How to Deliver Breakthrough, Disruptive Social Innovations


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WECREATE Innovation presents a thought piece on 'next practice' on how to co-create breakthrough purpose-driven innovations. It contains tools, approaches, processes, mindsets and cultures, killers of innovation and drivers of innovation and more. A thorough synthesis of available thinking and cutting-edge tools from the WECREATE experience of doing disruptive innovation with leading NGOs, national and local government and Fortune 500 companies. With the intention of helping all innovators generate and implement breakthroughs - particularly those working in the complex social and impact economies.

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How to Deliver Breakthrough, Disruptive Social Innovations

  1. 1. Radically Reinventing the Future How to Co-create Breakthrough Purpose-Driven Innovationsa wecreate innovation paper
  2. 2. Everyone thinks of changing the world, but no one thinks of changing himself.Leo TolstoyFaced with the choice between changing ones mind and proving there is no need to do so,almost everyone gets busy on the proof.G.K. GalbraithThe smallest idea is a resilient virus, it can grow to define or destroy you.Inception, The Movie
  3. 3. ContentsBackgroundOrientation: Preparing to Venture ForthBreakthrough Innovation as Practical PhilosophyLeveraging Our Social ImaginationDesigning For Breakthrough Innovation in Complex ContextsThe Breakthrough EffectProcess & ToolsFrom Process to Pitch: Telling Breakthrough Innovation & Impact StoriesThe WECREATE Innovation & Impact Story EngineFrom Talk to Trouser: Emergent ExecutionMindset & CultureLearning Through Doing, Doing Through LearningInnovation Templates Affording Collective Creativity & Team EmpowermentFurther Reading & References
  4. 4. BackgroundSocial innovations: Innovations that are social both in their ends and in their means.Specifically new products, services and models that simultaneously meet social needs andcreate new social relationships or collaborations. In other words, they are innovations that areboth good for society and enhance society’s capacity to act.Murray et al (2010)In 2010 we launched a white paper on ‘radical’ or ‘disruptive’ social innovations, and why we seeso few of them. It was called ‘Radical Reinvention: 20 reasons why we don’t see more systemicsocial innovations and how to overcome these barriers’. In just under a year it has been read byover 2,000 of the world’s leading practitioners of social innovation; quoted in published journalsand referenced around the globe.Since then we have been asked by many people, practitioners most of all, to go beyond a whitepaper, beyond analysis and thought, beyond obstacles and barriers, and move the conversationtowards the practical processes for generating disruptive social innovations with teams.To that end, we have set out in this document to capture the tools, techniques and frameworksthat we find invaluable on the journey of radical social innovation. The process is not meant tobe definitive; for having an intention to generate radical social innovation is just the starting-point on an explorative journey to both the heart of the socio-economic system and our ideasand ideals about human nature. Therefore, the approach we use is alive. It is emergent - just asthe innovations we aim to co-create with our partners and clients are alive and emergent,because society and the individuals within it are alive and in a constant state of transition andtransformation. However, over many years of working in this space, we have discovered sometools; techniques that tend to move us onwards faster and smoother than others. When theseare put together in a specific order - a process or framework - we can take a team orcollaborative partnership on this journey with minimal tension, risk-aversion and stress.
  5. 5. Orientation: Preparing to Venture ForthThe only way we are going to put out the fire is to get on the social justice bus and heal ourwounds because, in the end, there is only one bus. Sometimes entrepreneurs need to learn tobe quiet passengers on this bus. Sometimes we’ll take our turn at the wheel, sometimes we’llbe the mechanic. But all of us need to get on the social-justice bus. That’s the bus on whichthe real sustainable, green movement will be traveling. Don’t get on the chartered plane.John Hawkins & John FarmerBe patient toward everything unresolved in your heart and try to love the questionsthemselves... the point is to live everything... live the questions now.Rainer Maria RilkeWhenever we set out with the intent to generate a breakthrough, we must necessarily ventureforth where few have ventured before. We begin a quest into what complexity theorist StuartKaufmann calls the ‘adjacent possible’. This space contains all the innovations possible with thecurrent set of ‘ingredients’ (ideas). As we make new connections between these previouslydisparate and dissipated ideas, we encroach on this ‘adjacent possible’, turning it through ourwill and creativity into the actual, the here and now. As we do so, the ‘adjacent possible’ expandsand thus more opportunities and potentialities come into being. Each innovation we realizewithin the web of networks that connect up ‘change-makers’ increases the potential for futureideas to be brought to life by other innovators in other places and times.However, if the terrain of the ‘adjacent possible’ was well-known and the answers close at hand,then there would be no need to find a radical or systemic solution, for somebody else would havesolved the problem already. If this was easy, and the process was simple and risk-free, thenthose solutions would be readily available. That means every time a team coalesces around anintention of this ilk we will be acting as literal pathfinders, those who find the path where thereis none. We have to journey to explore the origins - the root causes - of our social, environmentalor political problems and co-create a suite of innovations that, when taken together, we believe
  6. 6. will shift the system we are in to its ‘preferred’ state - the state we think will create theconditions for least suffering, and most flourishing, for the people, cultures and ecosystems thatinhabit that system.As we set out on this journey, we must lead creatively, morally and emotionally. It pays toapproach innovation, social innovation above all, with a gushing wellspring of humility.Consider how much breakthrough innovation has occurred in Egypt in 2011 without muchcentralized strategy or ‘aid’ from well-meaning diplomats, development agencies or socialinnovators. And consider how much damage we do to the Egyptian economy - with its powerfulcotton production industry - every time we ship container loads of our used T-shirts over there‘because we want to help’. Before we elevate ourselves to agents of change, intervening positivelyand powerfully in the lives of others, it is incumbent on us to delve into our motives for doing so.Often we find that hidden beneath our commitment to ‘do good’ are motives, whether consciousor not, that stem from our own psycho-social histories. This personal stake can be harnessedvery powerfully if it is brought to attention, acting as a tremendous driver of creativity andeffort. However it can also mean that our intellectual rigor is perverted by hidden assumptions,and the ‘animal spirits’ that energize them, which can lead to interventions being brought intoexistence that contain within them inaccurate ideas and ideals. The interventions we orchestratecan do as much damage, if not more, than doing nothing (cf. Easterly and many others on thenegative impact of aid and development). It is vital, therefore, that we have clarity of our innerdrives and our internal ‘emotional guidance system’ (cf. Damasio and the necessity of emotionsin all decision-making) before we set out. Coaching and contemplation can play a valuable partin keeping us honest and humble as we take it upon ourselves to ‘save’ other people, many ofwhom may not want (or even need) ‘saving’.Unless we are prepared to go this deep - to the foundations of the current system and our partwithin it - our advice is to go no further. For then we would be acting without full awareness ofhow our actions are profoundly connected to and originate with our ideas / ideals. Whether welike it or not, all interventions, all change programs - and therefore all change agents - have
  7. 7. inherent in them a ‘model of change’. Like a DNA code that generates proteins, every model ofchange is generated by a set of assumptions, most importantly about human nature. No matterhow simple or innocuous the intervention, there will always be an assumption lurking beneaththe surface. Those assumptions, when challenged, become the key to breakthrough innovation.However most change agents - whether social innovators, social entrepreneurs, policy advisorsor politicians - do not realize this and do not uncover their own model of change. The impact ofthis ignorance is important. It makes comparing programs and policies hard. It makes effectivecollaboration even harder. And it makes strategic innovation towards systemic change virtuallyimpossible. Above all, it leads to damage being done - usually unwittingly - in the name ofchange and social impact. We need only look at the centrally planned societies of theCommunist era to see this in stark black and white. We believe that all change agents must besupremely aware that we are in a very ambiguous position of power and potential. The only wayto prevent negative impact is to keep on drilling down to our own assumptions, to challengethem, and see how this might generate both desired breakthroughs and, perhaps, unexpectedreturns.
