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D1.2 operational demo cases

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This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon
2020 research and innovation programme under grant a...

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Project Acronym: NextGen
Project Title: Towards the next generation of water systems and services for the circular
econo...

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Executive Summary
Work package 1 (WP1) of the NextGen project aims to demonstrate the feasibility of innovative
technolo...

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D1.2 operational demo cases

  1. 1. 1 This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement N°776541 D1.2 Operational Demo Cases NextGen December 2020 Ref. Ares(2021)6086484 - 06/10/2021
  2. 2. 2 Project Acronym: NextGen Project Title: Towards the next generation of water systems and services for the circular economy Deliverable: D1.2 Operational demo cases Dissemination level: Public Type: Demonstrator Work Package: WP1 Lead beneficiary: EURECAT Contributing beneficiaries: KWB, UBATH Submission date: 15-12-2020 (M30) Disclaimer: Any dissemination of results must indicate that it reflects only the author's view and that the Agency and the European Commission are not responsible for any use that may be made of the Technical references
  3. 3. 3 Executive Summary Work package 1 (WP1) of the NextGen project aims to demonstrate the feasibility of innovative technological solutions towards a circular economy (CE) in the water sector. With the goal of closing water, energy and materials cycles, several CE technologies have been implemented in 10 demo cases in order to collect long-term data on system performances to assess their benefits and drawbacks. This deliverable demonstrates the operational status of 10 demo cases deployed in 8 EU Member States and their specific NextGen objectives and CE solutions. For each demo case, the deliverable show pictures of the prototypes and pilots installed, introduces the first technical results obtained until M30, provides the specific KPIs (actual and expected) and the expected next steps per each site. A general introduction to the 10 demo cases can be found in the factsheets uploaded to the project website:https://nextgenwater.eu/demonstration-cases. All sites have started their demonstration activities and have shown their operationality in M30 with the exception of the demo case of Timisoara (RO) which was incorporated in M19 replacing Bucharest. For Timisoara case, a detailed next step plan is provided as activities are being deployed at the moment.
  4. 4. 4 Executive summary Site Status Page 1. Braunschweig (DE) Start-up of full scale operation of a TPH to increase biogas production. Nutrient recovery at full scale. 8 2. Costa Brava (SP) Pilot plant in operation with regenerated membranes 33 3. Westland (NL) Regional water balance done. HT-ATES at Koppert-Cress: installed with monitoring system 57 4. Alternheim (CH) Evaluation of produced GAC under long-term tests at pilot scale. PK fertilizer pilot plant and NH4 stripping full-scale evaluation ready to start 90 5. Spernal (UK) AnMBR under construction at R2IC and plant in use forecast for Jan 2021 116 6. La Trappe (NL) MNR in operation. Protein production in Bio-Makeries start in December 2020. 138 7. Gotland (SE) Wells installed for rainwater collection and IoT set-up. Installation automatic hatche at lake outflow pending and selection of site for infiltration on-going. Pilot for membrane treatment under construction. 169 8. Athens (GR) MBR pilot plant for sewer mining in operation. 198 9. Filton (UK) Rain water harvesting installed and availability defined. Desk studies on energy and material recovery. 217 10. Timisoara (RO) Site to start their thermochemical sludge conversion demonstration activities in early 2021. Desk study on the feasibility of water reuse on-going. 243 Brief introduction of each demo case: https://nextgenwater.eu/demonstration-cases/
  5. 5. 5 Introduction D1.1 described the baseline conditions of each of the demo cases involved in NextGen before the start of the project and all pre-existing infrastructures and systems – prior to NextGen interventions across water, energy and material cycles D1.2 shows the operation of new CE solutions proposed by the project, at each demo case The benefits and improvements achieved within the NextGen project at each demo case, will be reported in D1.3, D1.4, D1.5 (on the technical performance of the solutions related to the water, energy, materials cycles), D1.6, D1.7 (technology evidence data base), and D1.8 (greenfield implementation) The economic and environmental performance of the CE solutions will be assessed in WP2
