APA Style, Writing and You       A.P.A. DOESN’T MEAN“AGGRAVATING PAPER APPLICATIONS”Presenter: Nichole Hertel, M.Ed.Doctor...
Tonight’s Agenda Jokes Some Questions about APA What is APA Style? Define “education” Helpful Advice to Survive Writi...
Jokes – In Honor of Halloween What is a Mummys favorite type of music?   Wrap!!!!! Why do demons and ghouls hang out to...
About Me 3rd year doctoral student – C&I   graduate in summer (hopefully!) Bachelor of Journalism (UH ) Master in Educ...
So, Why Am I here?
And Because…
Before We Begin, Let’s Answer          Some Questions about APA… What is APA? Why is it so important? What does it do a...
What is the APA? APA = The American Psychological Association     a professional organization representing psychologists...
APA Organization Mission Statement To advance psychology:   as a science and profession and   as a means of promoting h...
What is APA Style? A widely accepted style of documentation particularly in the social sciences area Specifies multiple ...
What is APA Style? Cont.   And it uses Harvard referencing keyed to a subsequent list of    References       Harvard ref...
Why is APA Style So Important? For You…   Can make organizing your paper MUCH easier For Your Reader…   Can make your ...
What Does it Do & Do I Benefit From It? -YES! If you wish to publish in a psychological or educational journal, then this...
Why Do We Use It In the Education Field? Education is found under the social sciences umbrella    The social sciences ar...
What is “Education” Anyway? Education encompasses teaching others (outward) and learning specific skills (inward) It is ...
What is “Education” Anyway? Cont. “To educate” = to draw out   From the Latin “educare”          to facilitate the real...
Why, again, is APA Style Used? Main reason: To give writers a standard format to follow when preparing their manuscripts ...
A Few Helpful Resources in Your Journey…   Let’s take a look       together
Now It’s Your Turn You will need these things for the next part:   Something to write with   This handout   The second...
INHALE DEEPLY      AND  LET’S BEGIN
General Formatting for Education Papers First, the words “papers,” “proposal,” “candidacy paper,” “dissertation,” and “ar...
The Real Dissertations Thumb through the dissertation in front of you What do you see?
How Are the Papers Set Up? Cover Page Table of Contents Abstract Body of Paper     Chapters     Headings     Sectio...
Body Chapters Briefly 5 main dissertation chapters:   The introductory part   The literature review   The methodology ...
Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION Presents the main problems which will be discussed in your dissertation Important to demonstrate...
Chapter 2: LITERARY REVIEW Main points which were presented in other researches  on this topic Qualitative studies "talk...
Chapter 3: METHOLOGY Describes the methods and investigation Try to prove your ideas by different references Present yo...
Chapter 4: RESULTS Sum up all of your research Show that all the necessary questions have been answered Be crystal clea...
Chapter 5: DISCUSSION Compare your results with the results made by others Demonstrate your knowledge and skills in theo...
Chapter 6: REFLECTION Optional Chapter   but push in Education now is on the self-reflective    practitioner I call it ...
Last Words on Dissertation Chapters Very important to create a logical connection   often happens slowly The more inter...
APA Within Your Paper Covers mainly Chapters 2-5 Specific Parts Are:   Sections and Subsections   Headings   Tables a...
Sections and Subsections Typically include the following 7 sections     Title Page     Abstract     Body     Referenc...
Headings Aid in establishing the hierarchy of the sections of a paper to help orient the reader Topics within a paper th...
Levels of Headings Consists of five possible formatting arrangements, each according to the levels of subordination. The ...
Tables and Figures “table” = data that is entered in columns and rows “figure” = all other kinds of illustration or  rep...
Tables and Figures Cont. In the paper body, center table/figure and label all information   Describe table (pretend the ...
Hints About Tables and Figures Figures    should not have tick marks for the measures    should have titles for the x a...
Citations Reference citations in text are done using parenthetical referencing    Involves enclosing the authors surname...
