276} 27
  28. 28. Main effects of goal attainment*Multiple regression to predict well-being change • Predictors = time 1 well-being & time 2 attainment • Dependent = time 2 well-beingSubjective well-being: Attainment β = .17, p < .001Psychological well-being: Attain. β = .10, p < .004Meaning in life: Attainment β = .10, p < .03 Hypothesis 1:*All df = {266 – 276} 28
  29. 29. Main effects of goal attainment*Predictor β pPsychological well-being .10 < .004 Environmental mastery .18 < .000008 Self-acceptance .15 < .0002 Positive relations .08 < .04 Personal growth .10 < .04 Autonomy .06 .11 Purpose .05 .22*All df = {266 – 276} 29
  30. 30. Well-being compositeWell-being unidimensional at the subscale level ◦ Most subscale correlations > .50 in magnitude 30
  31. 31. Correlations of well-being indices*Time 1 index NA SWLS ML-P EM SA Purp. PR PG Auto.Positive Affect -.15 .52 .55 .50 .60 .61 .47 .44 .37Negative Affect (NA) -.29 -.24 -.54 -.44 -.29 -.40 -.21 -.31Life Satisfaction (SWLS) .57 .59 .71 .46 .56 .23 .34Meaning in Life (ML-P) .51 .61 .64 .46 .34 .46Environmental Mastery (EM) .76 .60 .62 .42 .52Self-Acceptance (SA) .62 .64 .40 .51Purpose (Purp.) .47 .62 .49Positive Relations (PR) .40 .36Personal growth (PG) .46Autonomy (Auto.) *N = 290. All ps < .02. Time 1 only. |r| > .50 = green; |r| < .30 = red 31
  32. 32. Correlations of well-being indices*Time 2 index NA SWLS ML-P EM SA Purp. PR PG Auto.Positive Affect -.14 .42 .47 .53 .55 .51 .45 .38 .36Negative Affect (NA) -.29 -.21 -.46 -.39 -.31 -.40 -.22 -.27Life Satisfaction (SWLS) .47 .61 .68 .44 .55 .31 .37Meaning in Life (ML-P) .52 .55 .62 .45 .45 .42Environmental Mastery (EM) .77 .62 .66 .51 .56Self-Acceptance (SA) .68 .69 .49 .56Purpose (Purp.) .54 .67 .59Positive Relations (PR) .53 .46Personal growth (PG) .54Autonomy (Auto.) *N = 270. All ps < .03. Time 2 only. |r| > .50 = green; |r| < .30 = red 32
  33. 33. Well-being compositeWell-being unidimensional at the subscale level ◦ Most subscale correlations > .50 in magnitude ◦ Parallel analysis and scree plot indicate one factor 33
  34. 34. Time 1 parallel analysis scree plot* Eigenvalues*N = 290 Factors 34
  35. 35. Time 2 parallel analysis scree plot* Eigenvalues*N = 270 Factors 35
  36. 36. Well-being compositeWell-being unidimensional at the subscale level ◦ Most subscale correlations > .50 in magnitude ◦ Parallel analysis and scree plot indicate one factor • Standardized and summed 3 types of well-being: 1. Subjective well-being (SWLS + PA - NA) 2. Psychological well-being (sum of 6 subscales) 3. Presence of meaning in life • T2 composite well-being from T1 & attainment: ◦ Attainment β = .12, p < .002 • Used in all results presented henceforth 36
  37. 37. Moderation by goal content Self-categorized type* Attainment β p df1. Health .15 <.001 1972. Academic .11 <.004 2723. Social Relationships .10 <.01 2694. Affect Control .11 <.02 1635. Organization .13 <.03 996. Moral and Religious .06 .21 1367. Independence .05 .26 1868. Material Wealth -.03 .57 172*Objective judge coding in progress for validation purposes. 37
  38. 38. Main effects of goal characteristicsPredicting T2 well-being from T1 well-being and…Extrinsic reward: β = -.09, p < .02 ◦ “Are you pursuing this goal because you hope to gain some material possession or reward (e.g., a car, money, a high-paying job, a better place to live, etc.), or to avoid losing a material possession?”Probability of success: β = .11, p < .02 ◦ “What are your chances of succeeding in this goal?”Importance*: β = .09, p < .05 ◦ “Do you pursue this goal because you really believe it’s an important goal to have?”Investment*: β = .09, p < .05 ◦ “How willing are you to invest time, money, or effort to achieve this goal?”*Distributions of importance & investment are negatively skewed. 38
  39. 39. Effect of self-rated goal importance on well-being change Change in well-being Importance (β = .09, p = .04, n = 183) 39
  40. 40. Effect of self-rated goal investment on well-being change Change in well-being Investment (β = .09, p = .04, n = 202) 40
  41. 41. Main effect of time frameβ = .08, p < .03 • “What is your time frame for accomplishing this goal?” 5 4 3 2 1Enduring life goal Next few Next few Short term Day-to-day or guiding value years months goal (e.g., “make the (more than 1 (less than 1 (less than 1 (e.g., “take out most of life”) year) year) month) the trash”)Interpret cautiously • Some extreme goals may fit both extremes! 41