  6. 6. 6 Objective D1.2 objective is to provide evidence that the NextGen solutions at the demo cases are operational Current operational status of each site is demonstrated by providing pictures/videos of the implemented NextGen solutions as well as first technical results obtained until M30
  7. 7. 7 Table of contents for each demo case 1. General description of the site 2. State of play at the start of NextGen 3. Objectives of NextGen solutions applied in the case • Infographic: positioning of demo case within the CE 4. Summary table • Technology baseline, NextGen intervention, TRL, capacity, quantified target, status of the actions 5. NextGen solutions • Scheme characteristics, pictures/video of operation 6. Operational procedures • Pilot plant operation, economic and environmental assessment tools 7. Results and Specific KPIs of the NextGen solutions (actual vs expected) 8. Progress and next steps planned
  8. 8. 8 #1. Braunschweig Germany Circular solutions for Energy Materials WWTP(actualload:350,000PE) Lead partner: Relevant sectors Agriculture Water treatment Relevant data Energy Other partner: Introduction to the demo case: https://nextgenwater.eu/braunschweig/
  9. 9. 9 • Primary treatment: bar screens, sand trap, primary clarifier • Secondary treatment: nitrification, denitrification, enhanced biological phosphorus removal, secondary clarifier • Water Reuse: irrigation of agricultural aeras • Sludge treatment & reuse: anaerobic digestion & direct reuse in agriculture (60%) and incineration (40%) WWTP in Braunschweig (actual load: 350,000 PE) 1. General description of the site
  10. 10. 10 Sludge treatment, direct reuse of digestate in agriculture (60%) and incineration of dewatered digestate (40%) until 2019 10 excess sludge excess sludge or incineration 2. State of play at the start of NextGen
  11. 11. 11 3. Objectives of the NextGen solutions Starting status of sludge treatment at the WWTP: three full-scale one-stage digesters NextGen solution implemented in the sludge treatment: 1. Two-stage digestion system 2. Thermal pressure hydrolysis (TPH) between the two stages 3. System for struvite precipitation 4. System for ammonium sulfate production Benefits of thermal pressure hydrolysis: - Higher availability of dissolved carbon compounds due to cell lysis - Higher methane yield in second digestion stage - Increase in dissolved phosphate and ammonium concentration
  12. 12. 12 Technology Evidence Base (TEB). Initial draft – to be finalised in D1.6 Braunschweig Positioning of demo case within the CE 3. Objectives of the NextGen solutions
  13. 13. 13 4. Summary Table: energy & material Case Study number & name Subtasks Technology baseline NextGen intervention in circular economy for water sector TRL Capacity Quantifiable target Status / progress # 1 Braun- schweig (DE) Location: WWTP Braun- schweig Sub-Task 1.3.2 Internal heat usage and heat management for two-stage digestion system & TPH Three one-stage digesters; heat reuse from CHPs for tempering the digesters and the surrounding buildings Two-stage digestion system with thermal pressure hydrolysis (TPH) between the two stages: higher heat demand due to TPH, reuse of excess heat from TPH and more available heat from CHP due to increased methane yield Digestion system with TPH: TRL 8 → 9 On average: up to 250 m³/h methane production without TPH; with TPH increase to 330 m³/h Biogas production: Up to 25% increase in methane production due to TPH. Due to unexpected and necessary retrofitting measures for the plant and due to COVID-19 situation, the operation of the whole recovery plant was stopped for 3 months. Since October 2020, the recovery plant is in operation again. Sub-Task 1.4.7 Full-scale nutrient recovery from wastewater Irrigation and fertilization of agricultural fields with WWTP effluent and digestate Phosphorus recovery for struvite production TRL 9 Around 250 t struvite (dry)/year equals to 30 t P/year and 15 t N/year Struvite precipitation (≥90% of P recovered from P load to recovery unit) Ammonia stripping for ammonium sulfate production TRL 9 Around 2200 t ammonium sulfate solution (wet)/year equals to 170 t N/year (NH4)2SO4 (>85% of N recovered from N load to recovery unit)
