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  1. 1. VIRUSES By Nia Widyastuti 1
  2. 2. Describing the characteristics, the replication, and the roles of virus in life  Identify the characteristics of virus  Distinguish the structure of virus  Explain the virus life style  Explain the replication of virus  Explain the roles of the harmful and the harmless viruses BASIC COMPETENCY INDICATOR 2
  3. 3. HISTORY OF THE SEARCH FOR VIRUS  1883, Adolf Mayer (Germany) do research to tobacco plant have mosaic disease can cause tobacco plant become dwarf and leaves have spotted. Conclusion : new kind of bacteria  1892, Dmitri Iwanowski (Russian) do filter extract tobacco leave with filter so bacteria or other micro organism can’t infection plant tobacco in fact extract tobacco have been filtered but tobacco plant infection mosaic disease. Conclusion : pathogen bacteria  1893, Martinus W. Beijerink (Dutch) he assumed that there are agent can infection tobacco plant, he called that agent is filterable virus because can out from bacteria filter and can’t to have seen with light microscope 3
  4. 4. CHARACTERISTICS OF VIRUSES  Viruses are not cell  Viruses extremely small (0,05-0,2 µm or 50x smaller than bacteria size. To observe viruses need electron microscope  Contain some materials found in cells, made of a core of nucleic acid surrounded by a protein DNA or RNA  Can’t do reproduction it self  Can’t do metabolisms it self  Can be crystalloid 4
  5. 5. DIFFERENCE OF VIRUS WITH CELL  Only have one type nucleic acid (RNA or DNA)  Can’t do reproduction it self  Don’t have metabolisms it self  Body cell have two type nucleic acid DNA and RNA  Can do reproduction  Have metabolism system VIRUS CELL 5
  6. 6. STRUCTURE BODY OF VIRUS 1 2 3 3 4 5 1. Protein coat 2. Nucleic acid 3. Head 4. Wrapper tail 5. Tail fiber Model of a virus Information Picture 6
  8. 8. REPRODUCTION OF VIRUSES  Absorption (virus attaches to cell)  Penetration (virus DNA enters cytoplasm cell)  Replication and synthesis (virus directs cell to make new viruses)  Shape of new virus (arrange nucleic acid and protein virus)  Released (cell burst releasing new virus) Process lyshogenic cycle similar with lytic cycle step but in in step replication there are step addition or insertion genetic material virus in bacteria material which called profage LYTIC CYCLE LYSHOGENIC CYCLE 8
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  10. 10. CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUS Based on hospes cell (sel inang) virus divided into three, they are : 1. Bacteria Virus (virus which infection bacteria cell) 2. Animal Virus (virus which infection animal cell) 3. Plant Virus (virus which infection plant cell) 10
  11. 11. DISEASE IN ANIMAL CAUSED BY VIRUS Kind of Virus Kinds of Disease New castle disease Tetelo in aves Rhabdovirus Rabies in dog, monkey Rous sarcoma virus Cancer in chicken Herpesvirus simiae Herpes in monkey 11
  12. 12. Herpes Tetelo 12
  13. 13. DISEASE IN PLANTS CAUSED BY VIRUS Kind of Disease Kind of Virus Spotted in leave tobacco Tobacco mosaic virus Spotted in cabbage Cauliflower mosaic virus Decrease growth in potato plant Potato yellow dwarf virus Decrease growth in potato plant Rice dwarf virus 13
  14. 14. Potato yellow dwarf virus Tobacco Mosaic virus 14
  15. 15. DISEASE IN HUMAN CAUSED BY VIRUS Disease Kinds of Virus Herpes oral Herpesvirus simplex tipe I Smallpox Poxviruses Hepatitis B Hepadna virus Encephalistis, Rubela, Chikungunya Togaviruses Rabies Rhabdovirus Influesza Orthomyxoviruses Leukemia Retroviruses; HTLV Measles Paramyxoviruses Ebola Filovirus Polio, hepatitis A Enterovirus 15
  16. 16. Hepatitis B Ebola Herpes Oral 16
  17. 17. USES OF VIRUS  Insect Control Some viruses cause disease in insects. Scientists are trying to use these viruses to kill insects that damage crops. In time, such viruses may replace insecticides.  Cell Research Scientist study viruses to understands DNA, RNA, and other cell compounds. Such research may add to our knowledge of cell activities.  Control of Viral Diseases Scientists use some virus to produce vaccines. Vaccines are substances that help your body defend against diseases. Several vaccines are made from chemical treated viruses. These vaccines are injected into the body. The body then produces substances that protect against these viruses 17
  18. 18. Thank You for your Attention Orang yang cerdas adalah orang yang mau memahami, mengerti , dan terus belajar GANBATTE 18