Ch03 p pt


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Ch03 p pt

  1. 1. Business English at Work© 2003 Glencoe/McGraw-Hill
  2. 2. Sentence Development • Demonstrate knowledge of terms used in sentence construction. Objectives • Use correct ending punctuation for statements, questions, commands, and exclamations. • Identify simple, compound, and complete subjects. • Identify simple, compound, and complete predicates. continuedBusiness English at Work PP 3-1a
  3. 3. Sentence Development continued Recognize direct objects, indirect objects, and other complements. Objectives Identify normal and inverted sentence order patterns. Differentiate between phrases and clauses. Identify simple, compound, complex, and compound- complex sentences. Identify complete sentences, fragments, and run-on sentences.Business English at Work PP 3-1b
  4. 4. Sentence Development A Sentence A sentence consists of words correctly arranged to form a complete statement or idea. A sentence begins with a capital letter. ends with an ending mark of punctuation.Business English at Work PP 3-2
  5. 5. Sentence Development Ask these questions to determine whether words are a sentence. Do the words make sense? Do the words indicate a complete thought? Does the group of words begin with a capital letter? „ Does the group of words end with a period, question mark, or exclamation point?Business English at Work PP 3-3
  6. 6. Sentence Development Four Purposes of Sentences Express statements (declarative sentences). End with a period. We offer a 30-day return policy. Ask questions (interrogative sentences). End with a question mark if direct questions. Are the new brochures available yet? End with a period if indirect questions. He asked whether I planned to revise the news release.Business English at Work PP 3-4a
  7. 7. Sentence Development continued Four Purposes of Sentences „ Give commands and requests (imperative sentences). „ End with a period. Direct Command Place your order within two days to receive a discount. Courteous Request Will you please call me by the end of the week. „ Express emotions (exclamatory sentences). „ End with an exclamation point. Always satisfy your customers!Business English at Work PP 3-4a
  8. 8. Sentence Development Sentences Have Two Parts Subject „ Often a noun or pronoun „ Indicates who is speaking, who is spoken to, or who or what is spoken about Predicate Verb (action or “to be” form) Tells what the subject is doing or what the subject isBusiness English at Work PP 3-5
  9. 9. Sentence Development Simple Subject The simple subject is the main word of the subject. „ Users can schedule unlimited sales calls with contact management software. „ We offer a discount to our employees. „ Outstanding customer service is our goal.Business English at Work PP 3-6
  10. 10. Sentence Development Compound Subject The compound subject is two or more main words in a subject. „ Hudson Communications and Cellular Depot share an office building in the Redwood Business Park. „ Evening hours and free parking interest customers. „ Focus groups, phone messages, and postal card responses are all ways to obtain user opinions.Business English at Work PP 3-7
  11. 11. Sentence Development Complete Subject The complete subject consists of the simple or compound subject plus any of its modifiers. „ Most customers comment on our window displays. „ Sales brochures describe our products. „ Free upgrades and extra bonus miles attract some travelers.Business English at Work PP 3-8
  12. 12. Sentence Development Simple Predicate The simple predicate is a single verb or verb phrase. „ Tim speaks softly. „ I take inventory once a week. „ Our store hours are convenient. „ We have advertised our sale in the local newspaper.Business English at Work PP 3-9
  13. 13. Sentence Development Compound Predicate The compound predicate is two or more verbs. „ I researched our orders and designed our latest sales brochure. „ Our accountant and the sales manager analyzed our sales and recommended new pricing of products. „ Other companies have visited our call center and ordered similar telephone headsets.Business English at Work PP 3-10
  14. 14. Sentence Development Complete Predicate The complete predicate consists of the simple or compound predicate plus all modifiers that limit or describe the verbs. „ This short survey asks for your opinions about our customer service. „ Our company has an extensive video training library. „ The reports on this Website review a wide range of customer service issues.Business English at Work PP 3-11
  15. 15. Sentence Development A Direct Object „ Can be a noun or pronoun. „ Completes the verb by answering the questions whom? or what? after the verb. „ Glenda plans seminars for our company. „ Service companies need outstanding delivery records. „ My supervisor praised me for resolving the problem.Business English at Work PP 3-12
  16. 16. Sentence Development An Indirect Object „ Can be a noun or pronoun. „ Answers the questions to whom? or for whom? „ Usually precedes the direct object. „ Usually follows verb forms such as give, offer, wish, ship, make, refuse, present, or send.Business English at Work PP 3-13a