Citation Examples Example 1 –   Pauling (2005) writes that “after a successful experiment, I    discovered a possible ge...
Direct vs. Indirect Quotes Direct Quotation = exactly what the author wrote Indirect Quotation = a paraphrasing of what ...
Direct vs. Indirect Quote Examples Example #1 –   When asked why his behavior had changed so dramatically,    Max simply...
Statistical Expressions in APA There are certain ways to do this as well Don’t be concerned about it yet If needed, ask...
References Full bibliographic information Found at the end of the paper Can only include articles that are cited within...
Types of References Print sources Electronic sources
Handout #4 – The Complete Sample Paper Use this paper as a future reference
What Questions  Can I HelpAnswer for You?
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APA Style, Writing And You

  1. 1. APA Style, Writing and You A.P.A. DOESN’T MEAN“AGGRAVATING PAPER APPLICATIONS”Presenter: Nichole Hertel, M.Ed.Doctoral Resident and Teaching FellowUniversity of Houston
  2. 2. Tonight’s Agenda Jokes Some Questions about APA What is APA Style? Define “education” Helpful Advice to Survive Writing Brief Overview of the Dissertation Chapters APA Formatting of Your Paper Any Questions?
  3. 3. Jokes – In Honor of Halloween What is a Mummys favorite type of music?  Wrap!!!!! Why do demons and ghouls hang out together?  Because demons are a ghouls best friend! Whats a monsters favorite bean?  A human bean. Why cant the boy ghost have babies?  Because he has a Hallo-weenie.
  4. 4. About Me 3rd year doctoral student – C&I  graduate in summer (hopefully!) Bachelor of Journalism (UH ) Master in Education, Secondary Instruction (HBU) Taught secondary and elementary grades Currently teach Class Mgmt to pre-service teachers at Sugar Land and Main campuses Mom of two
  5. 5. So, Why Am I here?
  6. 6. And Because…
  7. 7. Before We Begin, Let’s Answer Some Questions about APA… What is APA? Why is it so important? What does it do and do I benefit from it? Why do we use it in the field of education?
  8. 8. What is the APA? APA = The American Psychological Association  a professional organization representing psychologists in the U.S.  around 150,000 members  an annual budget of around $70M Founded in July 1892 at Clark University by a group of 26 men  First president was G. Stanley Hall There are currently 54 divisions and it is affiliated with 60 state, territorial, and Canadian provincial associations (Note: Occasionally confused with the America Psychiatric Association)
  9. 9. APA Organization Mission Statement To advance psychology:  as a science and profession and  as a means of promoting health, education, and human welfare by the encouragement of psychology in all its branches in the broadest and most liberal manner;  by the promotion of research in psychology and the improvement of research methods and conditions;  by the improvement of the qualifications and usefulness of psychologists through high standards of ethics, conduct, education, and achievement;  by the establishment and maintenance of the highest standards of professional ethics and conduct of the members of the Association;  by the increase and diffusion of psychological knowledge through meetings, professional contacts, reports, papers, discussions, and publications;  thereby to advance scientific interests and inquiry, and the application of research findings to the promotion of health, education, and the public welfare
  10. 10. What is APA Style? A widely accepted style of documentation particularly in the social sciences area Specifies multiple items within your paper:  the names and order of headings  paragraph formatting  organization of citations and references,  arrangement of tables, figures and appendices
  11. 11. What is APA Style? Cont. And it uses Harvard referencing keyed to a subsequent list of References  Harvard referencing is also referred to as the author-date system of citations and parenthetical referencing The APA Publication Manual provides basic guidelines for documenting both print and electronic resources.
