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Nick Pendergrast
 Desire a single Islamic state - a
caliphate - uniting all Muslim
countries, then the entire world.
 Leaflets, brochures...
 Lowkey’s home was raided and
subsequently he was banned from
entering the borough of Westminster
and the city of London ...
 ‘So what's a terrorist?’
 Difficulty in defining terrorism.
 ‘Rather read The Sun than study all the facts.’
 Media’s...
 A clear definition of a “terrorist” remains elusive – deeply contested.
 ‘The term ‘terrorist’ has expanded to the poin...
 Finsbury Park terrorist attack.
 Charleston shooting (2015): Dylann Roof killed nine
people at a historic African-Ameri...
Media’s Role
 US Department of State's definition of terrorism excludes any acts of terrorism
committed by governments against populat...
 ‘State terrorism is often thought to be mostly prevalent in third-world countries
that do not have a democratic politica...
 ‘Because domestic terrorism occurs within state borders, what constitutes
domestic terrorism is usually determined by ea...
 Amy Meyer saw a sick cow being pushed by a bulldozer outside a slaughterhouse and
filmed it.
 Even though she stood on ...
 NSW Minister for Primary Industries
Katrina Hodgkinson described
undercover investigators as vandals,
and "akin to terro...
 Anyone who challenges or keeps from making profit the lumber, cattle, dairy or
vivisection industries.
 Taking pictures...
 Liberate animals from places of
abuse.
 Inflict economic damage on those
who profit from the exploitation of
animals.
...
 Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (3rd edn) 1995
 Violence: ‘behaviour that is intended to hurt other people p...
 Overlooks threats which actually
target people eg right-wing/neo-Nazi
terrorism:
 A recent report prepared for
Congress...
Glasser, C. L. 2011 ‘Moderates and Radicals Under Repression: The U.S. Animal Rights Movement, 1990-
2010’, Department of ...
 ‘…I dislike the “terrorism”
terminology’.
 Much that is labelled as terrorism
should be condemned as war
crimes/crimes ...
 Glasser, C. L. 2011 ‘Moderates and Radicals Under Repression: The U.S. Animal
Rights Movement, 1990-2010’, Department of...
‘They’re calling me a terrorist’ (but they probably shouldn’t): The Social Construction of “Eco-Terrorism” by Nick Penderg...
‘They’re calling me a terrorist’ (but they probably shouldn’t): The Social Construction of “Eco-Terrorism” by Nick Penderg...
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‘They’re calling me a terrorist’ (but they probably shouldn’t): The Social Construction of “Eco-Terrorism” by Nick Pendergrast

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‘They’re calling me a terrorist’ (but they probably shouldn’t): The Social Construction of “Eco-Terrorism” by Nick Pendergrast

  1. 1. Nick Pendergrast
  2. 2.  Desire a single Islamic state - a caliphate - uniting all Muslim countries, then the entire world.  Leaflets, brochures and books.  Since it's founding in 1953, Hizb ut Tahrir has been restricted to peaceful political means – a track record of non-violence.  No financial support to other groups engaged in terrorism.  Michael O'Hanlon (Washington- based Brookings Institution): ‘Hateful speech that inspires or condones terrorism is itself terroristic.’  The group's leaflet was found at the family home of Omar Sharif, the British man who launched a failed suicide attack in Tel Aviv.  Parramatta shooter possibly heard a Hizb ut-Tahrir lecture the day of the shooting.  People have left the group and got involved in violent groups.  Could turn violent. Michael Brull ‘The Politics Of Freedom And Hypocrisy: Who's Afraid Of Hizb Ut-
  3. 3.  Lowkey’s home was raided and subsequently he was banned from entering the borough of Westminster and the city of London during the royal wedding, as conditions of his bail.  CW lyrics and my talk: suicide, torture, bombings, war etc.  CW graphic images.  Lowkey ‘Terrorist’: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=km BnvajSfWU
  4. 4.  ‘So what's a terrorist?’  Difficulty in defining terrorism.  ‘Rather read The Sun than study all the facts.’  Media’s role in defining terrorism.  ‘What they did in Hiroshima was terrorism, What they did in Fallujah was terrorism,’  State terrorism?  ‘I guess it's all just depending who your nemesis is.’  ‘I'm all about peace and love.’  ‘Mandela ANC – that was terrorism.’  Broad definition of terrorism – dissidents.
