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Energy and Environment

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Energy and Environment

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  2. 2. : WELCOME Hello Conference Attendee, On behalf of Purdue Student Pugwash, I would like to welcome you to the third annual Purdue Student Pugwash Midwest Regional Conference, "Energy and the Environment: Powering the Future Responsibly!" This annual conference is our signature event of the year and embodies our mission of informing and educating individuals in order to encourage social responsibility in science and technology. Over the next two days, we plan to excite and engage you with a broad overview of the state ofhuman energy consumption and its effects on our planet. We sincerely hope that you will enjoy the wide spectrum of experience and excel- lence presented by the conference speakers and that you will depart with a stronger appreciation of the subjects they cover. To this effect, your attendance indicates a real desire to understand better the complex energy issues that we as a species cur- rently face. Thank you very much for supporting this event and Purdue Student Pugwash; we hope you find it to be a rewarding experience! Kindly, Nick Lilovich President Purdue Student Pugwash I
  3. 3. When we can't tell you what you'll be d0 ing 4~(¥)rill.©r;}([@W because you've not come up with it yet. We believe that what we are doing today will help become the BP we want to be tomorrow. Our business is the exploration, production, refining, marketing, trading and distribution of energy; and we have nearly 100.000 people in 100 countries across six continents. In this age of growing consumer demand and environmental urgency, we are always looking to find new and better ways of delivering energy to the world - without compromising to planet. Take up one of our engineering , science, or business opportunities and you could be helping to find new reserves, create cleaner fuels, expand our capacity and market our brands to over 15 million customers every day. Look beyond the limits. BP is an equal opportunity employer. bp beyond petroleum bp.com/uscollegecareers
  4. 4. General Information - Conference Agenda ...........................................4 - Event Details ................................................ 6 - Sponsors ........................................................26 - Stewart Center Map ..................................... 38 Speaker Information - Featured Speaker ..................................................... I0 - Conference Speakers ............................................... I I - Purdue Pugwash Executives....................................... 23 Pugwash Information - Senior Pugwash........................................................ 18 - Russell-Einstein Manifesto........................................... 19 - Student Pugwash USA ..............................................21 - Purdue Student Pugwash ..........................................22 Additional Information _ Workshop Materials.................................................3 I - Notes pages......................................................... 33 - Survey ............................................................... 35
  5. 5. Friday, March 21, 2008 S:JOpm - 6:30pm 6:30pm - 7:30pm 7:30pm - 8:45pm PMU South Ballroom Reception & Check-in PMU South Ballroom Our Relationship with Energy: A Conference Introduction Alan H. McGowan Introduction: Christine Rovner PMU South Ballroom Barriers to a Sustainable Energy System Frank N. Laird, PhD Introduction: Peter Meckl, PhD Energy and the Environment: Powering the Future Responsibly
  6. 6. Saturday, March 22, 2008 8:00am - 9:00am 9:00am - I0: ISam StewartWest Foyer Conference Registration & Breakfast Fowler Hall The NRC in a Nuclear Renaissance Peter B. Lyons, PhD Introduction: Rusi Taleyarkhan, PhD I0:30am - I I:SOam Stewart Center Breakout Sessions • Humans and Global Warming STEW 310 Donald Wuebbles, PhD • Technologies of Hybrid Electric Vehicles: STEW 3 14 Chunting "Chris" Mi, PhD • Biofuels: STEW 3 18 Richard Meilan, PhD and Clint Chapple, PhD I2:00pm - I: ISpm Stewart 214 (ABCD) Villa Pizza Catered Lunch I:30pm - 2:20pm Stewart 310, 314, 318 Discussion Workshop 2:30pm - 3:4Spm 3:4Spm - 4: ISpm 4: ISpm - S:4Spm Fowler Hall Global Warming Solutions Edward Rubin, PhD Introduction: Peter Meckl, PhD StewartWest Foyer Refreshment Break Fowler Hall Panel Discussion: "The Future of Energy'' • Private v. Public Energy Policy Grant Smith • Nanoscience for Energy Conversion and Storage Michael Heben, PhD • Energy in the Midwest Mark Lutz
  7. 7. Friday March 22, 2008 Reception & Check-in 5:30pm - 6:30pm - Purdue Memorial Union South Ballroom Check-in and join us in meeting conference speakers, sponsors, Purdue Student Pugwash executives, and other conference attendees. Upon check-in, registrants will receive a nametag, conference t-shirt, materials and informa- tion. Refreshments will be provided at this time. Our Relationship with Energy: A Conference Introduction 6:30pm - 7:30pm - Purdue Memorial Union South Ballroom Alan H. McGowan Assistant Professor of Science, Technology, and Society: Eugene Lang College The New School for Liberal Arts Introduction by Christine Rovner Executive Director, Student Pugwash USA In a world where both climate change and poverty are global problems, ethical choices face us every day. We know that climate change will affect the poor much more than the well-off; it is an ethical imperative that the solutions we seek to ameliorate global climate change and is effects begin to reverse the growing income disparities around the world. The name Pugwash has stood for ethical considerations in scientific and technical development. This credo has never been more important than in the current era. Barriers to a Sustainable Energy System 7:30pm - 8:45pm - Purdue Memorial Union South Ballroom Frank Laird, PhD Associate Professor of Technology and Public Policy: University ofDenver Introduction by Peter Meckl, PhD Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering: Purdue University Advocates from across the political spectrum now call for a cleaner, more sustainable energy system, one based on renewable sources ofenergy. But achieving such a system faces important barriers. Some ofthose barriers are social and political, rooted partisan and cultural conflicts over the future of industrial society. Other barriers arise from the systemic nature of energy itself. Creating a new energy system is more than just developing new machines. It requires dealing with all the parts ofthe system, social, political, and economic, as well as technological. Policies to address these problems will need to range much more widely than R&D: in addition to improving technologies, policy makers must also improve markets, the workforce, and energy decision making in the wider society.
  8. 8. Saturday, March 22, 2008 Registration & Breakfast 8:00am - 9:00am - Stewart West Foyer Check-in and join us in meeting Purdue Student Pugwash executives, and other conference attendees. Upon check-in, registrants will receive a nametag, conference t-shirt, materials and information. Breakfast will also be available at this time. The NRC in a Nuclear Renaissance 9:00am - I 0: I Sam - Fowler Hall Peter Lyons PhD Commissioner, U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Introduction by Rusi Taleyarkhan, PhD Arden L. Bement Jr Professor of Nuclear Engineering: Purdue University The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) serves as an independent regulator with responsibilities to ensure that the commercial uses of nuclear materials in the United States are safely conducted. With these responsibilities comes the need to be a strong, credible and consistent regulator. There are currently many drivers for the industry to consider new nuclear power plants. NRC also has a responsibility for comprehensive and timely licensing reviews of new nuclear plant applications. In 1992, new regulations established the framework for new reactor licensing reviews, including early site permits, design certifications, and combined construction and operating licenses (COLs). Currently, NRC is preparing for 22 announced COL applications for a probable 33 units, and has begun reviewing the applications submitted in 2007. NRC will use a design-centered approach to facilitate review of multiple standardized combined license applications in parallel, based on the use of one issue, one review, one position for multiple applications, to optimize the review effort and the resources needed. Moreover, to prepare for the construction of new reactors, a new construction inspection program (CIP) is being developed to cover all aspects of new plant construction from early site preparation work, through construction, and the transition to the reactor oversight process (ROP) for operating reactors. The NRC is also working with international regulators on a multinational regulatory review program intended to leverage worldwide nuclear knowledge and operating experience in a cooperative effort to review reactor designs that have been or are being reviewed and approved in multiple countries. The challenges potentially faced by the NRC as these applications materialize, and our program for meeting those challenges, will be discussed. Breakout Sessions I O:JOam - I I:SOam - Stewart Center 3 I 0, 314, 3 18 STEW 3 I0 - Humans and Global Warming with Donald Wuebbles, PhD: Professor & Executive Coordinator in the School of Earth, Society, & Environment: University ofIllinois It's in the news, but many Americans remain unclear about what is happening to our climate, the "expected" weather and its variability, and the American public is still too unaware ofthe potential impacts ofthese changes on their lives and on future generations. Despite some claims in the media (not in the peer-reviewed science) of natural cycles explaining the recent warming, the available evidence strongly indicates that human activities are playing a significant role in bringing about climate change, especially in the last few decades ofthe 20th Century and the first seven years of the 21st Century. Significant changes in climate as a result ofthese human activities are projected for the rest ofthe 21st Century and beyond. This presentation provides a discussion ofthe current understanding ofthe concerns about climate change and the role being played by human activities, then examines several ofthe potential resulting impacts on humanity and our planet, and finishes with a short discussion of our possible responses to this all too real issue.