  8. 8. Breakthrough Innovation as Practical PhilosophyWe still have not seen much movement on... the deep systemic issues that cause the currentcluster of crisis symptoms to be reproduced time and again. I believe that the most importantroot issue of the current crisis is our thinking: how we collectively think.C Otto Scharmer, Professor MIT, Oxford Leadership JournalIn Aristotle’s words phronesis is a "true state, reasoned, and capable of action with regard tothings that are good or bad for man. Phronesis goes beyond both analytical, scientificknowledge (episteme) and technical knowledge or know-how (techne) and involvesjudgments and decisions made in the manner of a virtuoso social and political actor.Bent Flyvbjerg, Oxford UniversityProblems cannot be solved by the same level of thinking that created them.Albert EinsteinAs suggested, on the journey of discovery incumbent in breakthrough social innovation we mustbe prepared to penetrate to the ‘hidden order of things’ with a keen intellect that is not held insway by the myths and assumptions - what Plato called the ‘convenient lies’ - that hypnotizeothers. These assumptions tend to ensure that status quo is maintained. Systemic change cannotoccur without a shift in the ruling paradigm of the day, no matter how well it is defended by thestalwarts whose lives - and above all livelihoods - are so often protected by it. Virtuallyeverything we think will, by nature of our immersion in it, be part of the ruling paradigm. Thisthinking inevitably leads to incremental change. Such change is useful and often powerful, butinvariably focused on symptoms rather than root causes. To transform the system we musttransform how we think. It is our central tenet that the root causes of all lasting social andenvironmental crises are - by nature of social systems being simply manifestations of ourcollective beliefs and behaviors - ‘philosophical’.
  9. 9. Philosophy is the pursuit of wisdom. Practical philosophy (or ‘phronesis’ if you like to readAristotle) is the application of that wisdom to real-world challenges. Most importantly, it ispenetrating to the core of our ‘thinking’ to explore why our ‘doing’ is or is not working optimally.Philosophers are the most creative people on the planet. Whether we see them today in the guiseof a Frank Gehry, rethinking how buildings can be put together, or an Al Gore, re- forming howwe can use film to change the world, philosophers trade in ideas. They know that ideas comefirst, and that ideas - once released from their source in the individual and collective mind -become tangible, touchable things;art galleries, movies, bank branches or bank notes. In fact,every single invention known to man – from the horse and cart to the Human Genome Project;from the moves of Kung Fu to the NASDAQ – was at one point an idea in someone’s head.Wherever they have come from, ideas are the most powerful things on earth. They can opendoors of glittering possibility and free one forever from false assumptions; or they can lock oneaway for years in suffering and misery. They can burst joyfully into our minds like fireworks,lighting up all in their path; or they can be ‘mind-forged manacles’, condemning us, and ourfellow man, to a life of servitude and slavery.All our societies and cultures are based upon ideas, the most important ones being the beliefsand assumptions that lie behind all human behaviors, and the systems that crystallize aroundthem. Whilst this may seem at first concerning, it also means that we have the potential to createnew behaviors and new realities if – and it’s a big ‘if’ – we are prepared to transform our originalbeliefs and assumptions. The ideas that have created our current economic crises and the abjectpoverty and suffering that surrounds us, can all be changed. The ideas that have created CFCsand 4X4s can all be changed, and along with them the problems that they have wrought. Nomatter how awful things get, if we are brave enough to change our ideas, then we can changewhatever problems we will see out there in the world. In the immortal words of George Clintonand the band Parliament, ‘free our minds and our asses will follow’. Change our ideas and wecan change the world around us - nothing needs to stay the way it is forever. It can only ever bethis kind of free and open-minded thinking that drive the big changes that race humanitytowards a brighter future.
  10. 10. As our foundational assumptions about life, the world and our role in it continue to create themess we are in right now, it is up to us all to work hard to expose the individual and collectiveblind spots that wreak such havoc within the environment, the economy and the globalcommunity - and replacing them with ideas and beliefs that work for all of us. When we leavethis to the economists, politicians, psychologists and scientists – most of whose livelihoods areso intrinsically bound to the problems we are attempting to solve that they are often renderedblind to the changes – we devolve our responsibilities for our own lives and that of ourneighbors. When we leave the wisdom that guides us to other people to worry about, humanityas a whole suffers. Democracy demands that we all become versed in the ideas and assumptionsupon which our lives are built, and that we are all prepared to demolish the ideas that are, ondeep reflection, no longer needed in our world.Before we can begin to have new ideas for radical and transformative innovations, we must firstbe prepared to let go of the old ones, no matter how cherished and convenient they are. Thegreatest innovators of our time have only been able to create their radical innovations - theincredible iMac, the astonishing Wolfram Alpha, the essential Easy Jet, the wonderfulWorldwide Web, the hard-working NHS Direct, the astounding Netflix, the superb -by first letting go of the old ideas that kept their industries and sectors serving the interests ofthose in positions of power and domination. All breakthrough innovation - social more than allothers - is premised on being able to free ourselves from the chains of our own assumptions sothat we can radically reinvent the future with clarity and creative panache.This may sound a bit heady, intellectual or even a tad ‘woo woo’. Assuming you read on, we hopeyou will begin to see that this kind of philosophy does not require a Harvard degree; merely thewillingness to probe deeper and deeper into the root causes of the symptoms we see around us -whether pain, poverty or degradation - to find the origins of them, both inside ourselves and inour societies. We must have the courage to see them for what they are. As we do, we may need tocoin new words. Not to inflate our egos or sound smarter than we are (and charge handsomelyfor it), but because when searching for breakthrough ideas we must first see things differently,
  11. 11. we must first think differently. If we use old concepts, they will limit us. Old ideas, old terms,pull our minds back to old solutions. We must therefore discern new patterns, new concepts,and use emerging terminology to share them and communicate them.So far from avoid philosophical dialogue as is the tendency in ‘polite’ change-maker circles, weurge you to discover your assumptions and your model of change, to speak about them withopenness so others can engage with them and try it on for size, and gain the skills needed toempathically and smartly probe the model of change of others. We feel that it is our mostsolemn duty to do this, with and for each other. It is only when we can do this that we canintervene with potent impact - and can do so with mindful awareness of how our thoughts,beliefs and myths impact how we act and how we impact others.