  14. 14. 14 5. NextGen solutions: nutrient and enhanced energy recovery since 2019 14 Scrubber
  15. 15. 15 15 Important for nutrient recovery: increase in ammonium and phosphate concentrations due to TPH T= 53 °C T= 53 °C 5.1 Pictures of the two-stage digestion system and TPH
  16. 16. 16 NextGen 16 5.2 Flow scheme of struvite production
  17. 17. 17 17 5.2 Pictures of struvite production unit & struvite Struvite
  18. 18. 18 5.3 Flow scheme of ammonia stripping unit & (NH4)2SO4 production NextGen 18
  19. 19. 19 5.3 Pictures of (NH4)2SO4 production system 19 NH3 stripping unit (NH4)2SO4 storage tank (NH4)2SO4
  20. 20. 20 6. Operational procedures and methodologies Main operation and analytical parameters Struvite production: Optimization of production process aiming at the increase in grain size and a high P recovery rate via changes in hydrozyclone geometry, different MgCl2 dosages, varying HRT Biogas production incl. TPH: Varying process parameters such as temperature in order to increase the methane yield Ammonium sulfate solution production: Optimization of production process aiming at a high N recovery rate and low energy and chemicals consumption (→ varying temperature & NaOH addition)
  21. 21. 21 6. Operational procedures and methodologies: Tools (WP2) In the frame of WP2, different tools will be applied at the case study in Braunschweig: • Quantitative chemical risk assessment for struvite and ammonium sulfate • Life cycle assessment • Life cycle costing • Cost efficiency analysis The results are elaborated in WP2 and will be presented in D2.1 and D2.2.
  22. 22. 22 7.1 Results: energy – baseline heat balance 22 0 200 400 600 800 1.000 1.200 1.400 1.600 Jan Feb Mär Apr Mai Jun Jul Aug Sep Okt Nov Dez Wärme [MWh] Wärmebedarf Gebäude & Sonstiges Wärmebedarf Faulung Wärmeproduktion Before the implementation of the NextGen solutions (Kabisch 2016, Demoware): Heat [MWh] Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Heat production by CHP Heat demand for digestion Heat demand for buildings etc. → In summer, the heat demand is below the produced heat amount → In winter, the heat demand is higher than the produced heat amount
  23. 23. 23 7.1. Results and key performance indicators (KPIs) Up to 25% increase in methane production rate during TPH operation 0 200 400 600 Time [d] 0 100 200 300 400 500 Methane production rate [m³/h] F1 (53 °C) + F2 (38 °C) + F3 (38 °C) Stop TPH Start TPH
  24. 24. 24 7.1. Results and key performance indicators (KPIs) Organic loading rate ranges mainly between 1 and 3 kg DM/(m³*d) → Increase in methane production rate due to TPH Stop TPH Start TPH
  25. 25. 25 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Time [d] 0 200 400 600 PO 4 -P [mg/L] 0 25 50 75 100 Recovery rate [%] Influent Effluent Recovery rate 90 51 Expected recovery rate: Full-scale nutrientrecovery GOAL: Phosphorusrecovery T= 53 °C T= 53 °C Struvite → Recovery rate is stilltoo low: crystal size is too small 7.2. Results and key performance indicators (KPIs)
  26. 26. 26 Full-scale nutrientrecovery GOAL: Nitrogen recovery T= 53 °C T= 53 °C → Recovery rate is higher than required → Optimization in order to save energy and chemicals 0 2 4 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 Time [d] 0 500 1000 1500 NH 4 -N [mg/L] 0 25 50 75 100 Recovery rate [%] Influent Effluent Recovery rate Expected range (NH4)2SO4 7.3. Results and key performance indicators (KPIs)
  27. 27. 27 8. Progress: energy & material Case Study number & name Subtasks Technology baseline NextGen intervention in circular economy for water sector TRL Capacity Quantifiable target Status / progress # 1 Braunschwei g (DE) Location: WWTP Braun- schweig Sub-Task 1.3.2 Internal heat usage and heat management for two-stage digestion system & TPH Three one-stage digesters; heat reuse from CHPs for tempering the digesters and the surrounding buildings Two-stage digestion system with thermal pressure hydrolysis (TPH) between the two stages: higher heat demand due to TPH, reuse of excess heat from TPH and more available heat from CHP due to increased methane yield Digestion system with TPH: TRL 8 → 9 On average: up to 250 m³/h methane production without TPH; with TPH increase to 330 m³/h Biogas production: Up to 25% increase in methane production due to TPH. Due to