  12. 12. Why is APA Style So Important? For You…  Can make organizing your paper MUCH easier For Your Reader…  Can make your paper easier to read for your intended audience
  13. 13. What Does it Do & Do I Benefit From It? -YES! If you wish to publish in a psychological or educational journal, then this is the style you will need to follow It allows for protection in your writing through the use of references  Protects sources/authors you are quoting from being plagiarized  Protects you, the writer, from accusations of plagiarism
  14. 14. Why Do We Use It In the Education Field? Education is found under the social sciences umbrella  The social sciences are comprise academic disciplines concerned with the study of the social life of human groups and individuals  A few examples: Anthropology, communications studies, criminology, economics, geography, history, political science, psychology, social studies and sociology
  15. 15. What is “Education” Anyway? Education encompasses teaching others (outward) and learning specific skills (inward) It is the imparting of knowledge, positive judgment and well-developed wisdom from the inward self to and outward source
  16. 16. What is “Education” Anyway? Cont. “To educate” = to draw out  From the Latin “educare”  to facilitate the realization of an individuals potential and talents. It is an application of pedagogy  a body of theoretical and applied research relating to teaching and learning  specifically draws on disciplines such as psychology, philosophy, computer science, linguistics, neuroscience, sociology and anthropology
  17. 17. Why, again, is APA Style Used? Main reason: To give writers a standard format to follow when preparing their manuscripts for publication  Makes the editorial process go smoother  Provides editors with benchmarks against which to measure the quality of writing  Rules make converting writte work into published pages a more consistent process
  18. 18. A Few Helpful Resources in Your Journey… Let’s take a look together
  19. 19. Now It’s Your Turn You will need these things for the next part:  Something to write with  This handout  The second handout titled “Sample APA Style Used in A Candidacy Paper”  The third titled “Levels of Heading”  The fourth titled APA Sample Paper  The dissertation in front of you (to share)  Your brains
  20. 20. INHALE DEEPLY AND LET’S BEGIN
  21. 21. General Formatting for Education Papers First, the words “papers,” “proposal,” “candidacy paper,” “dissertation,” and “article” are going to mean the same thing in terms of this discussion
  22. 22. The Real Dissertations Thumb through the dissertation in front of you What do you see?
  23. 23. How Are the Papers Set Up? Cover Page Table of Contents Abstract Body of Paper  Chapters  Headings  Sections and Subsections  Tables and Figures  Citations References Appendices Tables Figures
  24. 24. Body Chapters Briefly 5 main dissertation chapters:  The introductory part  The literature review  The methodology  The results  The discussion All dissertation chapters have their specific characteristics
  25. 25. Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION Presents the main problems which will be discussed in your dissertation Important to demonstrate that your work is significant Ending of this chapter is a statement of your research question Think: How you came to this topic
  26. 26. Chapter 2: LITERARY REVIEW Main points which were presented in other researches on this topic Qualitative studies "talk to" the literature  can be integrated throughout the paper, with advisors approval Quantitive studies present the literature Relatively small compared to the rest of the chapters  4-5 concepts/key terms presented (develop completely) Think: History of my topic
  27. 27. Chapter 3: METHOLOGY Describes the methods and investigation Try to prove your ideas by different references Present your own ideas and viewpoints  include strong rationales Will lead-in to your conclusion in the next chapter  AKA persuasive argument paper Think: Turn your reader into an agreer
  28. 28. Chapter 4: RESULTS Sum up all of your research Show that all the necessary questions have been answered Be crystal clear and laconic Series of chapters/subchapters divided by logical and natural layout of the inquiry Think: Scientific Method Syntax (not actual scientific method used)
  29. 29. Chapter 5: DISCUSSION Compare your results with the results made by others Demonstrate your knowledge and skills in theory and practice End with the new knowledge you are bringing to the field (leads to Chapter 6) Think: The reason I should get an "A" on this assignment is because…
  30. 30. Chapter 6: REFLECTION Optional Chapter  but push in Education now is on the self-reflective practitioner I call it the “I.E.S.” Chapter Think: What impact did my learning have directly on me?