  5. 5.  A clear definition of a “terrorist” remains elusive – deeply contested.  ‘The term ‘terrorist’ has expanded to the point that it just means ‘my enemy,’” said Marc Sageman, an ex-CIA agent, psychiatrist and author. “So we see things from our own perspective -- if one of us: freedom fighter, if one of them: terrorist.’  Sarah Marsden, a lecturer at the University of Saint Andrews’ Handa Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence: the use of the word has grown increasingly “subjective.”  Many groups are seen by some as terrorists but by others as engaging in a liberation struggle eg legitimate political violence against colonialism?  The social construction of terrorism: ‘The widespread use of ‘terrorism/terrorist,’ led by the media and politicians, consolidated it as a term used to describe enemies of all kinds.’ ‘Terrorist: Two centuries after the term first appeared, a clear definition remains elusive’
  6. 6.  Finsbury Park terrorist attack.  Charleston shooting (2015): Dylann Roof killed nine people at a historic African-American South Carolina church.  Politically motivated?  Posed in front of a car with a front plate that reads "Confederate States of America”.  Roof: 'I have to do it…You're taking over our country. And you have to go.’  Sectors of media and politics:  Violence by black and Muslim people is systemic, demanding response and action from all who share their race or religion.  Narrow framing of terrorism applying only to ‘Muslims driven by political grievances against the West’ (Glenn Greenwald). For more on these issues, you can see my article ‘Malcolm Turnbull Benches Team Australia, But Will The Narrative On Terrorism Change?’
  7. 7. Media’s Role
  8. 8.  US Department of State's definition of terrorism excludes any acts of terrorism committed by governments against populations and confines terrorism to acts of political violence by non-state actors (Aly).  ‘The United Nations' definition of terrorism excludes any reference to state terrorism’ (Aly).  ‘Governments that commit acts of terror against their citizens also have the power to denounce any accusations of terrorism and to suppress any form of revolution by denouncing any opposition as dissident terrorism’ (Aly). Aly, A. (2011) ‘Terrorism Then and Now’ in Terrorism and Global Security: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. Melbourne: Palgrave Macmillan, Chapter 2, 26-55.
  9. 9.  ‘State terrorism is often thought to be mostly prevalent in third-world countries that do not have a democratic political system and where the poor masses are governed by corrupt regimes’ (Aly).  BUT the US (Aly):  Imprisonment of hundreds of terrorist suspects in Guantanamo Bay without charge.  The revelations of torture and abuse of prisoners at Abu Ghraib by US forces.  The extraordinary rendition laws, which enabled the secret apprehension and illegal transfer of suspects to hidden locations.  Complicit in several state terrorism cases by providing support for the establishment of terrorist regimes in Cambodia, Colombia, Guatemala, Peru, Iran, the Taliban in Afghanistan and the Indonesians in East Timor. This support ranged from providing training for military forces to the provision of intelligence to the use of torture.  Airstrike on a Médecins Sans Frontières hospital in Afghanistan. Aly, A. (2011) ‘Terrorism Then and Now’ in Terrorism and Global Security: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. Melbourne: Palgrave Macmillan, Chapter 2, 26-55.
  10. 10.  ‘Because domestic terrorism occurs within state borders, what constitutes domestic terrorism is usually determined by each nation's definition of terrorism. In some countries a very broad definition of terrorism that includes any form of protest against the state could, effectively, be applied to many acts of civil disobedience’ (Ally).  Eg environmental and animal liberation activists. Aly, A. (2011) ‘Terrorism Then and Now’ in Terrorism and Global Security: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. Melbourne: Palgrave Macmillan, Chapter 2, 26-55.