  12. 12. Leveraging Our Social ImaginationIf your emotional abilities arent in hand, if you dont have self-awareness, if you are not ableto manage your distressing emotions, if you cant have empathy and have effectiverelationships, then no matter how smart you are, you are not going to get very far.Daniel GolemanThe heart that breaks open can contain the whole universe.Joanna MacyWhen envisioning a new future for a community, it is vital that we tap into what we can call our‘social imagination’ - prioritizing ways to maximize the collective creativity of the team. To havea powerful vision of what is possible we must tap into the three sources of knowledge availableto humankind: ‣ Evidence and experience: We reflect on our lived experience, and the sum total of the experiences lived by the team. We look for patterns. We test out hypotheses with experimental evidence. And we build a knowledge bank based on the results. This is the kind of thinking that most science is based on. ‣ Conceptual thinking and analysis: Based on our capacity for abstract thought using our intellect. We can apply complex theories to the world around us and abstract insights from it. This is what theoretical physicists do. ‣ Intuition and the ‘flash of genius’. This third kind of knowledge has, until recently that is, been critiqued mercilessly in management thinking. However, much recent research has shown how intuition (as well as its less refined sibling instinct) is used by successful leaders to envision the future and make great decisions. This is the kind of thinking that artists, brilliant scientists and creative visionaries use to break through.
  13. 13. When each individual builds their capacity to engage in fluid creative thinking within andbetween these types of knowledge, their innovation potential becomes keen. To bring this tobear in the social space it is also vital to add in the development of compassion, continuouslyexpanding our circles of empathy to include more and more people, animals and things innature. As we build our ability to engage our social imagination, we must also become everbetter at listening. This means listening intently to each other’s ideas, not just to argue anddeflect, but to find the nuggets of gold in any idea or opinions and be able to piggy-back on themto create more innovations. This is what physicist David Bohm calls the shift from discussion(exchanging ideas to persuade the other we are right) to dialogue (open minded conversationwhere we look to find the truth between us). When we listen to others as if we are listening forthe best in them, then we are truly engaging in co-creativity. A parallel to this is the Hindugreeting of Namaste - which can be thought of as ‘the best part of me sees and greets the bestpart of you’.Listening to ourselves and our own inner voice is also crucial, for often we sense the ‘answer’before our mental faculties can catch-up. If our critical and cynical tendencies jump in too fast,we risk great ideas forever escaping us. Researchers have likened the innovation act to the firstfew steps of a toddler - it is similarly sensitive and vulnerable to external force. Therefore it iseffective to apply the compassion we are honing to ourselves and our team as much as thepeople (and planet) whose lives we hope to make better.
  14. 14. Designing For Breakthrough Innovation in Complex ContextsTools and systematic approaches borrowed from the technological and commercialinnovation paradigms can be successfully appropriated and applied to the process ofidentifying and scaling up socially innovative opportunities.Dominic Chalmers , Why Social Innovators Should Embrace the ‘Open’ ParadigmThinking more deeply about institutions and complexity raises major dilemmas fordevelopment interventions. On the one hand, tackling poverty, achieving social justice andprotecting the environment clearly require institutional transformation. On the other, institutionscannot be effectively changed in a neatly planned, top-down manner.Jim Woodhill, Capacities for Institutional Innovation: A Complexity PerspectiveAs we will discuss below (and in the WECREATE INNOVATION paper entitled ‘Designing forCo-Creation, 2010) a culture and practice of innovation is always more powerful than a process,no matter how well it is conceived. That said, a tried-and-tested process has the distinctadvantage of ensuring that certain important factors and dynamics are considered; that stepsare taken in a reasonably intelligent order; and - perhaps most importantly - that the teaminvolved increases their tolerance of ambiguity, so essential in all innovation, because they trusta process and a process expert. We often leverage the tools and approaches below at core pointsin a process. However, different tools can - and often should - be used in multiple points in ajourney. Most important is to realize that the tools are there to help answer the big questions.They are not the answers to those questions. They can help us see a map, but they are never theterritory. Tools, no matter how flash they are, are simply smart ways of getting to the rightquestions and the right set of potential and actual answers to those questions.
  15. 15. This process is linear; we progress down it according to a pre-agreed plan. However, outputsfrom various stages can influence future and previous stages. It is now design and innovationbest-practice to allow, and encourage, such flexibility to ensure that as we venture forth we learnas much as we predict. Intention Sense Make & Strategy & Collaborate Breakthrough Ideate Design & Refine Set EngageThis kind of flexible and sophisticated process is most important when intervening in systemsthat are neither static nor simple. In these kinds of systems, the old reliance on linear cause andeffect analysis, breaks down. So processes designed to analyze the situation using historicnumbers; categorize it using knowledge from the past; and respond using best-practicegenerated in the past simply do not work. We understand the world is ‘complex’ - neithercompletely static and orderly, nor completely chaotic and disorderly. The social systems we wantto intervene in are interconnected; intertwined; dynamically not in equilibrium. So therefore weneed to develop a process - and toolset - that allows us to engage in this complexity sensibly witha focus on outcomes yet at the same time unafraid to explore the realms of the unknown.
  16. 16. The Breakthrough EffectAs we move from certainty into ambiguity we access creativity and open up the ‘breakthrougheffect’. As we move away from the old organizing system into our assumptions and intuitions weloosen its grip on us and afford ourselves the potential to breakthrough. But once we have hadthe creative leap it is time to move back towards certainty by co-creating a new organizingsystem which aims to create more order - carved by our collective will - that alleviates thesuffering of others. The question is always: How deep are you prepared to go to findbreakthrough solutions?
  17. 17. The Process & ToolsBelow we outline the process stages we use, the existing tools leveraged within each, the rolesthey play and the outputs we expect. Where relevant we share what we have found about theirlimitations and how we have iterated and improved them as much as possible to overcome theseweaknesses.