unexpected and necessary retrofitting measures for the plant and due to COVID-19 situation, the operation of the whole recovery plant was stopped for 3 months. Since October 2020, the recovery plant is in operation again. Sub-Task 1.4.7 Full-scale nutrient recovery from wastewater Irrigation and fertilization of agricultural fields with WWTP effluent and digestate Phosphorus recovery for struvite production TRL 9 Around 250 t struvite (dry)/year equals to 30 t P/year and 15 t N/year Struvite precipitation (≥90% of P recovered from P load to recovery unit) Ammonia stripping for ammonium sulfate production TRL 9 Around 2200 t ammonium sulfate solution (wet)/year equals to 170 t N/year (NH4)2SO4 (>85% of N recovered from N load to recovery unit)
  28. 28. 28 8. Progress – energy # Nº Case Study Involved sub-tasks Baseline: CE intervention / demo type Status Contingency plan #1 Braunschweig, Germany Location: WWTP Braunschweig Lead Partner: AVB Partners involved: KWB Sub-Task 1.3.2 Two-stage digestion system with thermal pressure hydrolysis (TPH) between the two stages: higher heat demand due to TPH, reuse of excess heat from TPH and more available heat from CHP due to increased methane yield Due to unexpected and necessary retrofitting measures for the plant and due to COVID-19 situation, the operation of the whole recovery plant (incl. TPH) was stopped for 3 months. In July 2020, the recovery plant started operation again. However operation was paused several times afterwards as at TPH and screw extruder occured leakages, clogging and error messages which needed to be solved by the manufacturing companies. Since October 2020 the plant is in full and continuous operation. This task will still last 18 months as foreseen. However, the time period is shifted one year and will now finish in M36 instead of M24.
  29. 29. 29 8. Progress - material # Nº Case Study Involved sub-tasks Baseline: CE intervention / demo type Status Contingency plan #1 Braunschweig, Germany Location: WWTP Braunschweig Lead Partner: AVB Partners involved: KWB Sub-Task 1.4.7 Phosphorus recovery for struvite production Due to unexpected and necessary retrofitting measures for the plant and due to COVID-19 situation, the operation of the whole recovery plant was stopped for 3 months. In July 2020, the recovery plant started operation again. However operation was paused several times afterwards as at TPH and screw extruder occured leakages, clogging and error messages which needed to be solved by the manufacturing companies. Since October 2020 the plant is in full and continuous operation. This task will still last 24 months as foreseen. However, the time period is postponed about 6 months and will now finish in M42 instead of M36. Ammonia stripping for ammonium sulfate production
  30. 30. 30 Next steps planned: from November 2020 on Task M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 M9 M10 M11 M12 Commissioning struvite recovery unit Analysis internal heat management thermal hydrolysis + two stage digestion Different operational strategies internal heat management Analysis recovered products Optimization specifications recovered products 8. Next steps
  31. 31. 31 8. Next steps Planned timetable Updated timetable Case study Task description Task M1 - M6 M7 - M12 M13-M18 M19-M24 M25-M30 M31-M36 M37-M42 M43-48 Full-scale system for thermal hydrolysis, two-stage digestion and nutrient recovery via NH3 stripping and struvite precipitation will be commissioned successively, starting end of 2018 1.3.2 Internal heat management will be analysed in the first two years of operation to cover the heat demand of thermal hydrolysis and two-stage digestion without using external fuels 1.3.2 Different operational strategies will be checked to make maximum use of available heat (e.g. seasonal operation of heat storage, changing to thermophilic digestion, heat sale) 1.3.2 Products of nutrient recovery (e.g. ammonium sulfate, struvite) will be analysed on a regular basis to provide data for risk assessment (WP2) and for checking legal conformity of products with existing rules 1.4.7 Specifications of recovered fertilizers will be optimised (e.g. concentration, particle size, nutrient content) to match farmers demand, and potential options for product refinement will be checked 1.4.7 Braunschweig (GR) Task description Task M1 - M6 M7 - M12 M13-M18 M19-M24 M25-M30 M31-M36 M37-M42 M43-48 Full-scale system for thermal