  11. 11.  Amy Meyer saw a sick cow being pushed by a bulldozer outside a slaughterhouse and filmed it.  Even though she stood on public property, charged with violating a new law in Utah that makes it illegal to photograph/videotape factory farms and slaughterhouses.  Uproar = charges dropped.  1st prosecution of its kind in the US, but if the agriculture industry has its way, it won't be the last.  "Ag-gag" laws have spread rapidly, and today half a dozen states have made it illegal to film factory farms.  Senator David Hinkins, the sponsor of Utah's ag-gag bill, said it was needed to stop "terrorists" such as "the vegetarian people" who "are trying to kill the animal industry".  Beef Magazine: HSUS are ‘terrorists’ like ISIS.  FBI files have revealed that the government has even considered prosecuting those who film animal cruelty as "terrorists". Will Potter ‘Revised law could turn animal activists into terrorists’.
  12. 12.  NSW Minister for Primary Industries Katrina Hodgkinson described undercover investigators as vandals, and "akin to terrorists". Similar comments from others eg George Christensen from the National party.  Federal Ag-gag: Criminal Code Amendment (Animal Protection) Bill 2015.  Status: before Senate.  ‘Insert new offences in relation to…interference with the conduct of lawful animal enterprises’.  NSW: Biosecurity Bill 2015.  Status: passed.  Defence against some offences under the Act if you carry biosecurity matter ‘in the ordinary course of business’.Will Potter ‘Revised law could turn animal activists into terrorists’. For more on ag-gag laws in Australia, see: Mike Rosalky: ‘Animals and Law—An Overview’.
  13. 13.  Anyone who challenges or keeps from making profit the lumber, cattle, dairy or vivisection industries.  Taking pictures, protesting logging companies, or sitting in front of bulldozers.  Will Potter: Hardly anyone there when the bill was passed – were celebrating Martin Luther King Day – while the form of activism he advocated was being criminalised.
  14. 14.  Liberate animals from places of abuse.  Inflict economic damage on those who profit from the exploitation of animals.  Reveal atrocities committed against animals.  Take all precautions against harming any animal, human and non-human.  ALF and ELF: $82,752,700 in property damage.  No one physically injured or killed by actions.
  15. 15.  Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (3rd edn) 1995  Violence: ‘behaviour that is intended to hurt other people physically’ (page 1 596).  Violent: 1.ACTION – ‘involving actions that are intended to injure or kill people, by hitting them, shooting them etc.’  2. PERSON – ‘likely to attack, hurt, or kill other people’ (page 1 596).  Psychological harm?  Documentary: If a Tree Falls.
  16. 16.  Overlooks threats which actually target people eg right-wing/neo-Nazi terrorism:  A recent report prepared for Congress by the Government Accountability Office: ‘Of the 85 violent extremist incidents that resulted in death since September 12, 2001, far-right wing violent extremist groups were responsible for 62 (73 percent)’ – 106 people killed.
  17. 17. Glasser, C. L. 2011 ‘Moderates and Radicals Under Repression: The U.S. Animal Rights Movement, 1990- 2010’, Department of Sociology, University of California, Irvine. If a Tree Falls (48.17-49.15, 1.12.10/1.15.49-1.16.23): property destruction, arson, crime.
  18. 18.  ‘…I dislike the “terrorism” terminology’.  Much that is labelled as terrorism should be condemned as war crimes/crimes against humanity/torture/genocide.  ‘ “Terrorism” is a slippery term – much used by governments in order to condemn their political opponents, including peaceful dissent.’  ‘Its sister term, “counter-terrorism”, is equally slippery.  Labelling actions “counter-terrorism” can mean governments get away with war crimes and crimes against humanity without condemnation. ‘Those first casualties: Stephen Keim SC speech at the Moorooka Mosque’
  19. 19.  Glasser, C. L. 2011 ‘Moderates and Radicals Under Repression: The U.S. Animal Rights Movement, 1990-2010’, Department of Sociology, University of California, Irvine.  Carol Glasser’s talk “The Radical Debate: A Straw Man in the Movement?” – played on Animal Voices podcast.  Will Potter: greenisthenewred.com  If a Tree Falls documentary.  www.ProgressivePodcastAustralia.com  ICAS 2016: Episode 152.  Mike Rosalky: ‘Animals and Law—An Overview’.

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