  9. 9. STEW 3 14 - Enabling Technologies of Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Chunting "Chris" Mi, PhD: Associate Professor of Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering: University ofMichigan-Dearborn One ofthe fastest growing automotive fields, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) presents both opportunities and challenges. HEVs are more fuel-efficient and environment friendly compared to conventional vehicles. Optimizing the power intake in HEVs allows the engine operation to be kept within the range designed for best fuel economy and lowest emission, while the motor/generator system either provides additional power input, or generates electricity using the excessive power from the engine. It also recovers the kinetic energy in braking or coasting. These advantages have attracted worldwide development interests for HEVs in the automotive industry. Hybrid vehicle sales have exceeded $250k per year with 14 models available in 2007. Experts predict that hybrid vehicles will take at least I0% ofthe total vehicle market share in the next 5 years, and as a result, could affect 200,000 jobs in automotive related industries. This presentation will look at the enabling technologies in the HEY field by examining the pro's and con's of HEV's, considering the energy storage challenges and power electronics and many additional issues that emerge from HEV's. STEW 3 18 - Biofuels with Richard Meilan, PhD and Clint Chapple, PhD: Associate Professor of Molecular Tree Physiology and Professor of Biochemistry: Purdue University Concerns about energy security and the environment are prompting policymakers in the U.S. to explore options for substituting petroleum-based fuels with renewable, sustainable bio-fuels. An ambitious target of 1,000 gallons of ethanol per acre from biomass crops grown in the U.S. was recently proposed by the DOE document entitled "Breaking the Barriers to Cellulosic Ethanol". This level of productivity, if achieved on 110 million acres (an estimate of all surplus, excess, or idle agricultural land in the U.S.), could replace 80% of petroleum- derived U.S. motor fuels. A productivity of 1,000 gallons per acre will only be feasible if new approaches are applied to plants that have been selected for maximum biomass production, and/or biochemically altered in a way that will allow their cell wall polysaccharides to be converted to ethanol more efficiently. In an independent assessment, the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the DOE predicted that with only modest changes in usage, farmland and forests could yield more than 1.3 billion dry tons of biomass each year, enough to reduce present oil demand by nearly one-third. In addition to discussing this background to energy use and climate-change issues that are driving decisions about biofuel production, we will discuss some of our own work that focuses on using genetically engineered poplar, instead of corn, as a feedstock for producing bio-ethanol. Poplar's rapid growth rate coupled with our efforts to improve its cell wall characteristics to enhance degradability are key factors in making poplar a valuable crop for biomass and biofuel production. Lunch Break I l:OOpm - I: I Spm - Stewart 214 (ABCD) Lunch will be provided for registered attendees ofthe conference from Villa Pizza. The invitation luncheon will be held in the Anniversary Drawing Room, room 304 on the second floor of the Purdue Memorial Union. Discussion Workshop I :30pm - 2:20pm - Stewart 310, 314, 318 The discussion workshop is designed to help bring the information and issues delivered by some ofthe confer- ence events into focus. Attendees will break up into groups, divided from their breakout sessions, to discuss key issues relating to energy and the environment. Each group will be moderated by a Purdue Pugwash executive member. The workshop questions and relevant abstracts are included at the back ofthe booklet. Conference speakers are encouraged to participate in this event with the other attendees.
  10. 10. ~ Global Warming Solutions 2:30pm - 3:45pm - Fowler Hall Edward Rubin, PhD Professor of Engineering and Public Policy and Mechanical Engineering: Carnegie Mellon University There is no "silver bullet" that can fix the problem of global climate change by itself. This presentation will discuss the broad range of measures that are available and needed to avoid dangerous levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. These measures include behavioral and lifestyle changes as well as technological solutions for: (1) reducing the demands for energy in the buildings, industrial and transportation sectors; (2) decarbonizing energy supplies by switching to zero-carbon or lower-carbon fuels; (3) reducing non-C02 greenhouse gases such as methane and nitrous oxide; (4) sequestering C02 in biological sinks such as forests and soils; and (5) capturing C02 from industrial sources and sequestering it in geological formations. Examples will be given ofthe kinds of actions that are needed now and over the coming decades to address the problem of global warming. Panel Discussion: The Future of E.nergy 4: 1Spm - 5:45pm - Fowler Hall Private v. Public Energy Policy with Grant Smith: Executive Director, Citizens Action Coalition ofIndiana The future of energy policy is now. Clearly, business-as-usual cannot address the looming issues of global warm- ing, quality of life, and affordability. The public and a number of major investors on Wall Street are far ahead of elected officials in terms oftheir support for energy alternatives. What public policies can we support to address the dual concerns of economic vitality and environmental quality that will secure us an optimistic energy fu- ture? What could that future look like? What is stopping us? Nanoscience for Energy Conversion and Storage with Michael Heben, PhD: Principal Scientist, National Renewable Energy Laboratory With the solid consensus regarding the causes of global warming, and the urgent need to address the changing climate, much attention is being turned to finding possible solutions to our energy related problems. In particular, the topic of materials engineering and physics spans many important technologies. Many materials are synthesized under near-equilibrium conditions and therefore adopt structures that are expected based on thermo- dynamic considerations. As a result, the available material properties are familiar, limited and fixed to some de- gree. Nanoscience focuses on the new structures that can be obtained by restricting the ways that a relatively small number of atoms may be arranged and may be combined to form higher order structures, objects, and mate- rials. The availability of new meta-stable structural configurations effectively expands the chemical diversity available in the periodic table ofthe elements, and affords the_discovery and design of new materials with new useful topologies and properties. This talk will illustrate the large and varied role for nanoscience in addressing today's daunting energy challenges. In particular, we will focus on the nanostructural design principles for hydro- gen storage materials, and consider the application of carbon single wall nanotubes in solar energy conversion schemes. Energy in the Midwest with Mark Lutz: Whiting Commercial Manager, BP Whiting Refinery Today's economy is heavily dependant on hydrocarbon based energy supply. Many would suggest that the future of our planet lays with our collective ability to manage the environmental consequences ofthis dependency. Is it possible for us to continue to enjoy the benefits of affordable, readily available energy while at the same time improving the quality ofthe air we breath and the water we drink? What are energy companies like BP doing to hold both the priorities of energy supply and environmental responsibility? The speaker presentations will be followed by discussion and a question-answer session.
  11. 11. The NRC in a "Nuclear Renaissance" The Honorable Peter B. Lyons, PhD Commissioner U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission · f-l U.S.NRC• The Honorable Peter B. Lyons was sworn in as a Commis- sioner of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission on January 25, 2005. As a Commissioner, Dr. Lyons has focused on the safety of operating reactors and on the importance of learning from operating experience, even as new reactor licensing and possible construction emerges. He has emphasized that NRC and its licensees must remain strong and vigilant components of our Nation's integrated defenses against terrorism, and he has been a consistent voice for improving NRC partnerships with the States. An extensive research background underlies his advocacy for an active and forward-looking NRC re- search progran1 to support sound regulatory decisions, address current issues and anticipate future ones. Because NRC's success depends directly on maintaining a competent and dedicated workforce, Dr. Ly- ons continues to be a strong proponent of science and technology education, recruiting for diversity, employee training and development programs, and an open and collaborative working environment. From 1969 to 1996, Dr. Lyons worked in progressively more responsible positions at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. During that time he served as director for industrial partnerships, deputy associate director for energy and environment, and deputy associate director-defense research and applications. While at Los Alamos, he spent over a decade supporting nuclear test diagnostics. Before becoming a Commissioner, Dr. Lyons served as Science Advisor on the staff of U.S. Senator Pete Domenici and the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources where he focused on military and civilian uses of nuclear technology, national science policy, and nuclear non-proliferation. Dr. Lyons has published more that 100 technical papers, holds three patents related to fiber optics and plasma diagnostics, and served as chairman of the NATO Nuclear Effects Task Group for five years. A native of Nevada, Dr. Lyons received his doctorate in nuclear astrophysics from the California Insti- tute of Technology in 1969 and earned his undergraduate degree in physics and mathematics from the University of Arizona in 1964. He is a Fellow of the American Physical Society, was elected to 16 years on the Los Alamos School Board and spent six years on the University of New Mexico-Los Ala- mos Branch Advisory Board. Dr. Lyons is a resident of Virginia.