hydrolysis, two-stage digestion and nutrient recovery via NH3 stripping and struvite precipitation will be commissioned successively, starting end of 2019 1.3.2 Internal heat management will be analysed in the first two years of operation to cover the heat demand of thermal hydrolysis and two-stage digestion without using external fuels 1.3.2 Different operational strategies will be checked to make maximum use of available heat (e.g. seasonal operation of heat storage, changing to thermophilic digestion, heat sale) 1.3.2 Products of nutrient recovery (e.g. ammonium sulfate, struvite) will be analysed on a regular basis to provide data for risk assessment (WP2) and for checking legal conformity of products with existing rules 1.4.7 Specifications of recovered fertilizers will be optimised (e.g. concentration, particle size, nutrient content) to match farmers demand, and potential options for product refinement will be checked 1.4.7
  32. 32. 32 8. Next steps Task Reason for modifications Progress + next steps T1.3.2 Initiate the demonstration of internal heat usage and heat management for two-stage digestion and sludge hydrolyses at Braunschweig (Ongoing / slight delay of partial tasks (rescheduled) Some delay on the commissioning of full scale plant, but the demonstration schedule has been restructured to ensure the global objectives of the site; during construction phase several delays occured due to problems of the technical finishing craft which laid to further delays of following works. The initial planned start of commissioning at the end of 2018 had to be changed to mid 2019. Due to COVID-19 situation, the operation of the whole recovery plant (incl. TPH) was stopped for 3 months as the danish manufacturing company of the TPH was not able to do several repairings and maintenances. In July 2020, the recovery plant started operation again. However operation was paused several times afterwards as at TPH and screw extruder occured leakages, clogging and error messages which needed to be solved by the manufacturing companies. Since October 2020 the plant is in full and continuous operation. Nevertheless the delay has no consequences regarding the demonstration of the internal heat usage and heat management. Construction phase including delays of several trades was finished at mid 2019. Commissioning began at August/September 2019. Analysis of the operation of the thermal pressure hydrolysis and the two stage digestion started in the first half of 2020. Due to COVID-19 situation analysis was paused and restarted in October 2020. T1.4.7 Initiate the demonstration of full- scale nutrient recovery from wastewater and reuse in agriculture at Braunschweig (Ongoing / slight delay of partial tasks (rescheduled)) Some delay on the commissioning of full scale plant, but the demonstration schedule has been restructured to ensure the global objectives of the site; during construction phase several delays occurred due to problems of the technical finishing craft which laid to further delays of following works. The initial planned start of commissioning at the end of 2018 had to be changed to mid 2019. Nevertheless the delay has no consequences regarding the demonstration of the full-scale nutrient recovery from wastewater; Furthermore several problems occurred during commissioning of the struvite recovery plant due to unexpected blockage issues. Therefore the technical configuration and geometry of struvite recovery unit was adapted at January/February 2020. Due to COVID-19 situation, the operation of the whole recovery plant (incl. TPH) was stopped for 3 months as the danish manufacturing company of the TPH was not able to do several repairings and maintenances. In July 2020, the recovery plant started operation again. However operation was paused several times afterwards as at TPH and screw extruder occured leakages, clogging and error messages which needed to be solved by the manufacturing companies. Since October 2020 the plant is in full and continuous operation. Nevertheless the delay has no consequences regarding the demonstration of thefull-scale nutrient recovery. Construction phase including delays of several trades was finished at mid 2019. Commissioning began at September/October 2019. Adaption of configuration and geometry of the struvite recovery unit was finished in February 2020. Constant operation of the struvite recovery unit with sufficient particle size is expected at end 2020.
