Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
British And American Parties:  How Structures Have Influenced The Development Of Online Electoral Campaigning  Nick Anstea...
Political Institutions And Online Campaigning <ul><li>The Research Problem A broad overview of the issues my thesis is see...
The Research Problem <ul><li>What’s to be explained? The massive discrepancy in the impact the Internet has had on British...
American Online Success Stories <ul><li>Jesse Ventura   Minnesota Gubernational Contest, 1998 (Greer & LaPointe, 2004). </...
American Online Success Stories <ul><li>John Kerry Democratic Presidential Candidate, 2004 (Dwyer et al, 2004).  </li></ul...
The Real Internet Success Story <ul><li>Has become central to American elections, and is of interest to candidates, campai...
The UK: Little Impact <ul><li>2001 General Election “Technology in search of a real purpose” (Coleman and Hall, 2001). </l...
The UK: Little Impact <ul><li>Generally a sense that the Internet has not had a huge impact or lived up to the hype: “I us...
Avenues Of Investigation <ul><li>The Party Environment Focusing on the differences between British and American political ...
The Party Institution <ul><li>The party as an organisation or structure. </li></ul><ul><li>How the electorate relate to a ...
Theoretical Conceptions <ul><li>Duverger (1954) Argues for the idea of the cadre and mass parties, and claims that the lat...
British Parties:  Characteristics And The Internet <ul><li>Formal due paying membership attached to local branches. </li><...
American Parties:  Characteristics And The Internet <ul><li>No formal membership or internal democratic structures. </li><...
Two Models Of Internal Party Democracy <ul><li>Platform Focused Model Of Internal Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Developed in...
Two Models Of Internal Party Democracy <ul><li>Candidate Focused Model Of Internal Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Used by Ame...
Party Structure And The Development Of Online Campaigning: The US And UK In Comparative Perspective Nick Anstead Departmen...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Party Structure and the Development Of Online Campaigning: The US and UK in Comparative Perspective

1,759 views

Published on

Presentation given to a departmental seminar, November, 2006.

Published in: Technology, News & Politics
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Party Structure and the Development Of Online Campaigning: The US and UK in Comparative Perspective

  1. 1. British And American Parties: How Structures Have Influenced The Development Of Online Electoral Campaigning Nick Anstead Email: n.m.anstead@rhul.ac.uk Weblog: http://www.nickanstead.com/blog.html
  2. 2. Political Institutions And Online Campaigning <ul><li>The Research Problem A broad overview of the issues my thesis is seeking to address. </li></ul><ul><li>British And American Political Parties Characteristics of the US and UK parties, and how they may have impacted upon Internet adoption. </li></ul><ul><li>A Potential Argument How the Internet is impacting upon different models of internal party democracy in the US. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Research Problem <ul><li>What’s to be explained? The massive discrepancy in the impact the Internet has had on British and American electoral politics. </li></ul><ul><li>How might this be explained? How and to what extent have the differences between existing political institutions in the two countries impacted on the adoption of the Internet by political actors. </li></ul>
  4. 4. American Online Success Stories <ul><li>Jesse Ventura Minnesota Gubernational Contest, 1998 (Greer & LaPointe, 2004). </li></ul><ul><li>John McCain GOP Presidential Nomination Contest, 2000 (Klotz, 2004). </li></ul><ul><li>Howard Dean Democratic Presidential Nomination Contest, 2004 (Dodson & Hammersley, 2003; Hickey, 2004; Trippi, 2004; Wolf, 2004). </li></ul>
  5. 5. American Online Success Stories <ul><li>John Kerry Democratic Presidential Candidate, 2004 (Dwyer et al, 2004). </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Hackett Ohio Second Congressional District Special Election, 2005 (Stein, 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>Ned Lamont Connecticut Democratic Senatorial Nomination Contest, 2006 (Bacon, 2006). </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Real Internet Success Story <ul><li>Has become central to American elections, and is of interest to candidates, campaigners, journalists and academics. </li></ul><ul><li>Creates political networks. </li></ul><ul><li>Very effective fund raising tool. </li></ul><ul><li>Has become integrated into political campaigning. </li></ul><ul><li>On occasions, it is able to subvert established political order and hierarchy. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The UK: Little Impact <ul><li>2001 General Election “Technology in search of a real purpose” (Coleman and Hall, 2001). </li></ul><ul><li>2004 Hartlepool Byelection “Everyone we met was either drunk, flanked by an angry dog or undressed” (Dunn, cited in Aitkenhead, 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>2005 General Election “A marginal battleground for the parties and of interest to a minority of the UK public” (Ward, 2005). </li></ul>
  8. 8. The UK: Little Impact <ul><li>Generally a sense that the Internet has not had a huge impact or lived up to the hype: “I used to look at colleagues, their heads buried in their computer screens, fingers flicking from one site to the next, and I used to worry they were substituting activity for work” (Campbell, 2006). </li></ul>
  9. 9. Avenues Of Investigation <ul><li>The Party Environment Focusing on the differences between British and American political parties. </li></ul><ul><li>The Constitutional Environment Focusing on the nature of the electoral contest. </li></ul><ul><li>The Legal Environment Dealing with specific electoral and political legislation that impacts on the way the Internet is used in electoral politics. Will also include political finance regulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Political Culture And Narratives Examining the role of established cultural patterns and the role they play in political life. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Party Institution <ul><li>The party as an organisation or structure. </li></ul><ul><li>How the electorate relate to a party. </li></ul><ul><li>The party system. </li></ul><ul><li>The party as constituted by law i.e. the party in government, the “party” primary. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Theoretical Conceptions <ul><li>Duverger (1954) Argues for the idea of the cadre and mass parties, and claims that the latter will supersede the former when they compete in the same political system. </li></ul><ul><li>Kirchheimer (1966) Claims that the mass party has been superseded by the catch-all party. </li></ul><ul><li>Epstein (1967) Argues that the American party model will be more robust at coping with change than mass party model. </li></ul>
  12. 12. British Parties: Characteristics And The Internet <ul><li>Formal due paying membership attached to local branches. </li></ul><ul><li>Membership have “say” in policies through formal structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Single figure as leader. </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively strong central structure (“control freakery”). </li></ul>
  13. 13. American Parties: Characteristics And The Internet <ul><li>No formal membership or internal democratic structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively weak central organisation. </li></ul><ul><li>No single leadership figure. </li></ul><ul><li>Held to together by candidate focus. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Two Models Of Internal Party Democracy <ul><li>Platform Focused Model Of Internal Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Developed in Europe, and used by parties such as the German SPD and British Labour Party. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems With The Platform Focused Model </li></ul><ul><li>Historically it has been argued that even democratic structures will be dominated by an elite (Michel, 1911). </li></ul><ul><li>Top down problems; party leadership ignores members wishes. </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom up problems; declining membership who are unrepresentative of the electorate. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Two Models Of Internal Party Democracy <ul><li>Candidate Focused Model Of Internal Democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Used by American parties, and manifested through the primary system. </li></ul><ul><li>Not only can party supporters endorse the candidate who most closely matches their policy preferences, but in so doing they demonstrate their political views, forcing other candidates to move across the political spectrum. This amounts to a political market place (Downs, 1961; Campbell et al, 1960). </li></ul><ul><li>Any market requires information to be transferred between the participants. In this case, the Internet facilitates this. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Party Structure And The Development Of Online Campaigning: The US And UK In Comparative Perspective Nick Anstead Department of Politics And International Relations Royal Holloway College University of London Email: n.m.anstead@rhul.ac.uk Weblog: http://www.nickanstead.com/blog.html

×