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HTM2118 Hospitality and Culture
Group Project
BY Curtis, Johnny, Paul, and Susan

Published in: News & Politics, Spiritual
  • Read this heartfelt letter below from Sonasi Samita, a disease-ridden man stricken with kidney failure, diabetes, gout, heart problems, and blindness. He tells his tear-jerking story on how the Demolisher system has totally changed his life! Sonasi says he's convinced that the Demolisher system is God's answer to his prayers! 
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  1. 2. <ul><li>Full Name : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Republic of India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bharat, Hindustan among locals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Form of Government : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Democracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Federal form of Government) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Capital City : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Delhi </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Currency : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian Rupee </li></ul></ul>National Flag : BASIC FACTS
  2. 3. <ul><li>Total Area : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seventh largest country in the world: 3,287,240km 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Population : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second largest population : 1,198,003,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indo Aryan 72% , Dravidian 25% , Mongoloid and other 3% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culturally, linguistically and genetically diverse geographical entity after the African continent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Climate : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summers (April - October) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winters (November - March) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monsoons (July - September) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>1. Independence </li></ul><ul><li>2. Wars between Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>3. India – Goa </li></ul><ul><li>4. Guest Reception in Ancient India </li></ul>BASIC HISTORY
  4. 5. 1. Independence History of India Independence Aug 12 1947 <ul><li>gained independence from the British </li></ul><ul><li>separated a state, Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties after independence: </li></ul><ul><li>Religious violence </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism </li></ul><ul><li>Casteism (believer of peace) </li></ul><ul><li>N axalism (believer of violence) </li></ul>Jan 26 1950 <ul><li>B ecame a republic </li></ul>20th century <ul><li>L ed a non-violent civil disobedience </li></ul><ul><li>( Indian National Congress & </li></ul><ul><li>other political organizations ) </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>LANGUAGE </li></ul><ul><li>– English in India </li></ul><ul><li>Under colony of British, </li></ul><ul><li>English </li></ul><ul><li>Medium of instruction and administration </li></ul><ul><li>Widely used in India </li></ul><ul><li>national affairs </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking English </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce cultural shock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve the understanding and communication with western tourists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hospitality industries: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>serve English-speaking guests properly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>improve the satisfaction of the guests </li></ul></ul>Impact on Culture Impact on Hospitality
  6. 7. 2. Wars between Pakistan History of War between Pakistan 1947-1948 19 65 Dec. 6 1971 <ul><li>Fighting over Kashmir from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pakistan : control of third of Kashmir </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India : control of Kashmir valley & Jammu </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fighting over Kashmir </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UN ceasefire no territorial changes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bangladesh Liberation War </li></ul><ul><li>Bangladesh and Indian Victory </li></ul><ul><li>Pakistan surrendered and East Pakistan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Became Bangladesh </li></ul></ul><ul><li>West Pakistan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B ecame the border between India and Pakistan </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Impact on Culture <ul><li>After three dreadful wars: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>F ar more than “remote” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naxalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(believers of violence) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Casteism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(believers of peace) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Violence in India </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pakistan and India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C ultural bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E thnocentrism upon one another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C ontinuous violent terrorist attacks </li></ul></ul>Impact on Hospitality <ul><li>Pakistan: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neighboring country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few people visiting India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hospitality industries in the states where near Pakistan can’t benefited from influx of Pakistani tourists </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. 3. India – Goa <ul><ul><li>Alfonso-de-Albuquerque made the first conquest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1543, able to extend their control over Salcette, Mormugao and Bardez, thus ending their first phase of expansion into Goa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After driven away, Portuguese culture stayed for 450 years </li></ul></ul>History of Portuguese in Goa
  9. 10. <ul><li>Goa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I nfluence of Portuguese culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H istoric city of Margao </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>places of worship and heritage architecture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A ttracting international and local tourists </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular in summer and winter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tourism : primary industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hospitality industries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>now flourishing because of </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the well-developed tourism industry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>originated from Portuguese culture </li></ul></ul></ul>Impact on Culture and Hospitality
  10. 11. 4. Guest Reception in Ancient India Normal guests Important guests Hospitality culture <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>A seat </li></ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul><li>Food: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a superior quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>carefully prepared </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cup of water: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>with flowers and grasses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mixture of honey and curds </li></ul><ul><li>Seat: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mighty, polished, golden, great </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><ul><li>Hindi (the official language) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>started to be used in writing during the 4th century AD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>about 487 million speakers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other 17 major languages recognized by the Constitution and 844 Dialects. </li></ul></ul>LANGUAGE