  33. 33. 33 Circular solutions for Water Materials Relevant data Lead partners 6.4 hm3 water reused / year Relevant sectors Factory Agriculture Water treatment Drinking water #2. Costa Brava (ES) Tossa de Mar WRP Touristic region located on the Mediterranean, characterized by high seasonal demand, frequent water scarcity episodes, also causing saltwater intrusion. It is one of the first areas in the uptake of water reuse in Europe with 14 full-scale tertiary treatments that provide 4 hm3/year (2016) for agricultural irrigation, environmental uses, non- potable urban uses and, recently, indirect potable reuse. Introduction to the demo case: https://nextgenwater.eu/costa-brava-region/
  34. 34. 34 1. General description of the site In the case of Costa Brava site, a pilot plant integrated by ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) modules fitted with RO regenerated membranes was installed in December 2019 at the WWTP of Tossa de Mar. The pilot plant was allocated after the sand filter of the tertiary treatment of the WWTP. It will operate for 2 years (2020-2021). During this period, the operation conditions of this new system will be evaluated, as well as the quality of the water obtained to be used for the irrigation of private gardens.
  35. 35. 35 2. State of play at the start of NextGen Flocculation / Coagulation Chlorination Secondary Clarifier Current tertiary treatment Water reuse Sand Filter UV lamps Lamella clarifier Pre- Chlorination
  36. 36. 36 3. Objectives of the NextGen solutions ✓ By this way, the time-life of RO membranes will be increased, and the generated quantity of this waste diminished. ✓ Regenerate end-of-life reverse osmosis (RO) membranes to obtain different molecular cut-offs to be used in the multipurpose fit-for-use reclamation system. 2 year pilot. ✓ Produce fit-for-use water quality for sensitive uses to extend the use of reclaimed water in the area: irrigation of private gardens and, theoretically, indirect potable reuse through aquifer recharge. ✓ Integrated urban/regional water cycle optimisation including all the relevant actors.