  42. 42. Interactions with goal characteristics*Extrinsic pressure x attainment: β = -.09, p < .05 • “Do you pursue this goal because someone else wants you to, or because the situation demands it?”*All df = {183 – 265} 42
  43. 43. Standardized effects of goal attainment & extrinsic motivation on well-being change Change in well-being Attainment (df = 183) 43
  44. 44. Standardized effects of goal attainment & extrinsic motivation on well-being change Change in well-being Attainment (df = 183) 44
  45. 45. Standardized effects of goal attainment & extrinsic motivation on well-being change Change in well-being Attainment (df = 183) 45
  46. 46. Interactions with goal characteristics*Extrinsic pressure x attainment: β = -.09, p < .05 • “Do you pursue this goal because someone else wants you to, or because the situation demands it?”Intrinsic x attainment: β = -.06, p < .06 • “Do you pursue this goal for the fun and enjoyment that it provides you?”*All df = {183 – 265} 46
  47. 47. Standardized effects of goal attainment & intrinsic motivation on well-being change Change in well-being Attainment (df = 265) 47
  48. 48. Standardized effects of goal attainment & intrinsic motivation on well-being change Change in well-being Attainment (df = 265) 48
  49. 49. Standardized effects of goal attainment & intrinsic motivation on well-being change Change in well-being Attainment (df = 265) 49
  50. 50. Interactions with goal characteristics*Extrinsic pressure x attainment: β = -.09, p < .05 • “Do you pursue this goal because someone else wants you to, or because the situation demands it?”Intrinsic x attainment: β = -.06, p < .06 • “Do you pursue this goal for the fun and enjoyment that it provides you?”Attainability x attainment: β = -.07, p < .05 • “What are your chances of succeeding in this goal?”*All df = {183 – 265} 50
  51. 51. Standardized effects of goal attainment & attainability on well-being change Change in well-being Attainment (df = 220) 51
  52. 52. Standardized effects of goal attainment & attainability on well-being change Change in well-being Attainment (df = 220) 52
  53. 53. Standardized effects of goal attainment & attainability on well-being change Change in well-being Attainment (df = 220) 53
  54. 54. ConclusionsGoal attainment boosts meaning & PWB • Hypothesis 1 confirmed!Goal attainment effect on well-being is moderated by goal content and motivation • Hypothesis 2 partially supported 54
  55. 55. Theoretical implicationsThe goal attainment process builds and links positive, existential, and motive psychologyMixed evidence for/against moderator theories • Autonomy/controlledness of motivation* • Intrinsic/extrinsic goal orientation* • Depth of meaning†*Sheldon & Kasser, 1995, 1998, 2001; Sheldon, Ryan, Deci, & Kasser, 2004†Reker & Wong, 1988; Reker, 2000 55
  56. 56. Limitations & recommendationsLimitations • Short time span • Difficulty distinguishing existential from affective well-being • Subjectivity of goal ratings & categorizations • N too small to split by goal content or religious affiliationsRecommendations • Experimental goal interventions* to reinforce causal claims • Behavioral logs & health outcomes to assess effect objectively*E.g., Sheldon, Kasser, Smith, & Share, 2002 56
  57. 57. PHIN 57
  58. 58. Planned analysesObjective criteria of goal categories, depth of meaning, value concordance, coherence & conflictAttainment interactions with goal content & personality traitsExploration of quadratic effectsMultilevel modeling of differences among goals • Meaning, attainment, & self-determination at the goal level • Person-level differences in ratings as dependent variable 58
  59. 59. Meaning vs. PWB-Purpose1. I understand my life’s meaning2. My life has a clear sense of purpose3. I have a good sense of what makes my life meaningful4. I have discovered a satisfying life purpose5. My life has no clear purpose 59
  60. 60. Meaning vs. PWB-Purpose1. I enjoy making plans for the future and working to make them a reality2. My daily activities often seem trivial and unimportant to me3. I am an active person in carrying out the plans I set for myself4. I tend to focus on the present, because the future nearly always brings me problems5. I don’t have a good sense of what it is I am trying to accomplish in life6. I sometimes feel as if I’ve done all there is to do in life7. I used to set goals for myself, but that now seems like a waste of time8. Some people wander aimlessly through life but I am not one of them9. I live life one day at a time and don’t really think about the future 60

×