  12. 12. Our Relationship with Energy: A Conference Introduction Alan H. McGowan Assistant Professor of Science, Technology, and Society Eugene Lang College The New School for Liberal Arts Alan McGowan is a faculty member of the Science, Technology, and So- ciety Program at Eugene Lang College The New School for Liberal Arts, having served as chair of the program for four years. Prior to coming to the New School, he founded and was President of the Gene Media Fo- rum, a non-profit organization that focused on providing information on the social, ethical and scientific aspects of the genetic revolution to journalists. Previously, he was for twenty years the president of the Scientists' Institute for Public Information, a major bridge between the scientific community and the media. Mr. McGowan, an executive editor of Environment magazine and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, is also on the boards of the Bermuda Institute for Ocean Science and the Metcalf Institute. He is chair of the board of Student Pugwash USA, an organization devoted to the consideration of ethi- cal issues in scientific and technical research. He has written extensively on science policy and public understanding of science issues. Introductory Remarks for: Our Relationship with Energy: A Conference Introduction Christine Rovner Executive Director Student Pugwash USA Christine Rovner is Executive Director of Student Pugwash USA, which promotes awareness of social responsibility in science and tech- nology to college and graduate students. She oversees the organiza- tion's national programs, which include facilitating student-run confer- ences; producing educational resources on issues facing science and society; and helping students apply principles of social responsibility in science to their future academic and career choices. Before joining Student Pugwash USA in February 2005, Christine worked with nonprofit groups that educate lawmakers, media, and the general public on arms control and international security con- cerns. She specialized in research and analysis of nuclear weapons policy with Arms Control Associa- tion, and British American Security Information Council and the European Institute. In particular she examined the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, transatlantic security interests, and the role of interna- tional institutions such as NATO and the United Nations. Christine also founded the Young Executives Roundtable in April 2006 in conjunction with the Young Nonprofit Professionals Network in Washington. The Roundtable meets monthly to give new nonprofit leaders an opportunity to exchange informal advice and brainstorm fresh ideas. Christine graduated with degrees in International Relations and Russian from Goucher College in Baltimore, MD.
  13. 13. Barriers to a Sustainable Energy System Frank Laird, PhD Associate Professor ofTechnology & Public Policy Graduate School of International Studies University of Denver l N I I It) I I ~ '-' I DENVER Dr. Laird's educational background is interdisciplinary. He received a Bache- lor's degree in physics from Middlebury College, did one year of graduate work in solid state physics at Edinburgh University in Scotland (no degree received), and received a Ph.D. in political science, specializing in science, technology, and public policy, from MIT. After graduate school, he did post-doctoral work in environmental policy in the at Harvard University's School of Public Health. Most of his research has focused on energy policy, particularly the way that re- newable energy policies interact with environmental policy. His book Solar Energy, Technology Policy, and Institutional Values (Cambridge University Press 200 I) looked at the ways in which institutionally embedded ideas shaped energy policy over a 35 year period. The book was a finalist for 2004 Don K. Price Award for the best book in science and technology policy or politics, awarded by the Science, Technology, and Environmental Politics section of the American Political Science Association. He is currently working on a new project funded by the National Science Foundation comparing US and German renewable energy policy. In addition to energy policy, he has also published in the areas of climate change policy, environmental policy, democratic theory and S&T policy, and institutions and S&T policy. His earlier research has also been supported by grants from the National Science Foundation. As part of his service to the larger community, he has chaired and served on the public policy committee the American Solar Energy Society, during which time he wrote a bi-monthly column for the society's magazine, Solar Today. In addition, he has served on the Society's board of directors. He has presented papers at confer- ences and universities throughout the United States and this past August gave a keynote address on U.S. energy policy at a summer academy in Austria. Introductory Remarks for: Dr. Frank Laird and Dr. Edward Rubin Peter H. Meckl, PhD Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineer- ing Department of Mechanical Engineering Purdue University PURDUEUNIV E RSIT Y Peter H. Meckl obtained a PhD in Mechanical Engineering from MIT in 1988. He joined the faculty in the School of Mechanical Engineering at Purdue Uni- versity in 1988, where he has been an Associate Professor since 1994. Dr. Meckl's research interests are primarily in dynamics and control of machines, with emphasis on vibration reduction and motion control. His teaching respon- sibilities include undergraduate courses in systems modeling, measurement systems, and control, and graduate courses in advanced control design, and mi- ....________;..__ __. croprocessor control. Dr. MeckI was selected as an NEC Faculty Fellow from 1990 to 1992. He received the Ruth and Joel Spira Award for outstanding teaching in 2000. He spend a semester in the Institute of Measurement and Control Engi- neering at the University of Karlsruhe, Germany in spring 2005, teaching undergraduate control courses and de- veloping a new course in control of autonomous vehicles.
  14. 14. Introductory Remarks for: The NRC in a Nuclear Renaissance PURDUERusi Taleyarkhan, PhD UNIVERSITY Arden L. Bement Professor of Nuclear Engineering Department of Nuclear Engineering Purdue University Rusi Taleyarkhan obtained his Ph.D. in nuclear engineering along with an M.B.A in business administration from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1982 and 1979, respectively. Thereafter, he served as Senior Engineer for four years at Westinghouse Electric Corporation leading the development of licensing bases for thermal hydraulics of advanced BWR fuel designs. From 1988 to 2007 he served in various scientific and management roles at Oak Ridge National Labora- tory, reaching the rank of Distinguished Scientist. In 2003 he joined Purdue Uni- versity as the Arden L. Bement Jr. Professor of Nuclear Engineering. Professor Taleyarkhan is the discoverer of table-top acoustic inertial confinement nuclear fusion. Prof. Taleyarkhan has consulted extensively for various government and industry bodies; he holds over 20 patent and invention awards, has published over 150 archival and other papers and reports, several books and chapters, and has presented over 50 invited lectures and seminars worldwide. He is a Fellow of the American Nuclear Society and Honorary Fellow of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Prof. Taleyarkhan has received nu- merous technical awards including the George Westinghouse Engineering Excellence Signature award, and sev- eral other distinguished service and technology achievement awards from Lockheed-Martin and UT-Battelle, LLC corporations. Humans and Global Warming Donald Wuebbles, PhD ·~~[?~ Professor & Executive Coordinator School of Earth, Society, and Environment University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Donald (Don) J. Wuebbles is the Director of the School of Earth, Society, and Environment at the University of lllinois. He is also a Professor in the Depart- ment of Atmospheric Sciences as well as in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Dr. Wuebbles was Head of the Department of Atmos- pheric Sciences from 1994 until 2006 before accepting the new position. He earned his B.S. (1970) and M.S. (1972) degrees in Electrical Engineering from the University of Illinois. He received his Ph.D. in Atmospheric Sciences from the University of California at Davis in 1983. He is the author of almost 400 peer-reviewed scientific articles, most of which relate to atmospheric chemistry and global climate change as affected by both human activities and natural phenomena. His research emphasizes the development and use of mathematical models of the atmosphere to study the chemical and physical proc- esses that determine atmospheric structure, aimed primarily towards improving our understanding of the impacts that man-made and natural trace gases may be having on the Earth's climate and on tropospheric and strato- spheric chemistry. He has been a lead author on a number of national and international assessments related to these issues. Dr. Wuebbles was elected a member of the International Ozone Commission in 2000, and in 2005 received the Stratospheric Ozone Protection Award from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. He is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and a Faculty Fellow in the National Cen- ter for Supercomputing Applications. Dr. Wuebbles has interacted with Congress on issues related to the envi- ronment for many years, particularly regarding issues associated with climate change. He most recently testified before the House Committee on Science and Technology in March 2007 relative to issues associated with avia- tion effects on climate. Dr. Wuebbles recently led an assessment of the potential impacts of climate change on the city of Chicago.