  18. 18. Intention Setting Before a team begins any process of innovation, it is vital that all are convened around a set of shared intentions - within the global, local and institutional contexts. In this conversation it is important to explore the real scope and the appetite for innovation. For example, aProcess project that coalesces around an intention focused on radical, or systemic, innovation willStage have a very different character, experience and output than one convened around more incremental innovation goals. Likewise our beliefs about how change happens are important to table early on if we want to maximize the quality of our collective efforts with minimal disagreement.Tools Cynefin Model & Scenario Planning The Cynefin model, developed as a leading-edge management practice by IBM strategists, can be very helpful in setting intentions and project types. It identifies five contexts: simple, complicated, complex, chaotic and disorder into which all interventions will be launched. This reflects the reality that some social innovation contexts are simple; sometimes the solutions are relatively well understood even if the context makes the implementation of them complicated. Many environments are complex, some chaotic. And a few in total disorder. Cynefin is wonderful at showing that approaches that work for simple and Role complicated situations will fail when applied to complex and chaotic environments. So (Cynefin) many public and third sector institutions like to define ‘best’ and ‘good’ practices. This works for more simple and complicated contexts. But it becomes relatively meaningless for a more complex problem where a radical or systemic innovation is needed. These, by nature, have little or no precedence. In such complex contexts, the kind of linear thinking that is celebrated in conventional physics - that believes in clear cause and effect relationships - breaks down. Systems thinking (see below) can then help us to navigate these unchartered waters. Rapid protoyping of ideas (see Human-Centered Design below) can also help us develop best-practice for new contexts. Thus we can use Cynefin to ensure that the wider team (including those from other organizations invited in to ‘openly’ innovate) has a shared understanding of the type of project that is being launched, and the likely experience of this project as having moments of perhaps uncomfortable ambiguity and necessary brain- teasing as we collectively attempt to grapple with complex and chaotic situations.
  19. 19. As with all complex strategy tools, too much time can be spent on the strategic process andImprovements not enough of co-creating and co-implementing ideas in the real world. Therefore Cynefin (Cynefin) ‘lite’ can be a useful addition to an ignition workshop or initial planning session, in order to surface any hidden assumptions about the simplicity and linearity of the context that some people may be hiding (and which may well create major project disturbances at later stages if not tackled early on). Scenario Planning is a useful tool for this enabling context-driven this kind of thinking, andRole can be used powerfully to explore possible futures - often ‘projections’ of key uncertainties(Scenario and unknowns - and explore how different scenarios might necessitate a different strategicPlanning) agenda to focus innovation on. We have also developed a ‘lite’ version of scenario planning for those ofus in innovation processes (initially for a global Unilever team). In this process (two days rather than twoImprovements years), we create scenarios in order to agree the directions in which to progress an (Scenario innovation project. We can then use those scenarios after the concept-development stagePlanning) to generate a dynamic and ‘live’ innovation roadmap where different technologies, user trends and other contextual factors key to eventual success can be brought into a strategic conversation (by the various technical experts whose role it is so spot and make sense of them) so that the core group can engage with the potential, likely and actual impact of these external factors on strategy and execution.
  20. 20. Collaboration If we want to achieve anything of any ambition - and transformative or systemic innovation is definitely ambitious - no one organization or individual has the power (let alone resources or insight) in a networked, globalized world to make it happen. Therefore we need to collaborate. For many years innovation was (and still is in many cases) done by a small number of power players within hierarchical, vertically-organized, organizations. This was based upon the assumption that great organizations can bring the best people in house. This approach relies on repeated excellence of conception and execution, andProcess deep, continuous and near perfect understanding of rapidly changing user attitudes andStage behaviors. This inevitably generates a high risk of failure, which will increase the more disruptive the aim. Group think - the tendency for people to begin to think the same wen in groups - is concretized by hierarchy. Mavericks and free-thinkers are shunned and ‘punished’ for defection from the received view. The more closed the innovation process - a shut box - the less likely the team is to generate the ‘out of the box’ thinking so vital in disrupting the status quo. The status quo is like it is for a reason. It is the manifestation of the collective assumptions of those in power in the system. Thus more and more orgs are realizing that closed, or at best semi-closed (e.g. ‘consultation’ procedures), innovation process can be costly, slow, wasteful and lead to ineffective solutions, because the necessary skills, insights, ideas, technologies and resources often lie outside the organization.Tools Open Social Innovation ‘Open innovation’ processes enable us to incorporate actors who may not traditionally be seen as ‘stakeholders’ encouraging ‘lateral’ solutions and new combinations of solution to emerge. By including a broader mix - suppliers, donors, funders, users, end-beneficiaries, journalists, experts from allied fields, innovators of parallel innovations and ‘competitors’ - we have the potential to develop more effective solutions, faster and cheaper than weRole could otherwise. This also levels the power imbalances found in the social space where technical experts are accorded a better position in the hierarchy of change - which can often ‘lock’ the problems in further (cf. Moore & Westley, 2010). Furthermore, If we harness an open, collaborative innovation process we gain vital buy in and insight from powerful and influential people that we will likely want to engage at some point if we are aiming for systemic solutions at scale. Open Innovation can also prevent costly failures by including key agents of change in the process from the start.
  21. 21. Finally more ambitious programs and projects can be Ideated if funders and ‘competitor’ agencies or enterprises are pooling their mental and economic resources to crack the problem together, all having a stake in its success, and all having gone on some part of the journey so their fears of risk and failure have been allayed as fully as possible. Some more commercial open innovation processes can rely on the ‘wisdom of the crowd’ without providing as much value in return to the community. Research also suggests that it is likely that purely economic or other extrinsic rewards for involvement can less the degree of creativity and commitment. In the social arena, a well crafted vision (and ‘story’) for the project - that inspires, engages and moves people - can hold attention powerfully and tap into people’s deepest genius. We are also of the belief that for some parts of many projects, the command-and-control type of management (associated with traditional hierarchies and power structures) is valuable. This is a form of management where ‘things get done’ and ensures paralysis by committee does not creep in to reduce innovation efficacy.Improvements However, this form of management must be balanced by a commitment to absolute transparency and integrity if it is not to turn off the ‘crowd’ that has given its energy and ideas to the process. We suggest that action groups (or better still, action-learning groups) form from the wider team, and decision-making on smaller issues devolves to them. Here it is vital that the personal leadership capabilities of the team have been built. Above all, a commitment to radical responsibility is of the utmost importance. With this deeply embedded moral compass and willingness to own problems and much as successes, groups can be left to ‘self-organize’ as is seen to frequently in nature.