  12. 13. <ul><li>Hindu - 80% </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim - 14% </li></ul><ul><li>Christian - 2.4% </li></ul><ul><li>Sikh - 2% </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhist - 0.7% </li></ul><ul><li>Jain - 0.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Zoroastrian and others - 0.4% </li></ul>RELIGLIONS
  13. 14. <ul><li>Ancient religions in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Colorful religion </li></ul><ul><li>Henotheistic : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize a single deity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizes other gods and goddesses </li></ul></ul>Hinduism
  14. 15. <ul><ul><li>dharma: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Righteousness in their religious life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the most important of the three </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>artha: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Success in their economic life; material prosperity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>kama: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gratification of the senses; pleasure; sensual, sexual, and mental enjoyment. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>moksa: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liberation from &quot; samsara .&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is considered the supreme goal of mankind </li></ul></ul></ul>Hinduism
  15. 16. <ul><li>Do not eat beef </li></ul><ul><li>Do not destroy or injure anything (non-violence) </li></ul><ul><li>Do not lie (be truthful) </li></ul><ul><li>Do not steal </li></ul><ul><li>Do not be envious (Continence) </li></ul><ul><li>Do not be greedy </li></ul>Law and Taboos in Hinduisms :
  16. 17. <ul><li>Must not </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cut body hair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eat Kosher meat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoke, drugs, or intoxicants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have faith in black magic, superstitions, charms and rituals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Men </li></ul><ul><ul><li>always wear Katchera and turban </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>may or may not tie turban </li></ul></ul>Law and Taboos in Iskhisms :
  17. 18. <ul><li>1. RELIGIONS TOURS </li></ul><ul><li>India: </li></ul><ul><li>many religions </li></ul><ul><ul><li> greatest religious tour destination. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> visit temples and religious monuments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> provided enough tourists as customers to support the running of hospitality industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> live in hotels and eat at restaurants </li></ul></ul>Impact of Religion on Hospitality
  18. 19. <ul><li>2. Religious restrictions affect F&B </li></ul><ul><li>Indian people: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>own religious belief </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>religious restrictions in food and drinks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> affect food and beverage industry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>F&B industry: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accommodate themselves to fit the needs of different religions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hinduisms – Do not eat beef </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslims – eat halal food only and don’t drink alcohol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhists – eat vegetables only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sikhs – don’t eat halal food and some sects of Sikhs are vegetarian </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>DIWALI </li></ul><ul><li>HOLI </li></ul><ul><li>ONMA </li></ul>FESTIVALS
  20. 21. <ul><li>Five-day festival </li></ul><ul><li>Celebration of victory of good over evil and the glory of light </li></ul><ul><li>People prepare themselves by cleaning and decorating their premises </li></ul><ul><li>Lamps are lit on the roofs and windowsills of the houses </li></ul><ul><li>Offer prayers to the deity, then exchange gifts and bursting crackers </li></ul>DIWALI (Rows of Lights)
  21. 22. <ul><li>Festival of Colors </li></ul><ul><li>a popular Hindu spring festival </li></ul><ul><li>celebrated by people throwing colored powder and colored water at each other </li></ul>HOLI
  22. 23. <ul><li>Biggest festival in the South Indian </li></ul><ul><li>Ten days Carnival </li></ul><ul><li>Grand way celebration </li></ul><ul><ul><li> Impress upon their dear King that they are happy and wish him well </li></ul></ul>ONAM <ul><li>1) Onasadya: the grand feast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nine course meal consisting of 11 to 13 essential dishes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To be served on banana leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People sit on a mat laid on the floor to have the meal </li></ul></ul>4 Remarkable features:
  23. 24. <ul><li>2) Vallamkali: Snake Boat Race </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Held on the river Pampa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colorful sight decorated boat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To be oared by hundreds of boatmen amidst chanting of songs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheering by spectators </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3) Onakalikal: a tradition to play games </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men : go in for rigorous sports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Talappanthukali (played with a ball), Ambeyyal (Archery).etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4 ) Pookalam: intricately designed flower mats made by women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In the front courtyard of the house to welcome King Mahabali </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women: perform two graceful dances (Kaikotti kali and Thumbi Thullal) </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Impact of Festival on Hospitality <ul><li>DIWALI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest festival in India, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>long popular events for attracting inbound tourists to experience the Indian culture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HOLI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Braj region (North India) : most celebrated Holi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Krishna : Mathura, Vrindavan, Barsana, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Become tourist destinations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ONAM </li></ul><ul><li>Snake Boat Race </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International tourist attraction </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>SOCIETY </li></ul><ul><li>GREETING </li></ul><ul><li>CUISINE </li></ul><ul><li>WOMEN in INDIA </li></ul><ul><li>DRESSING </li></ul><ul><li>WEDDING </li></ul>TRADITION
  26. 27. <ul><li>Caste system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power and wealth are not equally distributed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Patriarchy </li></ul>SOCIETY
