Morphology 100826021909-phpapp01

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Morphology 100826021909-phpapp01

  1. 1. Dr. Jessie Grace U. RubricoFacilitator
  2. 2. word structure  Rootword - car, beauty, write, near  Root + Affixes – cars, written, nearly, beautifully parts: car + s; write + -en near + ly; beauty + ful + ly  each part has meaning : morpheme PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  3. 3.  morphemes –parts of words that carry meaning - smallest unit of meaning or grammatical function rootword - one morpheme-word; - word cannot be divided PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  4. 4. Polysyllabic Words Rootword Prefix Suffix Morphemes1. careless care -less 22. misleading lead mis- -ing 33. disloyalty loyal dis- -ty 34. disrespectfully respect dis- -ful; -ly 45. untruthfulness6. previewer7. shortened PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  5. 5.  morphemes that can stand alone content/lexical words – nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs function words – pronouns, prepositions, determiners, conjunctions PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  6. 6.  affixes: prefixes, suffixes derivational - make new words or change their categories inflectional – changes the form of the word but not its meaning -indicates grammatical function singular/plural ; tense; comparatives; possessive PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  7. 7.  make new words or change their categories Noun > Adj care care+ -ful > careful care+ -less > careless Adj > Noun good good + -ness > goodness lovely lovely + -ness > loveliness PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  8. 8. Base SuffixNoun +-ful Adj beauty + -fulVerb + -ment Noun establish + -mentVerb + -er Noun do + -er; work + -erVerb + -ive Adj prohibit + -iveNoun + -en Verb light + -enAdjective + -en Verb short + -enAdjective + -ness Noun good +-nessAdjective + -ly Adv beautiful + -ly PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  9. 9. inflectional – changes the form of the word but not its meaning -indicates grammatical function number : plural or singular – boys, books possession : ownership –attached to nouns tense : past or present tense – dances, danced PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  10. 10.  bound to nouns [Noun +] - –‘s / s’ (possessive) : Mary’s, the childrens’ - s (plural), books, boys bound to verbs [Verb +] -s (3rd person, singular) – dances, watches -ing (present participle) – dancing, watching -ed (past tense) – danced, watched -en/-ed (past participle) - they’ve done it bound to adjectives [Adj +] –er : darker -est : darkest PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  11. 11.  /indefiniteness/ - a before a consonant - a boy an before a vowel - an apple▪ /plural/▪ cat + /plural/ -[s] after voiceless segment: [kæts]▪ dog + /plural/- [z] after voiced segment : [dɔgz] [dɒgz]▪ judge + /plural/-[әz] after voiced segment sheep + /plural/ - sheep + Ø : sheep man + /plural/ - æ > ε : men (suppletion) PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  12. 12. content/ lexical free functionmorpheme derivational bound inflectional PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  13. 13.  storage of words in a language; dictionary contents:  phonological information/pronunciation  meaning, related words, sentence use  spelling  etymology (historical development) > not contain in the mental lexicon PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  14. 14.  phonological information sounds and phonotactics semantic information– meaning morphological information –formation of relations in word: past tense (V), plural (N) syntactic information -category (noun or verb) and usage PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  15. 15. Content words: nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs lexical morphemes denote concepts like objects, actions, attributes, ideas, etc. semantic content (meaning) open class words – add new words: download, byte, email PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  16. 16. Function words : determiners/ articles, pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions grammatical function- connect words to other words or phrases closed class -articles a/an and the – marks definiteness/indef of nouns preposition of -marks possession, etc. PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  17. 17.  Nouns Adjectives Verbs- Adverbs – modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs – PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  18. 18. pronouns Personal pronouns – person- first, second, third Demonstrative – this, these; that, those Interrogative pronouns – who, what, etc. Relative pronouns –who, that, which, whose, whom –related to the preceding NP Indefinite pronouns – someone, anyone, everyone, somebody, etc pronouns: used independently, not as modifiers of other words PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  19. 19. Determiners – precede nouns: def/indef articles– a, the demonstratives : this, that, these, those possessives : my, our, your, her, his, their interrogatives: which what, whosePrepositions- typically precede nouns; give information about time, place, etc.Conjunctions: coordinating conjunctions –and, but, or – conjoin words of the same category - subordinating conjunctions – that, whenever, while, because PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  20. 20. Lexical/grammatical categories1. words with parallel book –books ; dog - dogs nounsforms belong to tall- taller-tallest adjectivesthe same category small-smaller-smallest verbs walk – walks, walked play-plays-played2. co-occurrence- Nouns preceded by a determiner the cat, my car, an egg take plural forms regular book-books irregular tooth – teeth, sheep-sheep PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  21. 21. Lexicalcategories Verbs preceded by modals will, can, may, might, etc Adjectives take very, or too; more, the most3. relying on the meaning or function nouns name persons, places, things, etc. adjectives name qualities or properties of nouns verbs - transitive – requires a Intransitive – does not describe noun phrase after it require a noun after it action (object) adverbs – modifying adjectives swiftly, sweetly, courageously, usually, quickly; very/too tall modifying verbs often; here, soon, now modifying adverbs very soon, really incredible PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  22. 22. grammatical categoriespronouns personal person- first, second, third demonstrative this, these; that, those interrogative who, what, etc. relative- relates to the who, that, which, whose, whom– preceding NP indefinite someone, anyone, somebodydeterminers: def/indef articles the, a, anprecede nouns demonstratives this, that, these, those possessives my, our, your, her interrogatives which what, whoseprepositions -typically precede a nounconjunctions-conjunctions coordinating conjunctions and, but, or -conjoin words of the same category-subordinators subordinating conjunctions that, whenever, while, because PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810
  23. 23. McGregor, William B. 2009. Linguistics: An Introduction. London: Continuum International Publishing Group.OGrady, William D., Archibald, John, [eds.] (2009). Contemporary Linguistic Analysis: An Introduction, 6th edition. Ontario: Pearson Education Canada.Yule G. 2006. The study of language. Cambridge: CUP. PBET 1101 TESL Program Faculty of Education Universiti Malaya Dr. Jessie Grace U Rubrico/260810

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