  15. 15. Enabling Technologies ofHybrid Electric Vehicles Chunting "Chris" Mi, PhD D EARBORN Associate Professor of Electrical & Computer Engineering Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering University of Michigan-Dearborn Dr. Chris Mi is assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering in the University of Michigan - Dearborn, College of Engineering and Computer Sci- ence. He regularly offers a graduate course in electric and hybrid vehicles. He has also taught courses and led seminars on the subject for the Society of Auto- motive Engineers (SAE) and the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). Dr. Mi has conducted extensive research and published more than 60 articles on power electronics, motor drives, electric and hybrid vehicles. In addi- tion to his position at UM-Dearborn, he is the vice chair of the IEEE Southeast Michigan section. Dr. Mi holds a BS and an MS degree from Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an, China, and a Ph.D degree from the University of Toronto. Dr. Mi worked with General Electric Company from 2000 to 200 I. Dr. Mi won the "National Innovation Awardffi! ~C&EJI ~ - ~~ " in 1992, the "Government Special Allow- ance1&11t¥.H!-t:i~Y1b" in 1994, and was listed in Marquis "Who is Who in America." Dr. Mi is the winner of the 2005 "Distinguished Teaching Award" of University of Michigan Dearborn. He is also a recipient of the 2007 IEEE Region 4 "Outstanding Engineer Award," and 2007 "IEEE Southeastern Michigan Section Out- standing Professional Award." He is a Semifinalist ofthe 2007 SAE Environmental Excellence in Transportation (E2T) Award. Biofuels Richard Meilan, PhD Associate Professor of Molecular Tree Physiology Department of Forestry and Natural Resources Purdue University PURDUEUNIV E RSITY Rick Meilan received a joint Ph.D. in Botany (emphasis in plant molecular biology) and Forestry (emphasis in tree physiology) from Iowa State Uni- versity in 1990. After working as a Rockefeller Foundation-funded post- doctoral research fellow, he joined the faculty in Department of Biochem- istry at the University of Missouri-Columbia. He was on the faculty in the Forest Science Department at Oregon State University for nine years be- fore going to Purdue University (PU) in October 2003. At PU, he is an Associate Professor of Molecular Tree Physiology and the Associate Director of the Center for Tree Genetics, which is sponsored by the National Science Foundation's Industry/University Cooperative Research Center (I/UCRC) program. In his laboratory at Purdue, Meilan uses molecular tools to investigate the genetic mechanisms by which key aspects of tree growth and development are controlled. He is also attempting to domesticate and add value to various tree species by genetically engineering them to express genes that impart envi- ronmentally beneficial and commercially important traits. Active research projects include efforts to insert into poplar genes that affect lignin composition and this tree's ability to remediate contaminated sites. In addition, he and his group are also trying to identify metabolites that influence the susceptibil- ity ofash trees to an invasive pest, the Emerald Ash Borer.
  16. 16. Biofuels Clint Chapple, PhD Professor of Biochemistry Department of Biochemistry Purdue University PURDUEUNIV E R S I TY Clint Chapple is a Distinguished Professor in the Department of Bio- chemistry at Purdue University, and will soon take over as Head of the department. He earned his B.Sc., M.Sc. and Ph.D. from the University of Guelph, in Guelph, Ontario Canada, and conducted his post-doctoral work at the MSU-DOE Plant Research Laboratory in East Lansing, MI. His lab's research focuses on the analysis of the phenylpropanoid path- way in plants, with particular emphasis on manipulation of lignin biosyn- thesis in Arabidopsis and biomass crops. Dr. Chapple is a Purdue University Faculty Scholar, the winner of the College of Agriculture's Agri- cultural Research Award, and a Fellow ofthe American Association for the Advancement of Science. Global Warming Solutions Edward Rubin, PhD Carnegie Mellon Professor of Engineering and Public Policy and Mechanical Engineering Carnegie-Mellon University Dr. Rubin is a professor in the Department of Engineering & Public Policy and the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Carnegie Mellon Univer- sity. He holds a chair as the Alumni Professor of Environmental Engineer- ing and Science, and was founding director of the university's Center for Energy and Environmental Studies and the Environmental Institute. His teaching and research are in the areas of energy utilization, environmental control, technology innovation, and technology-policy interactions, with a particular focus on issues related to coal utilization, carbon sequestration, and global climate change. He is the author of over 200 technical publications and a textbook on, "Introduction to Engineering and the Environment." He is a Fellow Member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, a past chairman of its Environmental Control Division, and recipient of the Air & Waste Management Association Lyman A. Ripperton Award for distinguished achievements as an educator. He has served on governmental advisory committees to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the National Academies of Science and Engineering, and was a Lead Author of the recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage. In addition, he serves as a consultant to public and private or- ganizations with interests in energy and the environment. Dr. Rubin received his bachelor's degree in mechanical engineering from the City College of New York and his Masters and Ph.D. degrees from Stanford University.
  17. 17. The Future ofEnergy: Private v. Public Energy Policy Grant Smith Executive Director, Citizens Action Coalition of Indiana --~., l~ 1T1ZENS N L:J t~!.!Q Mr. Grant Smith is a graduate of Indiana University and has been working for Citizens Action Coalition for over 20 years. He has worked on a number of issues as a consumer ad- vocate, including industrial pollution prevention policy, home health care issues, alter- native agriculture, and energy/utility issues and policies. Mr. Smith has been the execu- tive director ofCAC since 2004. The Future ofEnergy: Nanosciencefor Energy Conversion and Storage iiiii Michael Heben, PhD ------~ Principal Scientist National Renewable Energy Laboratory Michael J. Heben received a BS in Physics from John Carroll University in 1984, a MS in Materials Science and Engineering from Stanford Uni- versity in 1986, and a PhD in Chemistry from the California Institute of Technology in 1990. He performed solid-state ionics and heterogeneous ca- talysis research with Huggins at Stanford, and developed scanning tunnel- ing microscopy for in situ investigations of electrode/electrolyte inter- faces with N.S. Lewis at Caltech. While at Caltech, he was active in the team that uncovered the weaknesses in the cold fusion research claims. Dr. Heben was awarded a National Research Council Postdoctoral Fel- lowship, but joined NREL in 1990 as a postdoc with A.J. Nozik. He became a Staff Member at NREL in 1992, and has been pursuing the basic science and technology of converting and storing energy from renewable resources. This contribution was named by Discover Magazine as one of the 100 most im- portant scientific discoveries of 1997. He is an International Energy Agency expert for hydrogen stor- age in IEA Annex 17, and won the President's Hydrogen Technical Advisory Panel's award for excep- tional performance in 2000. Heben established and now leads a DOE Center of Excellence on Hydro- gen Sorption Materials, which is supported by DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable En- ergy. He is also Principal Investigator within the Materials Chemistry Program and the Solar Photo- chemistry Program, both of which are in DOE's Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Heben has co- authored approximately - 100 publications and is a member of the Materials Research Society, the Electrochemical Society, the American Chemical Society, the American Physical Society, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
  18. 18. The Future ofEnergy: Energy in the Midwest Mark Lutz, Whiting Commercial Manager BP Whiting Refinery CFO bp The Whiting refinery was founded in 1889 and is one of the original Standard Oil companies started up by John D. Rockefeller. The refinery processes over 350,000 barrels of crude oil per day and is the largest in- land refinery in the US. Whiting employs over 2800 people and is lo- cated on 1400 acres in the communities of Whiting, East Chicago and Hammond, Indiana. As Whiting Refinery CFO, Mark concentrates on six principal areas: business development; long-term strategy; investment portfolio management; production planning; fi- nancial control; and financial performance management. Mark has been with BP for 17 years and at the Whiting Refinery since 2005. After starting at the company's former Alliance refinery in Louisiana as an optimization engineer, he moved to hold several refinery supply functions in both London and Chi- cago. In addition to work experience, he has a bachelor's degree in Chemical Engineering from Ohio State University and an MBA from Tulane University. In his spare time, Mark displays his Buckeye loyalties, urging on Ohio State's football and basketball teams. When not involved in rooting on these teams, Mark and his wife Gabi enjoy following the activities of their four children - three boys and a girl ranging in age from two to 14. Their interests include wrestling, baseball and cheerleading. When not being a spectator, Mark enjoys snowmobiling and bowling. Picturing a perfect day, Mark would spend it with his family - either as a proud father on the sidelines, spending time at the beach in sum- mer, or on a snowmobile trail in the winter. Social Responsibility in Science &Technology
  19. 19. The Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs Mission Statement THE mission ofthe Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs is to bring sci- entific insight and reason to bear on threats to human security arising from science and technology in general, and above all from the catastrophic threat posed to humanity by nuclear and other weapons ofmass destruction. It was in recognition ofthis mission that Pugwash and its co-founder, Sir Joseph Rotblat, were awarded the 1995 Nobel Peace Prize. Through meetings and projects that bring together scientists, scholars and individuals experienced in government, diplomacy and the military, Pugwash focuses on those prob- lems that lie at the intersection of science and world affairs. In addition to seeking the elimination of all weapons ofmass destruction, Pugwash objectives also include the re- duction and strict control ofconventional weaponry and the elimination ofwar and other forms of armed conflict. The Pugwash agenda also extends to ways of alleviating the conditions of economic deprivation, environmental deterioration and resource scarcity and unequal access, which are deplorable in themselves and which give rise to resent- ment, hostility and violence throughout the world. These objectives ofPugwash are pursued through debate, discussion and collaborative analysis in an atmosphere of candor and mutual respect, at annual conferences, in spe- cialized workshops and study groups, and through special projects carried out by small teams or individuals on well-defined topics. The resulting ideas and proposals are com- municated to decision-makers and the general public through Pugwash publications, open letters to heads of government from the Pugwash leadership, press conferences, and - above all - from the personal interactions of individual Pugwash participants with political leaders and opinion makers. Drawing its inspiration from the Russell-Einstein Manifesto of 1955, which called upon leaders ofthe world to renounce nuclear weapons and "remember their humanity," Pug- wash above all is an expression ofthe social and moral duty of scientists to promote the beneficial applications oftheir work and prevent their misuse, to anticipate and evaluate the possible unintended consequences of scientific and technological developments, and to promote debate and reflection on the ethical obligations of scientists in taking respon- sibility for their work. Forty-five years after its first meeting in Pugwash, Nova Scotia, the pace of scientific and technological developments in the early 21st century, and the security challenges facing the international community, combine to make the Pugwash mission and objec- tives as relevant as ever.