  37. 37. 37 Technology Evidence Base (TEB). Initial draft – to be finalised in D1.6 Costa Brava Positioning of demo case within the CE 3. Objectives of the NextGen solutions
  38. 38. 38 4. Summary Table Case Study number & name Subtasks Technology baseline NextGen intervention in circular economy for water sector TRL Capacity Quantifiable target Status / progress # 2 Costa Brava (ES) Location: Tossa de Mar Sub-Task 1.2.2 Integration of recycled membranes in multiquality - multipurpos e water reuse WWTP with a tertiary treatment integrated by a pre-chlorination treatment, a coagulation / flocculation process, a sand filter and UV lamp treatment. Pilot plant from ZEROBRINE Project consists of an ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) modules that can treat up to 2 m3/h of water. Refurbishment and adaptation of the pilot plant from ZEROBRINE Project: ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) modules are fitted with reverse osmosis (RO) regenerated membranes used as a final treatment of urban effluents in the WWTP of Tossa de Mar to obtain a regenerated water for being used to irrigate private gardens. TRL 5 → 7 Pilot plant which produces 2 m3/h of regenerate d water Regenerated water (2 m3/h) for private garden irrigation (RD 1620/2007, Spain) Theoretically: Indirect Potable Reuse by aquifers recharge Ongoing. Pilot plant refurbished, adapted and implemented. Start-up was foreseen on June 2020 (according to the initial timeline), but due to COVID- 19, it will be delayed after June probably. Sub-Task 1.2.2 Integration of recycled membranes in multiquality - multipurpos e water reuse Regenerated effluent from tertiary treatment is nowadays used for public garden irrigation. Multi-purpose water reclamation and reuse: - Irrigation of private gardens (which requires a higher quality of the effluent compared to the used for public garden irrigation, according to Spanish RD 1620/2007) - Theoretical study of indirect potable water reuse throughout the determination of the emergent pollutants in the regenerated effluent compared with current one. TRL 9
  39. 39. 39 5. NextGen solutions Secondary Clarifier Chlorination Water reuse Sand Filter UV lamps UF/NF with regenerated membranes tertiary treatment Flocculation / Coagulation Lamella clarifier Pre- Chlorination - Irrigation of private gardens (RD 1620/2003) - Theoretically: Indirect Potable Reuse by aquifers recharge Scheme of the new Nextgen solution
  40. 40. 40 Principal and main characteristics of the pilot plant The pilot plant (located within a sea container of 20 feet (6.05m)) is fed with water from the sand filter of the tertiary treatment of Tossa de Mar WWTP. It consists of a 50 µm mesh filter to remove the coarse particulate matter coupled to a UF stage, where two modules are installed in parallel: one based on regenerated RO membranes and the other is a commercial one. Finally, it can be found the NF stage based on regenerated RO membranes. The pilot plant has an estimated production flowrate of 2,2 m3/h. The water produced is disinfected by the online addition of sodium hypochlorite and it is stored in a 10m3 tank. This tank is placed in an easily accessible area, from where the water tank truck can pick it up and distribute it to the end-user sites. The regenerated water will be used for private garden irrigation. 5. NextGen solutions
  41. 41. 41 5. NextGen solutions P&I diagram of the pilot plant UF (dead end) – commercial membranes UF (dead end) – regenerated RO membranes UF permeate tank NF permeate tank NF – regenerated RO membranes Concentrate – recirculated to the inlet of WWTP Reagent dispensers 1000 L tank 500 L tank 500 L tank 100 L tank 100 L tank 100 L tank NF – regenerated RO membranes Waste 100 L tank 100 L tank 100 L tank Reagent dispensers Mesh filter 500 L tank Feed tank Security filters
  42. 42. 42 Pictures of the pilot plant UF module 2 X RO module Mesh filter Security filtre for RO 3 x container UF reagents 3 x RO reagent container pH, EC... sensors Feed 500L UF->RO 1000L Permeate container 2x500L Air conditioner 5. NextGen solutions
  43. 43. 43 Pictures of the pilot plant 5. NextGen solutions
  44. 44. 44 5. NextGen solutions