  22. 22. Sense Making Innovators must have a unique and comprehensive view of the nature of the social problems they want to tackle if they want to discover, let alone design, a systemic innovation. As we noted above, the origins of most long-lasting social problems lie in the deeper recesses of the system that create, and are created by, them. We must identify them Process as best we can and agree what the desired system state it. Failure to do so means that we Stage - at best - will fail in our ambitions, and - at worst - will create more problems than we solve. We must also analyze where the ‘sweetspots’ are in the system, and which vested interests and institutions need to be influenced or engaged to make the shift to the desired system state. Systems Thinking; Co-Creation Workshops; Dialoguing Tools Systems thinking is a profound tool and essential for systemic innovation generation. It allows us to see complex dynamic issues with as much clarity as the human mind can muster. Systems Thinking allows us to explore both the roots causes, or as we like to call Role them in this increasingly non-linear world, the ‘origins’ of our social issues, as well as how various interventions are likely to impact that system in real-time, whether ‘positive’ or ‘negative’. Systems Maps, once drawn, are also extremely valuable for ensuring all collaborators are on the same page, and talking about the same things. disproportionately large impact on the system. Systems Thinking can often become synonymous with dry, academic and overly complex process. It is not uncommon for systems maps to be drawn up over months and years. Data is plugged in. And then conversations ensue. For innovators and entrepreneurs, this kind of analysis (and the paralysis that can emerge) are way too prohibitive in terms of cost, time and expertise. Therefore we have developed away of ‘sketching’ out a systems mapImprovements live with a collaborative team. The more diverse viewpoints the team includes, the more likely we can sketch out a useful systems map quickly and painlessly that is robust enough for innovation purposes. We also encourage teams to use illustrators to bring the systems map tool life and allow it to be consulted online, and in a project room, to empower conversations that are precise and pithy. Systems Thinking call also tend teams towards incremental interventions and innovations that shift the system positively but slightly, still maintaining the essential nature of the status quo. If we want radical innovations then we
  23. 23. need to get deep inside the ‘sweet spots’, and discover the assumptions and conventionsthat are locking the system in place. Challenge those conventions with products or servicesthat are disruptive, and we have an increased probability of effecting massive changequickly. In terms of advocacy and influencing, vital parts of most social innovation projects(see ‘storytelling’ below), a systems approach can also include a power analysis (cf.Oxfam’s Duncan Green). We also encourage clients to use the Systems Maps themselves inreal-time as project develop, to ensure conversations are rooted in context; and thatlearning from intervention in one part of the system finds its way to other team members.We suggest using a vizualizer to bring Systems Maps to life for communication,engagement and storytelling - making them fun, engaging and above all as simple (but notsimplistic) as possible.
  24. 24. Breakthrough The origins of most significant human problems are at their deepest level, mindsets, beliefs and philosophies. It is only by penetrating to these hidden layers that we have any chance of ‘dissolving’ away major problems permanently through innovation. This requires that we have a breakthrough in our thinking. Together we must investigate theProcess Stage deepest and most profound root causes of the problem if we want transformative change to occur. Our goal is to find assumptions and conventions that can be challenged to reveal new insights and preferred truths (about human nature and what is possible) that open up opportunities for bold and fresh ideas that have not been thought of before.Tools The Breakthrough Switch During the collaborative systems analysis experience, we use a causal layered analysis to probe deep into the current reality to discover the deep causes at the heart of them. ByRole leveraging this powerful tool we can take en entire team on the journey to the heart of their beliefs, and the beliefs of society, that generate the problems we want to tackle. For so called ‘Wicked’ problems, this level of analysis is a sin qua non of any major impact. The traditional causal layered analysis takes us on a journey from what we see in the world, to the beliefs that lie at the origins of it. This does not necessarily lead to any solutions being created. We have iterated the tool to take us back up the same path again towards practical solutions. Our U-shaped tool (echoing the insights of Theory U), helps a team experience the cognitive breakthrough - the precious A-Ha! moment - which always occurs at the level of assumptions, ideas and beliefs - and then work back up from the foundational insight to shape the kind of practical in-market solutions that naturally emanate from that Eureka moment. Through this analysis we can breakthroughImprovements the pervading beliefs with a shift in consciousness. As Lettice and Parekh (2010) suggest, most effective social innovation comes from a ‘re-expression’ of the problem in a new way (e.g. from ‘people don’t want electric cars’ to ‘people don’t want ugly cars’). The re- expression this tool enables moves the conversation on considerably. The insights in this process then help the team to evaluate specific concepts further down the process and ensure that they are tackling roots causes and not just the symptoms. It is challenging to ensure that social innovation teams tackle the root cause not just the symptoms - as discussed in the White Paper. This tool, along with the systems map, ensures that are always in mind throughout.
  25. 25. Ideate Now we have a conceptual breakthrough, we must move to create tangible value propositions that deliver our new thinking as interventions. It is a vital principle to presence during the process of ideation that most of our social and environmental problems - noProcess Stage matter how critical or pernicious - have already been ‘solved’ in some way or by someone. That is to say the ingredients for even radical innovations are already out there in. So our task is to subtract, add, substitute and recombine them into a new value proposition that aligns with intentions for breakthrough innovation.Tools The Breakthrough Switch. The Breakthrough Innovation Concept Template We identify and analyze existing solutions that could be recombined (techniques, technologies, infrastructure and organizational capabilities) to be more sustainable, usable, accessible or cost-effective. We also learn from ‘positive deviants’ and ‘lead users’ who have managed to solve these social problems themselves without intervention in innovative ways . To understand which elements of each solution the end-users find most beneficial, and to map these against cost, we can use a ‘Value Proposition Analysis’, which can be elegantly explored and communicated visually in a graph format. Key to helping a team generate the cognitive leaps we are striving for in the conception of a disruptive innovation is to analyze the value propositions of precedents from parallel sectors where they haveRole solved a similar analogous, problem in a radically new way, or solved a very different problems whose underlying roots causes are similar, so their disruptive innovations will have elements within them that we can use. These so-called ‘isomorphic’ precedents allow us to spot underlying breakthrough in the architecture of a system - e.g. mobile phone tariff innovation brought to bear on co-working spaces. To find solutions beyond those available to the public, it is also extremely valuable to find lead-users (those who have developed their own solutions because none have been commercially available) and so-called ‘positive deviants’ (those who have a low incidence of the problem in populations of traditional high incidence rates) to understand what elements of a solution they have discovered or developed that has enabled them to not experience the problems we want to
  26. 26. Like the Causal Layered Analysis, the Value Proposition Analysis often leaves a solution to the problem to chance. Some teams will analyze the propositions and manage to recombine or reinvent them in a way that generates a disruptive social innovation. However many will not be able to do this from analysis alone. We have noticed that there are three domains in which new propositions tend to disrupt the status quo. A current solution may be available to the (relatively) rich and the powerful, in which case it is our task to crack how to make it more accessible and affordable - ie. available - at scale (this is where a large part of the focus on ‘Bottom of Pyramid’ innovation focuses (cf. Prahalad). Or they exist in a technical or geeky format, and our task is to work out how to make themImprovements more usable. Or they may exist but be resisted by our target group, so our task is to make them in some way more enjoyable. Many disruptive innovations have taken an existing solution, removed or radically reduced one element of the proposition that people have assumed is vital (which is often where most of the cost is located) and in its place increased accessibility, usability or enjoyability (and often all three). Thus many more people can enjoy the benefits of existing solutions and the space has been positively disrupted forever. Within this process the team will regularly be forced to turn away from existing knowledge and power structures (such as the expert-user model) and entertain the potential for peer-to- peer and self-organized delivery models which can radically reduce costs whilst increasing provision (e..g AA, TEDx, NHS Direct). This is often uncomfortable for many, particularly those vested in the perceived ‘cost’ of their own career path, and their investment in professional qualifications.