  20. 20. The Russell Einstein Manifesto Issued in London, 9 July 1955 IN the tragic situation which confronts humanity, we feel that scientists should assemble in conference to ap- praise the perils that have arisen as a result of the development of weapons of mass destruction, and to discuss a resolution in the spirit of the appended draft. We are speaking on this occasion, not as members of this or that nation, continent, or creed, but as human beings, members of the species Man, whose continued existence is in doubt. The world is full of conflicts; and, overshadowing all minor conflicts, the titanic struggle between Communism and anti-Communism. Almost everybody who is politically conscious has strong feelings about one or more of these issues; but we want you, if you can, to set aside such feelings and consider yourselves only as members of a biological species which has had a remarkable history, and whose disappearance none of us can desire. We shall try to say no single word which should appeal to one group rather than to another. All, equally, are in peril, and, if the peril is understood, there is hope that they may collectively avert it. We have to learn to think in a new way. We have to learn to ask ourselves, not what steps can be taken to give military victory to whatever group we prefer, for there no longer are such steps; the question we have to ask ourselves is: what steps can be taken to prevent a military contest of which the issue must be disastrous to all parties? The general public, and even many men in positions of authority, have not realized what would be involved in a war with nuclear bombs. The general public still thinks in terms of the obliteration of cities. It is understood that the new bombs are more powerful than the old, and that, while one A-bomb could obliterate Hiroshima, one H-bomb could obliterate the largest cities, such as London, New York, and Moscow. No doubt in an H-bomb war great cities would be obliterated. But this is one of the minor disasters that would have to be faced. If everybody in London, New York, and Moscow were exterminated, the world might, in the course of a few centuries, recover from the blow. But we now know, especially since the Bikini test, that nu- clear bombs can gradually spread destruction over a very much wider area than had been supposed. It is stated on very good authority that a bomb can now be manufactured which will be 2,500 times as powerful as that which destroyed Hiroshima. Such a bomb, if exploded near the ground or under water, sends radio- active particles into the upper air. They sink gradually and reach the surface of the earth in the form of a deadly dust or rain. It was this dust which infected the Japanese fishermen and their catch of fish. No one knows how widely such lethal radio-active particles might be diffused, but the best authorities are unanimous in saying that a war with H-bombs might possibly put an end to the human race. It is feared that if many H-bombs are used there will be universal death, sudden only for a minority, but for the majority a slow torture of disease and dis- integration. Many warnings have been uttered by eminent men of science and by authorities in military strategy. None of them will say that the worst results are certain. What they do say is that these results are possible, and no one can be sure that they will not be realized. We have not yet found that the views of experts on this question depend in any degree upon their politics or prejudices. They depend only, so far as our researches have re- vealed, upon the extent of the particular expert's knowledge. We have found that the men who know most are the most gloomy.
  21. 21. Here, then, is the problem which we present to you, stark and dreadful and inescapable: Shall we put an end to the human race; or shall mankind renounce war? People will not face this alternative because it is so difficult to abolish war. The abolition of war will demand distasteful limitations of national sovereignty. But what perhaps impedes un- derstanding of the situation more than anything else is that the term "mankind" feels vague and abstract. People scarcely realize in imagination that the danger is to themselves and their children and their grandchildren, and not only to a dimly apprehended humanity. They can scarcely bring themselves to grasp that they, individually, and those whom they love are in imminent danger of perishing agonizingly. And so they hope that perhaps war may be allowed to continue provided modern weapons are prohibited. This hope is illusory. Whatever agreements not to use H-bombs had been reached in time of peace, they would no longer be considered binding in time of war, and both sides would set to work to manufacture H- bombs as soon as war broke out, for, if one side manufactured the bombs and the other did not, the side that manufactured them would inevitably be victorious. Although an agreement to renounce nuclear weapons as part of a general reduction of armaments would not afford an ultimate solution, it would serve certain important purposes. First, any agreement between East and West is to the good in so far as it tends to diminish tension. Second, the abolition of thermo-nuclear weapons, if each side believed that the other had carried it out sincerely, would lessen the fear of a sudden attack in the style of Pearl Harbour, which at present keeps both sides in a state of nervous apprehension. We should, therefore, welcome such an agreement though only as a first step. Most of us are not neutral in feeling, but, as human beings, we have to remember that, if the issues between East and West are to be decided in any manner that can give any possible satisfaction to anybody, whether Communist or anti-Communist, whether Asian or European or American, whether White or Black, then these issues must not be decided by war. We should wish this to be understood, both in the East and in the West. There lies before us, if we choose, continual progress in happiness, knowledge, and wisdom. Shall we, instead, choose death, because we cannot forget our quarrels? We appeal as human beings to human beings: Remem- ber your humanity, and forget the rest. If you can do so, the way lies open to a new Paradise; if you cannot, there lies before you the risk of universal death. Resolution: WE invite this Congress, and through it the scientists of the world and the general public, to subscribe to the following resolution: "In view of the fact that in any future world war nuclear weapons will certainly be employed, and that such weapons threaten the continued existence of mankind, we urge the governments of the world to realize, and to acknowledge publicly, that their purpose cannot be furthered by a world war, and we urge them, conse- quently, to find peaceful means for the settlement of all matters of dispute between them." Max Born Frederic Joliet-Curie Joseph Rotblat Percy W. Bridgman Herman J. Muller Bertrand Russell Albert Einstein Linus Pauling Hideki Yukawa Leopold lnfeld Cecil F. Powell
  22. 22. Student Pugwash USA The mission of Student Pugwash USA is to promote social responsibility in science and technology. We prepare science, technology and policy students to make social re- sponsibility a guiding focus oftheir academic and professional endeavors by: • Examining the societal impacts of science and technology; • Creating open and objective forums for debate; • Fostering the exchange of ideas among diverse communities; • Exploring solutions to current dilemmas in science and technology; and • Cultivating the analytical skills needed to address future challenges. SPUSA is guided by a respect for diverse perspectives and, as such, does not adopt ad- vocacy positions on substantive issues. In order to create effective change, students first must understand the issues at stake, become trained in social activism, and con- template their ethical and moral responsibility to themselves, and to society as a whole. A student founded SPUSA in 1979 with the fundamental beliefthat young people play a vital role in determining the socially responsible application of science and technol- ogy. In 1955 Albert Einstein, Bertrand Russell, and other eminent scientists issued a manifesto urging scientists to "think in a new way" about their moral responsibilities in the nuclear age. In 1957, the first Pugwash Conference was held in Pugwash, Nova Scotia, bringing together some ofthe greatest scientific minds to address nuclear weapons issues and the social responsibility of scientists. SPUSA strives to convene the next generation of scientists around today's parallel issues. SPUSA is the US student affiliate ofthe Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, recipients ofthe 1995 Nobel Peace Prize. The SPUSA Pledge: "Ipromise to workfor a better world, where science and technology are used in so- cially responsible ways. I will not use my education for any purpose intended to harm human beings or the environment. Throughout my career, I will consider the ethical implications ofmy work before I take action. While the demands placed upon me may be great, I sign this declaration because I recognize that individual responsibility is the first step on the path to peace. "
