CAUSES OF REVOLTS AGAINST SPAIN The people‟s desire to regain their lost freedom and happiness. * Spanish oppression. ** Hated tribute.** Forced labor.** Religious persecution.** Agrarian disputes with the friars who grabbed the lands of the natives. Spanish religious bigotry or because the people in certain regions of the country wanted to go back to the worship of their ancestral gods.
FILIPINO LIBERTARIANS Raha Sulayman Tumalang Lankan Dula Dagohoy Agustin de Legazpi Diego Silang Magalat Gabriela Silang Tamblot Palaris Bankaw Apolinario dela Cruz Sumoroy Sergeant Samaniego Maniago Malong Pedro Almazan
*REVOLT OF LAKAN DULA AND SULAYMAN 1574 - a pact of peace and friendship was made with Adelantado Legazpi who promised that Spain would recognize their patrimonial lands and treat their people fairly and well. But he died on August 20, 1572, his successor, Governor Guido de Lavezaris, confiscated their patrimonial land properties and allowed the Spanish encomenderos to abuse and oppress their people.Realizing that Governor Lavezaris could not drive away Lim-Ah-Hong, who attacked Manila in December 1574 without the help ofFilipinos, he sent Salcedo and Father Marin to the war camp of LakanDula and Sulayman to persuade them to lay down their arms and topromise that all their grievances would be remedied and those whotook up arms would be pardoned. Happily, Lavezaris kept his word so peace and friendship were restored
*TONDO CONSPIRACY 1587-88 - The mastermind of this libertarian movement was Agustin de Legazpi, nephew of Lakan Dula and son-in-law of the sultan of Brunei. His plan was to kill the Spaniards and set the city of Manila on fire. He also revealed this to his first cousin Martin Pangan who were then given cruel penalties and were brutally hanged after their secret mission reached to Governor Santiago de Vera.
** MAGALAT’S REVOLT 1596 Magalat with his brother incited the people of Cagayan to rise against Spain during the rule of Governor Francisco Tello. The revolt was put down, and the rebellious brothers were kept in Manila as exiles. The Dominican missionaries of Cagayan persuaded Governor Tello to pardon them then the Governor allowed them to return home. Sooner, he once more incited the people to rebellion. He killed many Spaniards and loyal Filipinos. The Spaniards hired native assassins and murdered the valiant leader in his own house. His death caused the failure of the revolt.
**RELIGIOUS REVOLT OF TAMBLOT 1621-22 A Filipino babaylan named Tamblot exorted the people of Bohol to return to the faith of their forefathers and convinced them “that the time has come when they could free themselves from the oppression of the Spaniards, inasmush as they were assured of the aid of their ancestors and diutas, or god ” On New Year‟s Day, 1622, Tamblot and his followers were crushed and Cebuano soldiers gave victory to Spain.
**BANKAW’S RELIGIOUS REVOLT 1621 Aged chieftain of Limasawa, Bankaw, who became loyal to Spain, incited the people of Carigara, Leyte to rise in arms in defense to their old gods and religion. The revolt spread like wildfire to other towns until the whole island was plunged into a chaos of armed resistance. The rebels were offered peace by Alcalde-Mayor Alcarazo, but they spurned the peace offer, and fled to their fortification in the hills. The Spanish-Filipino forces pursued them and defeated them in a decisive battle. Bankaw‟s head was severed from his body and placed on a stake and exhibit in public as a punishment for his
SUMOROY’S REBELLION 1649-50 Governor Diego Fajardo ordered the alcaldes mayors of the Visayas to send men to Cavite to work in the shipyards. But the Visayans resented their order because of the hardship of leaving their homes and families. When the people of Palapag, Samar, found out that the government would enforce the cruel order, they rose in rebellion under Sumoroy‟s leadership, and began the hostilities on June 1, 1649. In July 1650, Sumoroy was taken alive and executed
MANIAGO’S REVOLT 1660 In 1660, the Pampanguenos rose in revolt against Spain. Their leader was the valiant warlord, Francisco Maniago, a native of the town of Mexico, Pampanga. The term „‟bandala‟‟ (written vandala in Spanish records) is an old native word which means „‟to take with some force‟‟. In the early days of October 1660, the Pampanguenos began their uprising by setting fire to their own houses and swearing „‟by the light of the fierce flames, their rash intention‟‟ to fight for their rights and liberty.