  27. 27. Design Design thinking is a set of approaches that is focused on ensuring that solutions are fit for purpose and fit for context. The aim is to design a suite of joined up, sustainable and systemic concepts that can be rapid prototyped in the field, iterated, mainstreamed and scaled. Design as an approach allows for the creative iteration of solutions that solve problems in context with a deep understanding of users and their needs. At its best, itProcess Stage includes multi-disciplinary teams that co-create solutions synthetically, exploring impact through prototyping what works and iterating until the right mix of concepts and activities have been found to solve the original problem. Often much attention is given to defining the problem itself, particularly in complex situations. By defining the problem accurately and appropriately, half the work is done because solutions immediately begin to fall out of a well defined problem which includes within it deep insight into the end-user. Human-Centered Design & Ethnographic Research.Tools Ideally the design stage includes the techniques associated with user-centered or human- centered design where anthropological and deep behavioral insights about how people think and feel in situ are fed into the innovation process to ensure the end-results are driven by the user, so are actually used and valued by them when implemented. By bringing realRole people both into our minds and into the project team, we can mitigate the dangers of abstraction, which all quantified analysis undertakes, and which (cf, Sartre), create so much damage. In human-centered design we can also leverage an understanding of ‘affordances’ so that we can piggy-back on existing cultural codes and human behaviors with our new ideas, thus increasing the speed of uptake. Although there are many brilliant users of design thinking in service and program development, the process can still gear solutions towards ‘things’ rather than campaigns or programs due its origins in ‘product’ design whether that is a house or a remote control. Design Thinking also tends towards incremental innovations that fit the current context, asImprovements opposed to systemic solutions that reinvent the future in new and hitherto unseen ways. When used in conjunction with systems thinking we can begin to design a preferred state of the system, and look at the conditions we would need to have in place for that preferred state to come into being. These conditions can then be designed for. We also are keen
  28. 28. proponents that some design thinkers encourage, which is the rigor of ensuring that for anydesign we can test out (and then iterate), not just a prototype (a low risk, low cost way toprototype it in 2-4 weeks), but also the specification of a Minimal Viable Product. The MVPhe absolutely smallest, least costly offer that can be launched into the environment ormarket which generates the fundamental value exchange mechanisms within the corebusiness model.
  29. 29. Refine Even with a well-designed product, service or offer, there is no guarantee that it is feasible and can be delivered sustainably (financial, social and environmental) over time. This isProcess Stage where we must refine different value propositions with their underlying operating, business and delivery models within the reality of our collective core competencies and restrictions. By having all these complex interactions simplified onto one canvas we can ensure that we take into consideration all the elements that must interact for successful outcomes.Tools Visual Business Model Innovation & The Impact Model Canvas The ‘business model canvas’ (Cf. Osterwalder et. al.) allows individuals and teams to rapidly experiment with and design different business models for their projects, to spotRole inconsistencies and weaknesses, and to move towards real-world implementation with an understanding of feasibility, costs and barriers The standard business model ‘canvas’ is not geared towards the peculiar needs of disruptive innovation nor the complexity of delivery, impact and organisation models necessary for social innovation at scale. More importantly, it does not easily encompassImprovements some of the other forms of return and cost associated with a quadruple bottom line - people, planet and play (as well as profit). By iterating the canvas considerably we can allow for teams to work together in real-time to trade-off and balance costs, impacts, revenues, organisational structures, brand and fundraising strategies and more.
  30. 30. Engage As all ambitious social innovations necessitate that we engage people to change established behaviours (and that includes funding them) engagement is key (and oftenProcess Stage forgotten). Both in democracies and collaborative projects we cannot tell people to do things. We have to enroll them to do things. We have to engage them to change, fund or support us. Here the skills of influencing, storytelling and persuasion are vital. Storytelling & InfluencingTools One of the most powerful ways to engage people - whether the ‘crowd’ in innovation, partners in implementation, or end-beneficiaries in actual usage - is through story. A well engineered story, told with authenticity and panache, can capture the hearts and minds of all, tapping into creativity and energy more than any other form of communication. In fact, neuroscience research has shown that without emotional engagement human beingsRole cannot even make supposedly ‘logical’ decisions very well. In addition, most radical innovations rely on the creation of new behaviors in place of the old (e.g. women playing video games with their boyfriends). Behavior change usually demands that a new cultural ‘story’ had become mainstream. This ability to break old patterns and create new ones relies on the engagement of the user in an emerging narrative of what is possible, beneficial and credible. This helps the innovator ‘get over the chasm’ that exists between early adopters and the early mainstream (cf. Moore). Marketing and the brand strategy that lies at the heart of it is a form of storytelling what enables perception change that leads to behavior - and eventually therefore social - change. Finally, an increasingly useful form of research into user needs, behaviors and attitudes is narrative-based. Users are invited to share stories, and within this data, themes and commonalities (as well as differences) can be pulled together and shared needs - rational, emotional and symbolic - as well as key implementation success factors, can be drawn out from these ‘stories’. Persuasion psychology is often employed for unethical goals - selling people products, brands and ideas that are not geared towards individual and collective flourishing. We believe that persuasion works optimally when aligned profoundly and openly to intentions. This honors others by allowing them to choose whether to be engaged or not at the level of values. And it ensures that the right people collaborate with all their potential on projects Improvements with a common purpose. The quality of innovation stories can often rely on the talents of the
  31. 31. with a common purpose. The quality of innovation stories can often rely on the talents of theteller. Even with the most gifted storyteller, sharing simply and effectively the power andimpact of a breakthrough and disruptive innovation is a tough challenge precisely becausethe listener has to enact a cognitive leap to ‘get’ the idea. If the ideas was easily graspable,as stated above, it would have been done already. We have researched the mostsuccessful Hollywood scriptwriting techniques and forms, combined it with the art andscience of creative brief writing from the marketing world (where a team of strategists cantake 6 months to write a 1 page brief explaining the new strategy so the best creative workcan come from it) to put together an innovation story engine that enables everyone tocreate, craft and tell a powerful story. The engine is so powerful that it can acts as both theinnovation process, and the story, at the same time.