  27. 28. <ul><li>Treats guests as god </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serves them and takes care of them as if they are a part and parcel of the family itself. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even though we don’t have anything to eat, the guests are never left hungry and are always looked after by the members of the family. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Respect for Elders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Driving force for any family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An individual takes blessings from his elders by touching their feet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elders drill and pass on the Indian culture </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>Respect one another </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All people are alike and respecting one another is ones duty. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. Relation between the boss and the employee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign countries  a master and slave and is purely monetary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indian culture  like homely relations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Helpful nature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children are taught to help one another in need of help and distress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If not monetary then at least in kind or non-monetary ways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To multiply and distribute joy and happiness and share sadness and pain </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>India on Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions </li></ul>Source: G. Hofstede, Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work- Related Values
  30. 31. <ul><li>Traditional Indian Families: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All about love and patience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Joint family system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All members live under one roof </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Share the same kitchen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three generations living together </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Income and expenditure in a common pool property held together </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A common place of worship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Modern Nuclear Families: </li></ul>
  31. 32. Impact of Society on Hospitality <ul><li>a) Socialites (Upper class) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very brand conscious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prefer to go to well-known hotels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>spend a good amount on luxury goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always looking for something different </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hotel : </li></ul><ul><li>Provide something special and unique or some exclusive product </li></ul>1. Caste System
  32. 33. <ul><li>b) Conservatives (Middle-class and lower class) </li></ul><ul><li>Prefer the traditional Indian culture </li></ul><ul><li>Cautious in purchasing, focus more on savings than spending </li></ul><ul><li>Spend more time with family than in parties </li></ul><ul><li>Slow in decision making </li></ul><ul><ul><li>seek a lot of information before making any purchase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hotels: </li></ul><ul><li>Keep some traditional elements instead of modern new developlments </li></ul><ul><li>Offer lower cost room rates </li></ul><ul><li>Promote family package </li></ul>
  33. 34. 2. Treats guests as god + Respect one another + Respect for Elders <ul><li>Hotel: </li></ul><ul><li>Good relationship between guest and staff in hotel </li></ul><ul><li>Increase consumer’s satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>All ages care atmosphere </li></ul>
  34. 35. <ul><li>Namaste </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greet each other (and say good-bye) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressing the palms together (fingers up) below the chin & nodding the head </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A slight bow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> greeting superiors or to show respect </li></ul></ul></ul>GREETING
  35. 36. <ul><li>Shake hands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Meeting foreigners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> X Shake hands with or touch women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian women (are educated or familiar with international customs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Offer their hands to foreigners as a courtesy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Meeting a woman: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A man should wait for her to initiate a handshake, if she does not, then he should just smile and nod slightly </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 37. <ul><li>Indians Won't Say &quot;No&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Too unkind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the habit of shaking their head to say yes or no. Please confirm what they mean, if you are not familiar. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India’s don’t talk bad about their country and people openly. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Name Calling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To elderly: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Never address their first name, unless they allow you to. advisable you call them sir or madam </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To youngsters: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Choose to be informal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In school/ business aspect, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Do use titles, &quot;Professor&quot; or &quot;Doctor&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Does not have a title, use &quot;Mr&quot;, 'Mrs&quot;, or &quot;Miss&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 38. Impact of Greeting on Hospitality <ul><li>Serving Indian guest </li></ul><ul><li>Elders: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Best to greet with a “Namaste” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Call them sir or madam instead of first name </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Avoid saying &quot;no&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Replace other non-verbal cues and indirect communication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be careful shaking hands to Indian males and females </li></ul>
  38. 39. <ul><li>What an Indian Meal Consists Of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetarianism is quite common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Economic factors & religious dictates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meat in small quantities, because </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhists and Hindus avoid eating beef and pork </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legumes and cereals are the major components of meals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rice, wheat and beans are particularly well suited to agricultural conditions in India </li></ul></ul></ul>CUISINE
  39. 40. <ul><ul><li>Food patterns: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rice </li></ul></ul></ul>Main dishes (vegetables and/or meat) Indian bread (chappathi, roti, or naan) <ul><ul><ul><li>Side dishes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(salad, papad, and pickles) </li></ul></ul></ul>Dal (a waterly lentil dish)
  40. 41. <ul><li>Eating Technique </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Placing the Chappathi Over the Meat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Picking the Meat Up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combining the Rice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making a Ball </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rice Ready to Eat </li></ul></ul>
