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Philosophies of Education
*Define philosophy
*Define philosophy of education
Behaviorism – modifying behavior
Behavior is learned from the environment. Behaviorism states that all stimuli are followed by
a response based on the environment in which the individual is.
(Positive and negative reinforcement)
B.F Skinner
Why teach: to modify and shape student’s behavior
What to teach: teachers teach students to respond favorably to various stimuli in the
environment
How to teach:
 teachers arrange environmental conditions
 They provide reinforcement and punishment
KEYWORD: change
Constructivism – constructing meaning
People construct their own understanding and knowledge of the world
Jean Piaget
Constructivism's central idea is that human learning is constructed, that learners build new
knowledge upon the foundation of previous learning.
Why teach: to develop extrinsically motivated and independent learners equipped with
learning skills
What to teach: students are taught how to learn
How to teach: teacher provides students with data and experiences that allow them
hypothesize, predict, manipulate, pose questions, research and invent
KEYWORD:
Essentialism
– learning the essentials like the 3R
Training the mind what are essentials
William Bagley
Essentialism is an approach assuming that people and things have natural and essential
common characteristics which are inherent, innate and unchanging.
Why teach: to instill students with the essentials of academic knowledge, enacting a back-to-
basic approach
What to teach: basic skills or the fundamental Rs (reading, writing, arithmetic, and right conduct)
How to teach:
 emphasis on mastery of subject matter
 Observance of core requirements and longer academic year
KEYWORD: basic
Existentialism – having individual choice
Focus on individual’s freedom to choose their own purpose in life
Kierkegaard Sartre; "Man shapes his being as he lives"
Why teach: to help students and appreciate themselves as unique individuals
What to teach: students are given a wide variety of options from which to choose.
humanities are given emphasis
How to teach:
Methods focus on the individual
Learning is self-paced and self-directed
KEYWORD: choice, freedom
Perennialism – utilizing the great books
Teaching ideas that are everlasting
Robert Hutchins
Why teach: to teach students rationally and develop minds that can think critically.
What to teach: lessons are lifted from classic and great books
How to teach: classrooms are teacher-centered
Students engaged in Socratic dialogue
‘
KEYWORD: constant
Progressivism – learning by doing
Education comes from the experience
Dewey/Pestalozzi
Why teach: to develop learners into becoming enlightened and intelligent citizens
What to teach: curriculum that responds to student’s needs and that relates to their personal
lives and experience.
How to teach:
 teacher employs experiential methods
 They believe that one learns by doing
KEYWORD: improve
Reconstructionism – having social reform
Emphasizes the addressing of social questions and a quest to create a better society
Why teach: to attain social reform
What to teach: curriculum focuses on student taking social action in solving real problems
How to teach:
 Social issues are dealt through inquiry, dialogue, and multiple perspective
 Community-based learning is utilized
KEYWORD:
Sahin, M. (n.d.). ERIC - ED593579 - Essentialism in Philosophy, Psychology, Education, Social
and Scientific Scopes, Online Submission, 2018. ERIC - ED593579 - Essentialism in
Philosophy, Psychology, Education, Social and Scientific Scopes, Online Submission, 2018;
eric.ed.gov. Retrieved July 19, 2022, from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED593579
Brau, B., Fox, N., & Robinson, E. (2020, January 1). Behaviorism - The Students’ Guide to
Learning Design and Research. Behaviorism - The Students’ Guide to Learning Design and
Research; edtechbooks.org. https://edtechbooks.org/studentguide/behaviorism
Mcleod, S. (n.d.). Constructivism as a Theory for Teaching and Learning | Simply Psychology.
Constructivism as a Theory for Teaching and Learning | Simply Psychology;
www.simplypsychology.org. Retrieved July 19, 2022, from
https://www.simplypsychology.org/constructivism.html

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Philosophies of Education.docx

  • 1. Philosophies of Education *Define philosophy *Define philosophy of education Behaviorism – modifying behavior Behavior is learned from the environment. Behaviorism states that all stimuli are followed by a response based on the environment in which the individual is. (Positive and negative reinforcement) B.F Skinner Why teach: to modify and shape student’s behavior What to teach: teachers teach students to respond favorably to various stimuli in the environment How to teach:  teachers arrange environmental conditions  They provide reinforcement and punishment KEYWORD: change Constructivism – constructing meaning People construct their own understanding and knowledge of the world Jean Piaget Constructivism's central idea is that human learning is constructed, that learners build new knowledge upon the foundation of previous learning. Why teach: to develop extrinsically motivated and independent learners equipped with learning skills What to teach: students are taught how to learn How to teach: teacher provides students with data and experiences that allow them hypothesize, predict, manipulate, pose questions, research and invent KEYWORD: Essentialism – learning the essentials like the 3R Training the mind what are essentials William Bagley
  • 2. Essentialism is an approach assuming that people and things have natural and essential common characteristics which are inherent, innate and unchanging. Why teach: to instill students with the essentials of academic knowledge, enacting a back-to- basic approach What to teach: basic skills or the fundamental Rs (reading, writing, arithmetic, and right conduct) How to teach:  emphasis on mastery of subject matter  Observance of core requirements and longer academic year KEYWORD: basic Existentialism – having individual choice Focus on individual’s freedom to choose their own purpose in life Kierkegaard Sartre; "Man shapes his being as he lives" Why teach: to help students and appreciate themselves as unique individuals What to teach: students are given a wide variety of options from which to choose. humanities are given emphasis How to teach: Methods focus on the individual Learning is self-paced and self-directed KEYWORD: choice, freedom Perennialism – utilizing the great books Teaching ideas that are everlasting Robert Hutchins Why teach: to teach students rationally and develop minds that can think critically. What to teach: lessons are lifted from classic and great books How to teach: classrooms are teacher-centered Students engaged in Socratic dialogue ‘ KEYWORD: constant
  • 3. Progressivism – learning by doing Education comes from the experience Dewey/Pestalozzi Why teach: to develop learners into becoming enlightened and intelligent citizens What to teach: curriculum that responds to student’s needs and that relates to their personal lives and experience. How to teach:  teacher employs experiential methods  They believe that one learns by doing KEYWORD: improve Reconstructionism – having social reform Emphasizes the addressing of social questions and a quest to create a better society Why teach: to attain social reform What to teach: curriculum focuses on student taking social action in solving real problems How to teach:  Social issues are dealt through inquiry, dialogue, and multiple perspective  Community-based learning is utilized KEYWORD: Sahin, M. (n.d.). ERIC - ED593579 - Essentialism in Philosophy, Psychology, Education, Social and Scientific Scopes, Online Submission, 2018. ERIC - ED593579 - Essentialism in Philosophy, Psychology, Education, Social and Scientific Scopes, Online Submission, 2018; eric.ed.gov. Retrieved July 19, 2022, from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED593579 Brau, B., Fox, N., & Robinson, E. (2020, January 1). Behaviorism - The Students’ Guide to Learning Design and Research. Behaviorism - The Students’ Guide to Learning Design and Research; edtechbooks.org. https://edtechbooks.org/studentguide/behaviorism Mcleod, S. (n.d.). Constructivism as a Theory for Teaching and Learning | Simply Psychology. Constructivism as a Theory for Teaching and Learning | Simply Psychology; www.simplypsychology.org. Retrieved July 19, 2022, from https://www.simplypsychology.org/constructivism.html