Natures and relationship of science and technology
Inputs: things needed so that one can have a scientific and technological activity.Scientific activity needs:(1) disposition of the human mind( curiosity, ignorance, desire to know)(2) Natural phenomena that are not yet fully explained or the existing explanation of the natural phenomena is insufficient
Technological activities need:(1)a necessity or a need to be addressedEx. Due to the rainy and sunny season, the umbrella was invented(2) A desire to embody human creativityEx. The architects creativity can only be realized through actual drafting and the corresponding implementation
OutputFor Science: Theory-based or theory related knowledgeFor Technology: (1) technics (2) technic-related intellectual construct
Root functions:Science: to attain an enhanced understanding of natureTechnology: (1) technic (2) technic-related intellectual construct
Process of science:(1) Identification of an aspect or phenomenon of nature of interest to the practitioner(2) Formulation of a hypothesis or theory that does not simply attribute the phenomenon to divine intercession(3) Application of the hypothesis to the aspect or phenomenon(4) Assessment of the adequacy of the hypothesis to the phenomenon(5) Adoption or rejection of knowledge
Process of Technology:(1) Identification of a specific need, desire, or opportunity to be met, satisfied, or exploited by means of a projected technic(2) A design phase(3) A production phase(4) Use phase
ANTIQUITY:1. Science rarely played a role in technological activity2. Exception was the impact of the law of the lever in building catapults.3. Technology was on the human scene long before the arrival of anything that might be called SCIENCE.4. Technological activity in the form of rudimentary tool-making antedated even primitive religious explanations..
From Antiquity through Renaissance:1. Technological innovation improved scientific activities: Example: the invention of scientific instruments2. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519): pursued both kinds of activities- scientific and technological activities3. Francis Bacon: Exposed to technological advancement in his time like gunpowder and the development metallurgy, magnetic compass… He proposed that a solid scientific knowledge of technological advancement could lead to a progressive human condition.
Technology influenced the practiced of seventeenth century science in three ways:1. through provision of scientific instruments,2. through giving rise to a new worldview,3. and by influencing the research agenda of science. Scientific Instruments and Scientific Revolutions Contribution of science to Technology in the Eighteenth century: invention of the separate condenser of the steam engine because of PHYSICS
1. The rise of science-based industries: coal-tar dye manufacture; electrical power generation and machinery.2. The birth of the industrial research laboratory: Chemistry and laboratory
The growth of Industrial Research laboratory Technology not completely dependent on Science Growing interdependence of technology and Science