  41. 42. <ul><ul><li>Wash your hands before start eating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right hand (eating) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Left hand (functions associated with going to the toilet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never pass or receive anything with left hand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burping (a sign of contentment) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid licking your fingers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After eating, if you’re a guest in someone’s home, wait until everyone has finished then get up to wash your hands again to clean them </li></ul></ul>Manners in eating
  42. 43. <ul><li>Still disadvantaged with respect to inheritance and property rights </li></ul><ul><li>High female mortality </li></ul><ul><li>Selective infanticide, general neglect, abuse of female children </li></ul><ul><li>Although infant mortality rates have halved since independence, still eight times compares with USA </li></ul>WOMEN in INDIA PAST STATUS
  43. 44. <ul><li>Changes in women’s mobility and interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50% visited new places and traveled longer distances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>94% had experienced new interactions with staff of institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changes in women’s labor patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>30% who had taken bank loans reported a marked change in gender roles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changes in access to and control over resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>give their communities better infrastructure or services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changes in intra-household decision-making </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a slight improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women :decide on food preparation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men: make the financial decisions </li></ul></ul>PRESENT STATUS
  44. 45. Impact of Female View on Hospitality <ul><li>India Women </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in females’ mobility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More female travel around </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Income of females increase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some female may have a high level of consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hospitality Industry: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know the restrictions on serving a female </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Never shake hands, touch or sit close or next to a woman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know female Indian employees’ needs when they work in hotel </li></ul></ul>
  45. 46. <ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><li>1) Sari: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>five or six yards long of cloth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in the Vedas, about 600 BC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>made of silk (Wealthy women) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>made of cotton (most women) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>brightly colored saris (Younger women) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>only white saris (widows and other women in mourning ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2) Other decorations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>silver or gold jewelry (earrings and nose-rings) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bindi (a spot of red on their foreheads) </li></ul></ul>DRESSING
  46. 47. <ul><li>Men </li></ul><ul><li>1) Dhoti </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one long piece of cloth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>generally white </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wrapped around their legs to make sort of pants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>didn’t have the part that covered the chest and shoulders </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2) Other decoration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>turbans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>long cotton cloths wrapped around their heads </li></ul></ul></ul>
  47. 48. Impact of Dressing on Hospitality <ul><li>Dress Code ( business aspect ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm condition, many wear safari suits or go without tie and suit </li></ul></ul>
  48. 49. <ul><li>Arranged marriages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A ccount factors : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>age, height, personal values and tastes, the backgrounds of their families (wealth, social standing) and their castes and the astrological compatibility of the couples‘ horoscopes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D ivorce rate is extremely low </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(India1.1% vs USA50% ) </li></ul></ul>WEDDING
  49. 50. <ul><li>Wedding themes of India </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweets (sweet life) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eggs (fertility) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Money (prosperity) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hindu wedding ceremony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ward off evil spirits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wedding vows exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Showers flower petals on the newlyweds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds a coconut over newlyweds’ heads & circles it around them three times </li></ul></ul>
  50. 51. <ul><li>Indian Wedding </li></ul><ul><li>Bright events </li></ul><ul><li>Continue for several days </li></ul><ul><li>Often 400-1000 people attending </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many of whom are unknown to the bride & groom </li></ul></ul>Impact of Wedding on Hospitality <ul><li>Hotel: </li></ul><ul><li>Take benefit to holding the wedding celebration </li></ul><ul><li>Providing F&B service </li></ul>
  51. 52. CONCLUSION
  52. 53. Reference: <ul><li>Guidebooks for India Travel. India Travel Tips. Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>Doing Business in India: A Cultural Perspective. Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>Festivals of India, Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>Festivals of India, Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>Pilgrimage of India, Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>Scenes from India, Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>History, India, Languages , Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>Hinduism, Retrieved October 29, 2009 from </li></ul>
  53. 54. Reference: <ul><li>Hinduism-The Religious Life, Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>Negative behaviors by some Hindus, Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>India Facts - General, Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>G. Kofstede, Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values </li></ul><ul><li>Henderson, Carol E (2002) Culture and customs of India. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainments In India. Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>Women's empowerment. Retrieved from India </li></ul>
  54. 55. <ul><li>N.A, (2005, April 27).  Bangladeshi war of independence indo-pakistani war of 1971 . Retrieve from </li></ul><ul><li>N.A, (2005, April 27).  Indo-pakistan war of 1965 . Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>N.A, Initials. (2005, April 27).  Indo-pakistani conflict of 1947-48 . Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>N.A, (2000).  China india war 1962-1963 . Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>N.A, (2001, December 16).  India and pakistan: tense neighbours . Retrieved from </li></ul>