  23. 23. Purdue Student Pugwash Purdue Student Pugwash is Purdue University's chapter of Student Pugwash USA, which strives to make socially responsible science a guiding focus in the lives of future scientists and engineers. Purdue Student Pugwash upholds the goals and values ofthe Russell-Einstein Manifesto and works to increase open dialog between people in technical fields and the general public. Purdue Pugwash was founded in 1991 by Scott Wright under the faculty direction ofDr. Normand Laurendeau, a retired professor of mechanical engineering at Purdue University. Since then, Pugwash has had a significant impact on the community's awareness of critical issues by holding open forum events where experts interact closely with students and community members. Since 2004, Purdue Pugwash members have held an active role in attending national conferences and working closely with the national office to improve chapter representation across the country. Purdue Pugwash is now the most active Student Pugwash USA chapter in the United States, having one faculty advisor', 17 members ofthe executive council, and over 280 general members. During the 2007-2008 academic year Purdue Student Pugwash has hosted more than 17 speakers for the "Pugwash Presents" lecture series, 5 small dis- cussion groups and 2 socials a semester while maintaining a strong leadership and membership base. Purdue Pugwash also hosted a free showing ofthe documentary film SiCKO followed by a panel discussion about issues raised in the film. Most notably, Purdue Student Pugwash is hosting its third annual Midwest Regional Conference "Energy and the Environment: Powering the Future Responsibly" and continues to promote community awareness of techno-societal issues.
  24. 24. President I Nicholas Lilovich Nicholas Lilovich is the president of Purdue Student Pugwash, and is a senior at Purdue, majoring in Applied Physics and Mechanical Engineer- ing. At Purdue, Nick has contributed to several research projects, includ- ing a summer position at the Purdue Applied Physics Laboratory and presently at the Birck Nanotechnology Center. He is actively involved in extracurricular activities, and has been the president of two Purdue student organizations. Nick has lived in and about Chicago most of his life, and he attended the Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy. He has several goals for the future, including a position at NASA, the creation and management of an engineering company, and ownership of a home on the Grecian coast. Vice President I Jessica Holsinger Jessica joined Purdue Student Pugwash and Student Pugwash USA be- cause of the many opportunities they provide for educating people about today's science issues; issues that are often controversial, divi- sive, and misunderstood. These programs also allow her to further learn about and explore topics that are outside her area of study. Currently serving as Vice President, her main responsibility is selecting themes and speakers for the "Pugwash Presents" lecture series. She is a senior in the School of Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering, and has plans to attend graduate school to study in the field of bioastronautics. Eventually, she hopes to do R&D in the san1e field. Jessica has always enjoyed discovering new things, especially experiencing new cultures and languages. She plans to travel the world over the course of her life- time, and has already journeyed to over 30 foreign nations. In her time away from class and Pugwash she enjoys participating in sports, read- ing non-fiction, and warm, sunny weather. Treasurer I Kyle Vester Kyle has been in Pugwash for two years and serves as the Treasurer, having been elected for the 2007-2008 school year. His main reason for joining Pugwash is the education that is provided on a whole host of topics via the lecture series, conferences, and events. Kyle graduated in 2002 with a degree in Neurobiology and spent five years in the real world before returning to school in 2007 to become a professional engi- neer. Kyle is majoring in Environmental and Natural Resource Engi- neering with a plan to work in third world countries to bring clean wa- ter, both potable and irrigable, where it's needed. Outside of schooL Kyle works 30+ hours and spends his little free time indulging in his hobbies which include cycling, being a baseball nut, home brewing, and just simply relaxing.
  25. 25. Secretary I Jessica Grubaugh Jessica secretary of Purdue Student Pugwash and a junior at Purdue University. As a biology major with interests in the political science world, Jessica has intentions of expanding science into the direct agendas of leading politicians. In doing so, she hopes to provide the means for science to benefit the citizens of America. In addition to contributing to the Executive Board as secretary, Jessica loves to run, swim, and be active in general. She loves science, arguing, deep intellectual chats, traveling, music, and having fun with friends. Public Relations I Emily Brown Emily Brown graduated with her Bachelors of Science in Speech, Lan- guage, & Hearing Sciences at Purdue University in December 2007. Complementing her major focus are her minors in Biological Sciences and Psychology. She will begin pursuing her masters in Speech Pathol- ogy starting in Fall 2008. During her time here at Purdue, Emily was involved in the National Student Speech Language Hearing Associa- tion, Fall Space Day, and Pugwash, which all have a common goal of educating individuals on pertinent scientific issues and developments. In addition to her dedicated involvement in these extracurricular activi- ties, she has worked full time as a speech-language pathologist aide in the Lafayette School Corporation and as an in-home therapist for two autistic children in the community. Emily is originally from northern Indiana. Immediate Past President IAlex Webster This is Alex's 3rd year in Pugwash. He is the Immediate Past Presi- dent. He is a senior in the School of Nuclear Engineering, and has career goals to do research for NASA, with graduate school in the near future. He joined Pugwash because of his strong belief in edu- cating the public about nuclear technology, to dispel myths and mis- conceptions that make people fearful of radiation, and to promote the benefits of nuclear power. A space enthusiast, he appreciates the positive impact that the space program has had on this planet and is concerned about keeping the priorities of NASA in the interest of the public. Alex is also a member of the Purdue Alumni Association Stu- dent Ambassadors and the American Nuclear Society, and he works in a nuclear research lab in Lafayette.
  26. 26. Director ofAdvancement I Jonathan Braun Jonathan Braun is the Director of Advancement and coordinates all fundraising efforts for Purdue University Student Pugwash. Jonathan joined Purdue Pugwash in the fall of 2004 when he was elected to be the Vice President during a period of reconstruction. In 2005 Jona- than was elected President and coordinated the first of what is now the Purdue Pugwash annual conference series. Jonathan is a graduate student in aeronautical and astronautical engineering and studies spacecraft propulsion systems with an emphasis on nuclear rockets and astrophysics. graduation in May 2008 he plans to work for Lock- heed-Martin Space Systems Company in Houston, TX as a propul- sion analyst for the Orion spacecraft program. Jonathan is originally from Indianapolis, IN. and graduated from Decatur Central High School in 2001. He received his Bachelors Degree in aeronautical and astronautical engineering from Purdue University in 2006. Webmaster I Josh Holmes Joshua has been in Purdue Student Pugwash for two years. He joined Pugwash because of the overwhelming interest he has in a variety of fields. He is currently holding the position of webmaster for Purdue Student Pugwash and is also active in many other organizations on Purdue's campus including Purdue Habitat for Humanity where he serves as the Construction officer. Joshua is majoring in History, Computer and Information Technology, and also hopes to earn an OLS degree along the way. Joshua holds a work-study position on campus and is currently enrolled in 21 credit hours this semes- ter. Pugwash helps him learn other areas that might be of interest to him and to think in a new way about each topic. Historian I Jeff Frato Jeff became interested in Pugwash because of the wide variety of topics it explores. He has always enjoyed reading about the latest scientific discoveries, and Pugwash gives him the chance to explore what's happening outside his major of chemical engineering. Spe- cifically, he has always been an enthusiastic follower of the space program and the field of astrophysics. Besides Pugwash, he also par- ticipated in Purdue's cooperative education program. As part of this program he spent several semesters working in industry. In what free time he has lefL, he enjoys hiking and the outdoors. Af- ter graduation this May, he will be traveling to Europe for a couple weeks before beginning a job in the chemical industry.