  17. 17. Sentence Development continued Examples of Indirect Objects „ Dynamic Designs offers me a 15 percent discount. „ The warehouse shipped Kerry the furniture last week. „ Our company gives customers a money- back guarantee.Business English at Work PP 3-13b
  18. 18. Sentence Development A Subject Complement „ Is a predicate noun or predicate pronoun that follows a linking verb (am, are, is was, were). „ Renames the subject. „ Richard Herrera is a customer service representative. „ We are the best sales team.Business English at Work PP 3-14
  19. 19. Sentence Development A Predicate Complement „ Is a predicate adjective that follows a linking verb (am, are, is, was, were). „ Modifies (describes) the subject. „ Billboard advertising is expensive. „ Customers are a company’s most important asset.Business English at Work PP 3-15
  20. 20. Sentence Development Sentence Order Normal Order The subject appears first and the predicate follows. „ Jerry responded. „ Your company’s competitors hired several young salespeople. „ I received the sales totals. „ We wish you success. „ The training video is free.Business English at Work PP 3-16a
  21. 21. Sentence Development continued Sentence Order Inverted Order The predicate or part of the predicate is before the subject. „ There are many compliments about our customer service. „ Here is the latest inventory report. „ Should we offer discounts to attract customers? „ How much will a customer satisfaction survey cost? „ On the Website are the details about our shipping policies.Business English at Work PP 3-16b
  22. 22. Sentence Development Phrase A phrase is a sequence of words which has neither a subject nor a predicate. „ Prepositional phrase: Begins with a preposition such as of, in, at, and for and ends with a noun or pronoun. Does not include a verb. in our call center at our warehouse „ Infinitive phrase: Begins with to and includes a verb form. to offer a compromise to request a refundBusiness English at Work PP 3-17
  23. 23. Sentence Development Clause A clause is a sequence of words with both a subject and a predicate. „ Independent clause: Is a complete sentence and can stand alone. We send a confirmation e-mail for each online order. „ Dependent clause: Is not a complete sentence and cannot stand alone. It must be joined to an independent clause to make sense. When you call our customer service department,Business English at Work PP 3-18a
  24. 24. Sentence Development continued Clause When a dependent clause introduces an independent clause, place a comma at the end of the dependent clause. „ If the office furniture was damaged in moving, our standard guarantee still applies. „ Because we have 24-hour customer service, we have three customer service shifts.Business English at Work PP 3-18b
  25. 25. Sentence Development Sentence Formations „ Simple sentences „ Compound sentences „ Complex sentences „ Compound-complex sentencesBusiness English at Work PP 3-19
  26. 26. Sentence Development Simple Sentence A simple sentence is one independent clause in a subject-verb pattern. „ We cancelled the order last week. „ Rachel and I purchased a subscription to Advertising Age. „ Our customers shop online and refer others to our Website. „ The human relations specialist and my manager recommended less phone work and offered me another position.Business English at Work PP 3-20
  27. 27. Sentence Development Compound Sentence A compound sentence is two independent clauses connected by a coordinating conjunction. „ Many of our customers are self-employed, and they purchase items for themselves. „ Limited quantities of this product are available, but we will ship your order next week.Business English at Work PP 3-21
  28. 28. Sentence Development Complex Sentence A complex sentence consists of an independent clause and a dependent clause. When a product is listed as out of stock, your order will be filled as soon as possible. If your order cannot be shipped within 30 days, we will cancel the order. Because I arrived late for the sale, I could not find the items that I wanted.Business English at Work PP 3-22
  29. 29. Sentence Development Compound-Complex Sentence A compound-complex sentence consists of more than one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. „ If your order has not been shipped within 30 days, we will notify you of this delay by e-mail, and you will have the option to cancel your order. „ When you receive a promotional code, enter it on your order, but only one promotional code may be used for each order.Business English at Work PP 3-23
  30. 30. Sentence Development Sentence Fragment A sentence fragment consists of words, phrases, or dependent clauses that cannot stand alone and may contain subjects and predicates. The multiple gift certificates Ordered by phone last weekBusiness English at Work PP 3-24
  31. 31. Sentence Development Run-On Sentence A run-on sentence is a complete sentence with period or comma faults. I want to order online credit card thefts worry me. Your serial number is provided with your product documentation you can also find the serial number by opening the software and clicking on the Help menu.Business English at Work PP 3-25
  32. 32. End ofBusiness English at Work© 2003 Glencoe/McGraw-Hill