  31. 31. Last Words on Dissertation Chapters Very important to create a logical connection  often happens slowly The more interesting your info is presented, the more captivated your reader becomes in your paper  Good for us because advisor/editors will read to enjoy and learn rather than to critique 
  32. 32. APA Within Your Paper Covers mainly Chapters 2-5 Specific Parts Are:  Sections and Subsections  Headings  Tables and Figures  Citations  References
  33. 33. Sections and Subsections Typically include the following 7 sections  Title Page  Abstract  Body  References  Tables (new page for each table)  Figure captions  Figures (new page for each figure) Also, avoid having one sub-section heading in a paper. Let’s look at Handout #2
  34. 34. Headings Aid in establishing the hierarchy of the sections of a paper to help orient the reader Topics within a paper that have equal importance will have the same level of headings throughout the paper Can also function as an outline to reveal the papers organization
  35. 35. Levels of Headings Consists of five possible formatting arrangements, each according to the levels of subordination. The headings are numbered Level 1, Level 2, and so forth to Level 5  Level 1: Centered, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Headings  Level 2: Left-aligned, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading  Level 3: Indented, boldface, lowercase heading with period.  Level 4: Indented, boldface, italicized, lowercase heading with period.  Level 5: Indented, italicized, lowercase heading with period Let’s Look at Handout 3
  36. 36. Tables and Figures “table” = data that is entered in columns and rows “figure” = all other kinds of illustration or representation of data Integrated throughout the paper where needed AND attached at the end of the document Data should not be just left as a narrative  Put into SOME kind of graphic or chart form -- either as a table or as a figure (such as a bar graph or a pie chart)
  37. 37. Tables and Figures Cont. In the paper body, center table/figure and label all information  Describe table (pretend the table is not there and your are telling the reader about it) At the end of the document after Appendices, one table/ figure per page What you should use depends on what facts you are trying to display  Think: What is the most informative way to display the information?
  38. 38. Hints About Tables and Figures Figures  should not have tick marks for the measures  should have titles for the x and y axis  should not have outline around the graph  should not have minor lines on the chart  the legend should either not exist if the graph is simple or should be inside the chart  need to be on a figure captions page, with an explanation of the data represented  do not have page numbers, and should have penciled in, on the back the top and the figure caption that corresponds to it. Tables  do have page numbers  do not have vertical lines
  39. 39. Citations Reference citations in text are done using parenthetical referencing  Involves enclosing the authors surname and the date of publication within parentheses, separated by a comma, generally placed immediately after the reference or at the end of the sentence in which the reference is made.  Also common for the authors to be the subject or object of a sentence.  In the case of a quotation, the page number is also included in the citation.
  40. 40. Citation Examples Example 1 –  Pauling (2005) writes that “after a successful experiment, I discovered a possible genetic cause of alcoholism” (p. 123). Example 2 –  Pauling (2005) discovered a possible genetic cause of alcoholism. Example 3 -  A recent study found a possible genetic cause of alcoholism (Pauling, 2005).
  41. 41. Direct vs. Indirect Quotes Direct Quotation = exactly what the author wrote Indirect Quotation = a paraphrasing of what the author wrote The same rules apply, the format being (Author, Year, Page Number).
  42. 42. Direct vs. Indirect Quote Examples Example #1 –  When asked why his behavior had changed so dramatically, Max simply said he believed it was because of the reinforcement (Pauling, 2004, p. 69). Example #2 –  When asked why his behavior had changed so dramatically, Max simply said, "I think its the reinforcement" (Pauling, 2004, p. 69).
  43. 43. Statistical Expressions in APA There are certain ways to do this as well Don’t be concerned about it yet If needed, ask Dr. Ruban for assistance Take EDRS 8382
  44. 44. References Full bibliographic information Found at the end of the paper Can only include articles that are cited within the body of an paper  This is the distinction between a document having a Reference section and a bibliography, which may incorporate sources which may have been read by the authors as background, but not referred to or included in the body of a document
  45. 45. Types of References Print sources Electronic sources
  46. 46. Handout #4 – The Complete Sample Paper Use this paper as a future reference
  47. 47. What Questions Can I HelpAnswer for You?

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