MALONG’S REBELLION 1660-61 This revolt was led by Andres Malong, who led some natives in Pangasinan to take up arms against the Spanish government and proclaimed himself King of Pangasinan. However his kingdom was short-lived and soon most of his forces abandoned him, enabling the Spanish forces to capture him and subsequently executed him. Later, Juan dela Cruz Palaris, a native of Binalatongan, led a renewal of the revolt. The Spanish authorities reviewed the demands of the natives and required the alcalde-mayor of Pangasinan to resign. The people of Pangasinan continued their resistance nonetheless, but they finally defeated in March, 1764.
THE ILOCOS REVOLT 1661 A part of the chain to the Malong Revolt was the Ilocos Revolt led by Don Pedro Almazan, illustrious and wealthy leader from San Nicolas, Laoag, Ilocos Norte. The letters sent by Don Andres Malong ("King of Pangasinan") narrating the defeat of the Spaniards in his area and urging other provinces to rise in arms failed to obtain any support among the natives. During the revolt, Don Pedro Almazan auto- proclaimed himself "King of Ilocos", but was later captured and executed.he also had a son which the ilocanos proclaimed their prince.
THE ZAMBAL REVOLT 1681-83 After suppressing the Malong revolt in Pangasinan, the Spanish moved to exterminate the roots of the rebellion. Chief Tumalang ended up converting to Catholicism. The Zambals then killed Rf. Domingo Perez, a Dominican Friar, after which the Spanish sent additional troops and defeated the rebels.
DAGOHOY REBELLION 1744-1829 Father Gaspar Morales ordered s constable to capture a man who had abandoned his Christian Religion in the island of Bohol Francisco Dagohoy, brother of the deceased, instigated the people to rise in arms. Afterwards , Morales was killed by Dagohoy. Dagohoy defeated the Spanish-Filipino forces sent against him. He established a free government in the mountains and had 20,000 followers. Dagohoy being the leader of the longest
REBELLION OF DIEGO SILANG 1762-63 Diego Silang – one of the greatest heroes of Ilocandia, roused his people to action and proclaimed the abolition of the excessive tribute and forced labor. The Spanish authorities decided to have him assassinated since they can‟t destroy him by arms. Thus died Silang, the guiding genius of the Ilocos war of independence.
GABRIELA, ILOCANO JOAN OF ARC Maria Josefa Gabriela - the heroic wife of Diego Silang, carried on his unfinished work. The assassination of her husband only make her redouble her effort to seek Ilocano liberty. Don Manuel de Arza, lieuteneant- governor of northern luzon, captured the fleeing heroine and her followers. On September 20, 1763, the brave Gabriela were executed at Vigan.
THE PALARIS REVOLT On November 3, 1762, with the Spanish at war with Britain and a British invasion of the Philippinesin progress, a Pangasinense leader named Juan de la Cruz Palaris (also known as Pantaleon Perez) rebelled against Spanish imposition of the tribute. The revolt lasted two years, spreading across Pangasinan and affecting other provinces. The report ended in 1764, when Spanish forces along with some Ilocanos loyal to Spain led by Manuel de Azar hunted Palaris down and executed him publicly.
RELIGIOUS REVOLT OF HERMANO PULE Between June 1840 and November 1841, this revolt was led by Apolinario de la Cruz, otherwise known as "Hermano Pule". De la Cruz started his own religious order, the Confraternity of Saint Joseph in Lucban, located in the present-day province of Quezon , in June of 1840. Because of this, the Spanish government sent in troops to forcibly break up the order, forcing De la Cruz and his followers to rise in armed revolt in self-defense. The Spaniards eventually won, and Apolinario de la Cruz was executed on November 4, 1841 in the then-provincial capital, Tayabas.
SERGEANT SAMANIEGO REGIMENT On January 20, 1843, the regiment, led by Sergeant Irineo Samaniego, rose in mutiny, eventually capturing Fort Santiago in Intramuros. The next day, however, the gates of Fort Santiago were opened by loyalist soldiers. After a bloody battle, the mutineers were defeated by loyalist troops, resulting in the execution of Samaniego and 81 of his followers the same day.
WHY THE REVOLTS FAILED Absence of national consciousness Lack of leaders to unite the whole archipelago Regional hostility Archipelagic nature of the Philippines prevented a steady communication in the provinces. Superiority of the Spanish arms The betrayals and assassinations of rebel leaders.