  32. 32. From Process to Pitch: Telling Breakthrough Innovation & Impact StoriesWhether you want to motivate your executives, organize your shareholders, shape yourmedia, engage your customers, win over investors, or land a job, you have to deliver a clarioncall that will get your listeners attention, emotionalize your goal as theirs, and move them toact in your favor. You have to reach their hearts as well as their minds-and this is just whatstory telling does!Peter GuberIf you’re going to have a story, have a big story, or none at all.Joseph CampbellSo our team set out on the quest to find the transformative, the disruptive and the radical withan open mind and an open heart - as well as what C. Otto Scharmer calls an open will. Weengaged in a process designed to support us and keep us at peak performance as we explored theambiguities, uncertainties and dangers of the known unknown and the unknown unknown. Nowwe are back from the heros’ and heroines’ journey together having discovered somethinggenuinely new and transformative - and we are keen to switch on others to what is possible. It isvital that we do - whether in pitch, strategic document, social media campaign, fundraisingdocument, business plan or above the line advertising campaign - because otherwise our ideacan never move towards the vital moment went it changes people’s real beliefs and behaviors.It appears, from much current social science and change research, as well as contemporarythinking in leadership and media studies, that only way we succeed in converting others to ourcause is to tell them a cracking ‘story’, no matter how logical we or they think they are. Below isour ‘Story Engine’ which engages people in a story that is both inspiring and totallycomprehendible, without lessing the newness of the breakthrough. For teams using it, it takesthem on an elegant journey providing a powerful framework for a world-changing ‘innovationstory’ that can communicate ideas to funders, investors, donors and other vital stakeholders in a
  33. 33. way that creates and realizes a call to action. Thus the ambiguities and necessary messiness ofour journey on the knife-edge between glorious success and ignoble failure can be transformedinto a well-structured narrative that creates logic where there was confusion; and brings thechaos into some form of order, at least for the purposes of clarity and communication. For it iswhen we compassionately and responsibly apply the power of humankind’s creative will to theabundant messiness of nature that our unique brilliance as a species shines forth through ourinnovations.
  34. 34. From Talk to Trouser: Emergent ExecutionPlans are nothing. Planning is everything.Dwight D. EisenhowerVision without action is a daydream. Action without vision is a nightmare.Chinese ProverbAlthough all the tools, ideas and processes in this paper can be of fundamental value indeveloping radical innovations with a positive social and environmental impact, all the proof isalways in the pudding. That is to say that many of us have wonderful ideas and strategicintentions, but until we actually execute them, their impact remains latent. Execution is alwayskey, for one organization or team can implement an idea brilliantly, to great success; whilstanother team can execute that same idea and it can fail.From this observation we can see that a) pointing out previous failures suffered by competitorsas a reason for not progressing an innovation has very little validity, unless learnings from theproject or case-study are digested and strategies adjusted accordingly. If Apple had looked at itsown history and convinced itself that PDAs ‘don’t work’ because they had failed to realize themarket opportunity of the Apple Newton, it is likely that the iPod, iPhone and iPad would neverhave been invented, and Apple would not have become (albeit it briefly), the most valuablecompany in the planet. It also reinforces the principle that b) organizational culture andcollective team character are all important when it comes to innovation as they are whatdetermines the quality of execution.As we have seen from the Cynefin model, many of the contexts into which our innovations andprograms will be launched are not simple (or even just complicated). They are complex andchaotic. For many years management theory has assumed that implementation strategy islinear, and this influenced much practice. Decide on goals and outcomes, develop the strategy,
  35. 35. and then execute it to the letter. This technique, advocated in management consultancies (andinvented so successfully in pitched battles between static armies), has more relevance inenvironments that are stable, or when developing incremental innovations that need no newbehaviors or thought patterns in the marketplace or social space. However, changing how realpeople think and act in transforming environments with multiple feedback mechanisms (asalmost all societies are nowadays) is a complex process and none of us have the kind ofomniscience that would ensure that a single chosen execution strategy would be successful.People and the social structures they live within are alive. They shift, change and meld as timegoes on. They react to new ideas and activities in unusual and unpredictable ways. Ascomplexity theory (and the Cynefin model) tell us, small changes in the initial conditions of theproject can create enormous changes later on down the line even if all processes are standard.And as transformative projects are by necessity complex, we must be attuned to small changesin the space that require us to change our strategy and adjust our activities to fit.For many people schooled in traditional management processes and the assumption of linearityso entrenched in the modern world view, this kind of ‘emergent execution’ can be bewildering,exhausting and stressful - as absolute control must necessarily be relaxed at points in theprocess. Some people are so used to clear goals with clear pathways to achieve them that thekind of responsive, reflective and often intuitive decision-making that is demanded on thejourney of radical innovation often challenges people to their core. This is one reason why wesee so little radical social innovation - it takes courage and conviction as well as humility andpatience. By setting expectations extremely early within the team - and by sharing the, nayrequired - this can be mitigated. But above all, encouraging individual mindfulness, peercoaching on blind spots and group think, and responsive co-creation we can build, ongoingly, aculture of tolerance of ambiguity. By encouraging execution to be emergent - i.e.. it emerges overtime as ideas are prototyped and tested - we can build the capacity for team members to engagein breakthrough innovation processes (and guide others through them) in future. This is the wayto build a true innovation culture for ever-increasing creative power as the future unfolds.
  36. 36. Mindset & CultureEmployers told us that someone with a winning mindset was, on average, seven times morevaluable than a normal employee.James Reed, Reed EmploymentRecent academic research across hundreds of companies and many many countries has nowconcluded that no matter how fine the tools, how sophisticated the process, how brilliant theminds - if the team does not have a culture and therefore a set of embedded mindsets thatnurture disruptive innovation, it is very unlikely to occur. Mindset conquers all, as leadingemployment experts are now realizing (cf. 3G Mindsets by James Reed Chairman of ReedEmployment). It is because mindsets, and the culture that cultivates and nurtures them, arewhat separates teams that can deal with risk, ambiguity and the need for constant action-learning and emergent execution; from those that want all the answers quickly, cannot toleratethe unknowns (nor the people that illuminate them through challenging questions) and executein a linear way without the agility and flexibility needed to constantly course-correct as the pathbecomes clearer.The importance of this cannot be over-stated. Just as a butterfly’s wings in Nova Scotia cancreate a Tsunami in New Guinea, so the initial conditions of any innovation project - of whichculture and mindset are so crucial - can determine the eventual success of failure of it irrelevantof how much money is thrown at it. We need only look at the Iraq War to see how the initialculture and mindset of the team foreshadowed the end results with the largest budget for radicalsocial innovation in history. You can read more on this topic in a companion paper, Designingfor Co-Creation.