  27. 27. Social Chair I Katie Harris Katie was recently elected to the position of Social Chair on the Pugwash executive board. She is a sophomore in the College of Science, Department of Biological Sciences, who intends to major in Microbiology. Currently Katie is a member of the University Honors Program and Dr. Michael Rossmann's lab where she per- forms undergraduate research on the structure of parvoviruses. Her future career plans include virus and infectious disease work in the field of epidemiology. Outside of the sciences, Katie loves lan- guages and traveling and is working towards learning and mastering the French language. She enjoys tennis, racquetball, dark chocolate, and spending time with friends and family. Executive Council I Robert Winkworth Robert Wink.worth is a doctoral student in Purdue's College of Technology, and research associate in the Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security, CERIAS. A respected instructor and developer with over 15 years of ex- perience in cyber-security issues, he brings to Pugwash a focus on the use and abuse of information systems in corporate and civil applications. He has worked extensively with wireless sys- tems and electronics, and speaks regularly for schools and com- munity groups, on topics related to technology and society. His most recent research has involved the development of secure operating systems and radio frequency identification. Executive Council I James Mysliwiec Ever since High School, James has been interested in Renewable En- ergy, particularly hydrogen. He feels it is necessary to find an alterna- tive to oil as soon as possible. He entered Purdue in the fall of 2004 and is currently in the school of Mechanical Engineering Technology. His plans for the future include either working in the renewable energy industry upon graduation, going to graduate school with hopes of start- ing his own business in renewable energy transportation, or becoming an environmental activist. As for hobbies, he enjoys playing soccer and racquetball, bicycling, and watching sports. He is mechanically minded and enjoys reading up on related articles in Popular Mechanics. As a returning executive member of Purdue Student Pugwash, James has taken on some more responsibility and is a part of the committee that is putting together this years conference.
  28. 28. Executive Council I Catherine Fahey This is Catherine's first year in Pugwash and her first year on the executive board. She is a sophomore majoring in Genetic Biology, and her career plans are to become a professor of Biology and re- search genetic causes of disease. She joined Pugwash to educate herself and others about scientific issues. Catherine is also a mem- ber of Convocations Voice Network, a WISP tutor, and is cur- rently doing undergraduate research on campus in Dr. Tap- arowsky's lab. Her other interests include political debate, piano, Purdue football, and the Indianapolis Colts. Executive Council I John Kessler John joined the executive board of Pugwash in January 2008 with the hopes of earning more about this very active student organiza- tion. One of his many reasons for joining was the appreciation of a good group concentrated on delivering facts while trying to eliminate as much bias as possible. Not to mention that he wanted to break the assumption that Computer Graphics students have no interest in current event topics. With a hopeful graduation date planned for 2009, he would like to work not only as an animator for film, but a technical animator to show the world how things work. Any time not spent on work and Pugwash related activities, he spends writing, actively pursuing his weekend night life, and enhancing his sedentary life style. Executive Council I Anant Banda Anant Handa is a freshman intending to go into Chemical Engi- neering with a Pre-medical and management minor. He joined Pugwash this spring and is now a member of the executive coun- cil. His interest are extremely varied and he joined Pugwash to enjoy learning about a broad spectrum of topics in science and technology. Since coming to Purdue, Anant has involved himself with the Pugwash board, the pre-medical Caduceus club, and re- search. He has contributed to cancer research in the past and in- tends to pursue a future in either energy or medicine. Anant graduated from West Lafayette Senior High School in 2007.
  29. 29. •• Executive Council I Naveen John Naveen John is a junior majoring in Electrical Engineering with minor concentrations in Management and Industrial Design. He joined Pugwash to be part of a campus initiative whose goal is to challenge people to think in a new way about issues that intersect with his interest set at vari- ous points. Some of his interests are in The Future of Energy and Our Planet, Development in the Third World, Brain/Mind, Consumer Elec- tronics and Product Design. In addition to being a huge consumer of Open Education Resources (OER) on the web, he is an active contributor to various Creative Commons (CC) initiatives such as Wikipedia. In spare time he engages in his hobbies which include reading popular sci- ence literature and road bicycle riding and racing. He is also involved in Purdue Habitat for Humanity, the Purdue Cycling Club and the Purdue Ham Radio Club. Naveen is originally from Bangalore, India but grew up in the State of Kuwait. Executive Council I Ndu Osonwanne Ndu Osonwanne is a junior in the School of Electrical Engineering at Purdue University West Lafayette. He started college at the age of sixteen and has been involved with research at Purdue since his sophomore year, with vested interest in the research courses as a freshman. He strives to become one of leading entrepreneurs in science and technology innovations from Nigeria- his home coun- try, and is currently working towards this goal. His research inter- ests include semiconductor devices, image processing, wireless communication and remote sensing. He is also part of the National Society of Black Engineers, Purdue Student Pugwash, African Students Association, and is involved with the Black Cultural Center at his university. He aspires to become a Control Systems Engineer. Energy and the Environment: Powering the Future Responsibly
  30. 30. CW"e wou.lrl lilce to t!&a.ni< t!&e followin.a ~poruold fo't. tl&ei't. ~uppo't.t: bp BP Beyond Petroleum - f}fficial (Jporuo't. Student Pugwash USA Indiana Academy of Sciences General Purdue Office of the Provost Office of The Vice President for Research Purdue Climate Change Research Center Discovery Park Center for the Environment Purdue Student Union Board Discovery Park Energy Center Purdue Graduate School Purdue Libraries Mechanical Engineering Technology I A s PURDUEUNIV E R S I T Y • • ~'et)'Park ~~PSI JRr U I 0 U [ I .. I Y (I J I TY Dis:;:..•::,'SYPark[ntrgy crnt~ PURDUE LI BRAR I ES l I: 1 I I k II 11 )o f I J' ( I< t I I
  31. 31. We would Lil<e to th.a.ni< th.e followin.a ~poruold fo'C. th.ei'C. ~uppo'C.t: College of Agriculture Department of Biochemistry College of Engineering AGRICULTURE School of Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering School of Agricultural and Biological Engineering School of Electrical and Computer Engineering School of Material Science Engineering School of Mechanical Engineering School of Nuclear Engineering College of Liberal Arts Department of Political Science College of Science Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Department of Chemistry Department of Physics I llJ'I Krannert School of Management KRANNERT SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT PURDUE UNIVERSITY
  32. 32. Workshop Questions Global Warming Since the industrial revolution, humans have greatly expanded our footprint into the wilderness, replaced natural vegetation with large amounts of food crops, and continued to produce increasing levels of C02• The vast majority of current scientific research points towards an anthropogenic basis for global warming. On the other hand, the sun is in a brightening cycle, Mars has risen in temperature at near the same rate as Earth, and the Earth appears to be in a natural warming cycle. • Is this a fair assessment of the major issues? If not, how would you summarize them? • If you agree that humans are a major cause of global warming, what solutions do you feel we should pursue? • Has this conference changed your opinion on this topic? If so, what talk was it? If not, what aspect hasn't changed? Biofuels It is projected this year that demand for corn will strip past supply due in part to the dramatic increase in opera- tional ethanol plants. Several studies have shown that even in the best-case, ethanol from corn can only achieve a I: I energy input/output ratio, in part due to the large amount of energy required to distill. A recent study by Oregon State University says that other methods of freeing the US from dependence on foreign oil cost 28% less than using biofuels. • What should be the ultimate motivation for the use of a fuel? (e.g. efficiency, net C02 output, maximum ca- pacity, etc.) • Is it in general worthwhile to use food such as corn as a fuel? Why or why not? • Why do you feel the US government has pushed for the use of biofuels? Renewable Energy There is a large societal push for the US and the world to shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy, be it solar, wind, hydroelectric, or others. Still, changing the current infrastructure will cost a lot of money and take dec- ades, and Washington plays a large role in switching over to renewable energy in that their policies help shape what future power production facilities are built. • What renewable energy source do you feel has the best chance of succeeding? • Should we focus time and energy to creating power plants that pollute less rather than on renewable energy? • What is the biggest barrier, in your opinion, to renewable energy being adopted worldwide? Nuclear Energy In 1996, the last nuclear reactor came online in the US. We are now seeing a resurgence of interest in nuclear power and the technology is safer than ever. However, the US does not reprocess the spent fuel like other countries for security reasons, creating a significant amount of radioactive waste. • Is nuclear power too dangerous for use as a primary energy source? • Should the US reprocess their spent fuel? Why or why not? If not, where do we put the waste? • Would a switch to all nuclear power be appealing to you? Why or why not? • What did you learn from this conference about nuclear power? Transportation Energy Humans and the US in particular use an enormous amount of energy for transportation purposes (28% of all en- ergy in the US). Petroleum in its different forms is by far the largest fuel source for this activity. Recently, the US is beginning to see prices for fuel approach those seen in Europe for years. • Should personal efficiency be a primary method to lower consumption? • Is there anything that should (or can) be done now to alleviate high fuel costs? • Is there any future transportation energy source that looks personally promising?
