Bài thuyết trình tiếng anh

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Bài thuyết trình tiếng anh

  1. 1. Welcome to the presentation Groups 4 :Topics Past perfect and Reported speech
  2. 2. Group members: 1.Nguyễn Hoài Anh 9.Hà Huy Toàn 2.Nguyễn Giao Linh 10.Trần Thị Như 3.Trịnh Thị Hà Thu 11.Trần Thị Nụ 4. Dương Thu Hà 12.ĐỗTh.KimOanh 5.Đặng Thị Hiên 13.Vũ Thị Lan 6.Nguyễn Thị Sang 14.TrầnTh.ThuHường 7.Đinh Thị Trang 15.Ngô Thùy Linh 8.Đào T.Huyền Trang 16.Nguyễn T.ThuHiền
  3. 3. 1.Past Perfect Tense The past perfect simple expresses an action taking place before a certain time in the past.
  4. 4. Use of Past Perfect: • Use the past perfect when you are already talking about the past, and want to talk about an earlier past action. Example: -Before I came here, I had spoken to Jack. -John went home after he had gone to the store. -The police cars came to the scene when the robbers had gone away. • Conditional Sentences Type III (condition that was not given in the past) Example: If I had seen him, I would have talked to him.
  5. 5. Form of Past Perfect Simple • [ + ] Positive: S + had + the past participle. • [ - ] Negative: S + had not (hadn’t) + the past participle. • [ ? ] Question: Had + S + the past participle? Yes, S + had. / No, S + had not.
  6. 6. Form of Past Perfect Simple For irregular verbs, use the past participle form (see list of irregular verbs, 3rd column). For regular verbs, just add ed. Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ed
  7. 7. Signal Words • already, just, never, not yet, once, until that day (with reference to the past, not the present) • by the time, when, before, until,… Example: I’d finished all the work by the time you called. He’d never met a native English speaker until he visited London. Before we sold our car, we had owned it for 12 years.
  8. 8. 2.Reported Speech (Indirect Speech)
  9. 9. Use of Reported Speech (Indirect Speech) If we report what another person has said, we usually do not use the speaker’s exact words (direct speech), but reported (indirect) speech. Therefore, you need to learn how to transform direct speech into reported speech. The structure is a little different depending on whether you want to transform a statement, question or request.
  10. 10. Statements • • • • When transforming statements, check whether you have to change: pronouns present tense verbs (3rd person singular) place and time expressions tenses (backshift)
  11. 11. Pronouns: In reported speech, you often have to change the pronoun depending on who says what. Example: She says, “My mum doesn’t have time today.” –> She says that her mum doesn’t have time today.
  12. 12. Tenses: *) No backshift Do not change the tense if the introductory clause is in Simple Present (e. g. He says). Note, however, that you might have to change the form of the present tense verb (3rd person singular). Example: He says, “I speak English.” –> He says that he speaks English. *) Backshift You must change the tense if the introductory clause is in Simple Past (e. g. He said). This is called backshift. Example: He said, “I am happy.” –> He said that he was happy. The verbs could, should, would, might, must, needn’t, ought to, used to do not normally change. Example: He said, “She might be right.” –> He said that she might be right.
  13. 13. Place and Time expressions: For place and time expressions you have to check whether place and time are the same in direct and reported speech or not .
  14. 14. Questions • • • • • • • When transforming questions, check whether you have to change: pronouns present tense verbs (3rd person singular) place and time expressions tenses (backshift) Also note that you have to: transform the question into an indirect question use the interrogative or if / whether
  15. 15. • • For pronouns, tenses and place / time expressions see statements in reported speech. Besides, note that instead of ”that” you use the interrogative. If there is no interrogative, use ”whether” ‚”if”. Example: He asked: “Where does she live?” –> He asked where she lived.
  16. 16. Requests When transforming questions, check whether you have to change: • pronouns • place and time expressions • For pronouns and place / time expressions see statements in reported speech. Tenses are not relevant for requests – simply use ‚to‘ + infinite verb. Example: She said, “Say hello to your mum.“ –> She asked me to say hello to my mum. • For negative requests, use ‚not to‘ + infinite verb. Example: He said, “Don’t give up, Bob.“ –> He advised Bob not to give up.
  17. 17. Thank You For Watching

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