  37. 37. Learning Through Doing, Doing Through LearningInnovation must involve failure, and the appetite for failure is bound to be limited in veryaccountable organizations or where peoples’ lives depend on reliability.Geoff MulganI have not failed. Ive just found 10,000 ways that wont work.Thomas A. EdisonBreakthrough innovation is synonymous with learning.Firstly we must learn how to do breakthrough social innovation - conceive of, iterate andimplement a breakthrough - by learning what does and what does not work in real-time. As wehave noted (and the Cynefin model makes clear) there are no clear precedents or categoricalbest-practices for co-creating a radical reinvention of the space or market you are intent ontransforming. We must learn as we go - harnessing our mistakes and errors live and direct; andcontinuously course correcting until our impact bears some resemblance to our originalintentions. We can loosely call this Action Research.Secondly, as we engage in this kind of endeavor it pays us to learn intently as we go - not justabout how social change happens; about what users and beneficiaries think and feel like in thecultures we are working in; and how to organize a team so that its collective creativity is groupand group flow achieved - but about who we are; what we are really capable of; and how andwhen our inner landscape and personal dynamics generate the best conditions for breakthroughinnovation (or not). We can loosely call this Action Learning.The two flow together, of course. We act in the world and we learn what works from the peoplewe intervened for. As we do we develop what we call Innovation Intuition - the capacity to intuit
  38. 38. what is likely to be a successful intervention and what is not. As we reflect on our own enablingand limiting role in our real-world interventions, we start to glimpse where we can let go ofbeliefs and patterns that are inhibiting our change-maker potential; and where we can build onemerging talents - many of which may have been hidden for decades - as we strive to become amore and more effective, compassionate and powerful innovator for the collective good.Developing a Community of Practice, Innovation Circles and Leadership Circles are all valuablein this dynamic learning through doing, doing through learning process.
  39. 39. Innovation Templates Affording Collective Creativity & TeamEmpowermentIf you want me to speak for an hour – give me a moment’s notice; if you want me to speak forhalf an hour, give me a day’s notice; if you want me to speak for five minutes – give me aweek.Winston ChurchillWe prioritize the use of Innovation Templates. These are painstakingly designed, tested anditerated ‘pro-formas’ that codify expert innovation knowledge and intuitive innovationexperience into deceptively simple templates. These templates take us years to develop for wehave to crystallize the essence of strategic innovation into a series of questions; and wecustomize them to fit every specific process and organizational culture.Such templates ‘democratize’ the most rarified expertise. They allow the core team - not just theconsultants - to engage as equals in all parts of the process, and build the capacity for the teamto harness the templates and years of experience in future.They are vital resources for truly collaborative and open innovation processes as they allowbeneficiaries, experts, invited stakeholders and more to work together on ideas in real-time -and then share them with the team for iteration and augmentation by the collective creative andanalytical potential of the team.
  40. 40. Inspirations, Further Reading & ReferencesDuncan Green. From Poverty to Power.Geoffrey Moore. Crossing the Chasm.Henry Chesborough. Open Innovation & Open Services Innovation.W. Chan Kim and Renee Mauborgne. Blue Ocean Strategy.Alex Osterwalder et. al., Business Model Generation. Clayton M. Christensen, Curtis W. Johnsonand Michael B. Horn . Disrupting Class: How Disruptive Innovation Will Change the Way theWorld Learns.Christensen, C.M. (1997) The Innovator’s Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firmsto Fail, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, Massachusetts.Hasso Plattner, Christoph Meinel & Ulrich Weinberg. Design Thinking.Learning Organizations: Kessels & SmitPut Your Mindset to Work: The One Asset You Really Need to Win and Keep the Job You Love.James Reed & Paul Stoltz.Henderson, R. and Clark, K. (1990) ‘Architectural innovation: the reconfiguration of existingproduct technologies and the failure of established firms’, Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol.35, pp.9–30.Lettice, F. & Parekh, M. 2010. The social innovation process: themes, challenges andimplications for practice. International Journal of Technology Management, 51, 139-158.Christensen, C.M. and Overdorf, M. (2000) ‘Meeting the challenge of disruptive change’,Harvard Business Review, Vol. 78, Issue 2, pp.67–76.Christensen, C.M, Baumann, H., Ruggles, R. and Sadtler, T.M. (2006) ‘Disruptive innovation forsocial change’, Harvard Business Review (HBR Spotlight), December, pp.2–8.Moore, G. (2002) Crossing the Chasm: Marketing and Selling Disruptive Products toMainstream Business Customers, HarperCollins Publishers.
  41. 41. Mulgan, G., Ali, R., Halkett, R. and Sanders, B. (2007a) In and Out of Sync: the Challenge ofGrowing Social Innovations, NESTA Research Report, September.Prahalad, C.K. (2005) The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Wharton School Publishing,Upper Saddle, NJ.Mulgan, G., Tucker, S., Ali, R. and Sanders, B. (2007b) ‘Social innovation: what it is, why itmatters and how it can be accelerated’, Skoll Centre for Social Entrepreneurship, Said BusinessSchool, Oxford University, The Young FoundationSteven Johnson, The Orgins of Good Ideas. WSJ.Melanie Mitchell. Complexity: A Guided Tour.Stuart Kauffman. At Home in the Universe. The Orgins of Order. Reinventing the Sacred.Peter Senge. The 5th Discipline.Gibson, J. J. (1977). The theory of affordances. In R. E. Shaw & J. Bransford (Eds.), Perceiving,Acting, and Knowing. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Gibson, J. J. (1979). The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Norman, D. A. (1988). The psychology of everyday things. New York: Basic Books.Norman, D. A. (1990). The design of everyday things. New York: Doubleday.Lane, D.; Pumain, D.; Leeuw, S.E. van der; West, G. (Eds.) Complexity Perspectives ininnovation and social change (2009)A. Damasio, Descartes’ ErrorWilliam Easterly, The White Man’s Burden: Why the West’s Efforts to Aid the Rest Have DoneSo Much Ill and So Little Good (New York: Penguin Press, 2006)Dambisa Moyo, Dead Aid (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2008)Peter Guber, Tell to WinBrooks, Story Engineering.Joseph Cambell, The Hero with a Thousand Faces etc.Christopher Vogler, The Writer’s JourneyDominic Chalmers. Why Social Innovators Should Embrace the ‘Open’ Paradigm
  42. 42. Pascale & Sternin, The Power of Positive DevianceSohail Inayatullah, ed., The Causal Layered Analysis Reader: theory and case studies of anintegrative and transformative methodology. Tamsui, Tamkang University, 2004.David Bohm, On DialogueGlen L. Urban; Eric von Hippel. Lead User Analyses for the Development of New IndustrialProductsMoore, M. & Westley, F. 2011. Surmountable Chasms: Networks and Social Innovation forResilient Systems. Jim Woodhill, Capacities for Institutional Innovation: A ComplexityPerspective Ecology and Society, 16(1).C. F. Kurtz and D. J. Snowden. The new dynamics of strategy: Sense-making in a complex andcomplicated world etc.Nick Jankel, Designing for Co-CreationNick Jankel et al. Radical Reinvention: Cultivating Breakthrough Social InnovationJankel-Elliott, Elliott, Using ethnography in strategic consumer research, Qualitative MarketResearch: An International JournalTellis, G.J., Prabhu, J.C. and Chandy, R.K. (2009) "Radical innovation across nations: thepreeminence of corporate culture." Journal of Marketing, 73(1): 3-23Harvard Business Review on InnovationC. Otto Scharmer, 2010. The Blind Spot of Institutional Leadership: How To Create DeepInnovation Through Moving from Egosystem to Ecosystem Awareness. Seven AcupuncturePoints for Shifting Capitalism to Create a Regenerative Ecosystem Economy.