  33. 33. Production Costs ofAdvanced Biofuels Is Similar to Grain-ethanol John Wiley & Sons, Inc 'Second generation' biorefineries -- those making biofuel from lignocellulosic feedstocks like straw, grasses and wood -- have long been touted as the successor to today's grain ethanol plants, but until now the technology has been considered too expensive to compete. However, recent increases in grain prices mean that production costs are now similar for grain ethanol and second-generation biofuels. Ideally, the switch to second generation biofuels will reduce competition with grain for food and feed, and allow the utilization of materials like straw which would otherwise go to waste. Need For Nuclear Reactor Permits Powering Up DOE/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission recently awarded the first-ever early site permit allowing construction of the first new nuclear power reactor in more than 30 years. Researchers at the Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are assisting NRC with environmental and safety reviews, and document prepara- tion required in evaluating and licensing new nuclear power generation stations in the United States. With this first approval issued, and a host of applications awaiting similar action during 2007, this surge may just be the begin- ning. Improved Polymers for Lithium Ion Batteries Pave the Way for Next Generation ofElectric and Hybrid Cars American Chemical Society The next generation of electric and hybrid cars may be a step closer thanks to new and improved polymer mem- branes that allow the development of bigger, safer, and more powerful lithium ion batteries. Polymer membranes are already an essential component of lithium ion batteries that power iPods, laptop computers, and other portable electronic devices. These porous, hair-thin separators control the flow of electrons through the battery. Their fail- ure can result in overheating and even fires; battery manufacturers have stepped up to this challenge by developing new polymer separators with greater porosity for improved power flow and stronger insulation materials for im- proved safety Record Warm Summers Cause Extreme Ice Melt In Greenland University ofSheffield An international team of scientists, led by Dr Edward Hanna at the University of Sheffield, has demonstrated that recent warm summers have caused the most extreme Greenland ice melting in 50 years. The new research pro- vides further evidence of a key impact of global warming and helps scientists place recent satellite observations of Greenland's shrinking ice mass in a longer-term climatic context. The findings show how the Greenland Ice Sheet responded to more regional, rather than global, changes in climate between the 1960s and early 1990s. However the last fifteen years has seen an increase in ice melting and a striking correspondence of Greenland with global temperature variations, demonstrating Greenland 's recent response to global warming. Record-breaking Hydrogen Storage Materials for Use in Fuel Cells Developed University ofVirginia Scientists at the University of Virginia have discovered a new class of hydrogen storage materials that could make the storage and transportation of energy much more efficient - and affordable - through higher-performing hy- drogen fuel cells. "In terms of hydrogen absorption, these materials could prove a world record," Adam B. Phillips of the University of Virginia said. "Most materials today absorb only 7 to 8 percent of hydrogen by weight, and only at cryogenic [extremely low] temperatures. Our materials absorb hydrogen up to 14 percent by weight at room temperature. By absorbing twice as much hydrogen, the new materials could help make the dream of a hy- drogen economy come true.
  34. 34. Purdue Student Pugwash Evaluation of 2008 Midwest Regional Conference March 21-22, 2008 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• I. Overall, how would you rate this conference? D Excellent D Good D Fair D Poor 2. Overall, how would you rate your experience at the conference? D Excellent D Good D Fair D Poor 3. Were your expectations met? DYes D No 4. Overall, how would you rate your degree of involvement in the conference? D Enthusiastically involved in all aspects D Only actively involved in the parts I liked DWas reluctant to get involved D Not actively involved 5. What did you expect or hope to gain from attending the conference? (Check the top 3 choices) D A better understanding of how does human energy consumption affect the planet and other issues covered during the conference D Exposure to and understanding of issues related to energy and the environment. DAn opportunity to hear and learn views on the issues covered in this conference DA chance to hear students' views on the issues conference D An opportunity to learn more about Student Pugwash USA DA chance to talk to other students interested in energy and the environment DAn opportunity to make friends 6. How did you hear about the conference? (Check all that apply) D From Purdue Student Pugwash website D From the Purdue Student Pugwash listserv D From the Student Pugwash USA website D From a press release or news article D From a professor, teacher, or staff member at your school D From a poster or flyer DOther source:~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~-
  35. 35. 7. What factors made you decide to attend this conference: (Check all that apply) D Prior participation in a Purdue Pugwash Conference D Prior participate in other Purdue Pugwash events or activities D Desire to learn more about energy and the environment and related issues D Desire to hear expert speakers D Desire to meet other students interested in these issues 8. Have you participated in a prior Purdue Pugwash conference? DYes D No 9. Was the conference staff helpful and responsive to your needs before the confer- ence? D Yes D No I0. Was the conference staff helpful and responsive to your needs after the confer- ence? DYes D No I I. The length of the conference was: D Too long D Just right DToo short I2. Please rate the following sessions: SESSION TIME RATING Excellent Good Fair Poor Not Attended Our Relationship Friday with Energy 6:30pm Barriers to Sustainable Friday Energy System 7:30pm The NRC in a Nuclear Saturday Renaissance 9:00am Humans and Global Saturday Warming 10:30am Transportation Energy Saturday 10:30am Biofuels Saturday 10:30am Discussion Workshop Saturday 1:30pm Global Warming Solu- Saturday tions 2:30pm Panel Discussion: The Saturday Future of Energy 4:1Spm
  36. 36. 13. What two things did you like best about the conference? a> ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~- b)~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 14. What two things could have been improved and how? a>~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~- b)~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~- 15. Based on your experience at this conference, would you participate in the regional conference next year? DYes D No 16. Are you a student? DYes Name of your university/college: D No 17. What category best describes your major or field of study? D Natural Science D Arts/Humanities DSocial Science D Law D Physical Science D Medical Sciences D Philosophy/ Ethics D Interdisciplinary 18. How would you characterize your relationship to Purdue Pugwash prior to his con- ference? (Check all that apply) DAlumni of chapter program or previous conference DCurrent chapter participant DSenior participant or expert consultant D No relationship to the organization prior to the conference DOther:
  37. 37. (ls-n +- 0 ' 8 Pl-. [J ATMI Second Floor Third Floor Stewart Center West Foyer: Conference Registration and Check-in Fowler Hall STEW 214 ABCD: Lunch Breakout Session STEW 310: Global Warming Basics Breakout Session STEW 314: Enabling Technologies of Hybrid Vehicles Breakout Session STEW 318: Biofuels !Jfumft 'JOU ~ allendUuJ [}wullu Student [j>~fi~ ~t~~2008
  38. 38. r Pl RDL l AGRICULTURE KRANNERT SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT PURDUE UNIVERSITY PURDUEUNIVERSITY :p DisG •ryPark . ~~!PSIIB ' Learn to Think in a New Way PURDUE UlllVERSITY Dig 'eryPark Energy Center PURDUEU N IV E R S I T Y LIBRARIES 1 ( I •' f" JI ,) ll' / 1• (/ .~ 11 ' (J ( (I ' I I A s Purdue Student Pugwash •Stewart Center Box# 724 • 128 Memorial Mall •West Lafayette, IN 47907-2034 www.purdue.edu/pugwash .... ",.---,, -----, ~ ,......._, ,........, ,........, ,......._ ,.--..., ~ ,.---,, ,.--..., ------

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