  45. 45. 45 6. Operational procedures During the pilot operation, the monitoring of the quality and quantity of regenerated water is foreseen. The parameters fixed by the Quality 1.1. of RD 1620/2007 as well as the screening of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) (pharmaceutical, EDCs, pesticides and the WL 2018 products) will be evaluated in the “NF permeate tank”. In the end-user site, the free/total chlorine, turbidity, TSS, N and P are also foreseen to be quantified in order to ensure the water quality just before the irrigation of private gardens. Water type Intestinal nematodes Escherichia coli Suspended solids Turbidity Legionella spp. Free/Total chlorine Other Outlet of pilot plant (stored in the 10 m3 tank) Twice / month Twice/ week Once / week Twice / week Once / month Twice / week 5 selected TrOC:s once/month Screening TrOCs: once / 3 month End-user site N/A N/A Occasionally (when water is discharged) Occasionally (when water is discharged) N/A Twice / week N, P (occasionally) Table 1. Monitoring foreseen in the project framework. 6.1. Pilot plant operation
  46. 46. 46 6. Operational procedures 6.2. Tools for environmental & economic impacts assessment at Costa Brava (WP2) • Quantitative microbial risk assessment via the AquaNES online tool • Life cycle assessment • Life cycle costing • Cost efficiency analysis • Hydroptim system design of water supply • This information will be collected in D2.2
  47. 47. 47 7. Results and Specific KPIs of the NextGen solutions 7.1 Specific KPIs Case study Topic Objectives Specific Key Performance Indicator (KPI) Current value Expected value #2 Costa Brava (ES) Wastewater treatment and reuse To increase the production of regenerated water for private garden irrigation Water yield of the system [% of regenerated water produced for private garden irrigation] 0 % > 70 % To reduce the salinity of the effluent Salt rejection yield [% salt removal vs inlet flow] 0 % > 80 % To reduce the content of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) of the regenerated water Global removal yield for several priority/emergent pollutants [%] 0 % (To be updated with the current removal of WWTP) > 90 % To reduce the TSS and turbidity of the effluent TSS and turbidity removal yield vs inlet flow to the system [%] 0 % (To be updated with the current removal of WWTP > 95 % To reduce the pathogens content of the effluent [E.coli] final effluent [CFU/100mL] 1 0 [Intestinal nematodes] final effluent [egg/10L] 1 ≤ 1 [Legionella spp.] final effluent [CFU/100mL] < 100 < 100 Energy To reduce electricity consumption of the Nextgen UF & NF processes compared with conventional ones Electricity consumption [kWh/m3 regenerated water] 2 kWh/m3 (Garcia-Ivars 2017) To be calculated once in stable operation Materials Evaluation of the viability of the RO recycled membranes Flux [l m-2 h-1] related to transmembrane pressure [bar] 13 lm2h/bar (Garcia-Ivars 2017) Salt rejection [%] compared to a commercial membrane of the same type > 97% (NF270)
  48. 48. 48 7. Results 7.2. Characterization of inlet water to the pilot plant Parameters and number of samples Sampling 1 Sampling 2 Sampling 3 Sampling 4 Sampling 5 Sampling 6 Des-18 March-19 Jul-19 Oct-19 Març-20 oct-20 Physicochemical parameters pH 0 1 1 1 1 1 CE 0 1 1 1 1 1 SDI (embrutiment membrana) 0 1 1 1 1 1 Turbidity 0 1 1 1 1 1 TSS 0 1 1 1 1 1 COD total 0 1 1 1 1 1 BOD5 0 1 1 1 1 1 DOC 0 1 1 1 1 1 TIC 0 1 1 1 1 1 Anions 0 1 1 1 1 1 Cations 0 1 1 1 1 1 Metals 0 1 1 1 1 1 Nitrogen total 0 1 1 1 1 1 P total 0 1 1 1 1 1 Free chlorine/Total chlorine 0 1 1 1 1 1 Microbiological parameters E.coli 0 0 1 1 1 1 Legionella spp. 0 0 1 1 1 1 Intestinal nematodes 0 0 1 1 1 1 CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGERS 0 0 1 1 1 1 BACTERIOFAGOS FECALES SOMATICOS 0 0 1 1 1 1 TrOCs Neonicotinoids - screening 5 1 1 1 No analized 1 Pesticides - screening 1 1 1 1 1 EDCs - screening 5 1 1 1 1 Pharmaceutical compounds - screening 5 1 1 1 1 Amoxicillin 5 1 1 1 1 Sampling campaigns
  49. 49. 49 7. Results 7.2. Characterization of inlet water to the pilot plant PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOUNDS 7000 207000 407000 607000 807000 1007000 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 Ketoprofen Naproxen Ibuprofen Indomethacine Acetaminophen Salicylic acid Diclofenac Piroxicam Tenoxicam Meloxicam Bezafibrate Gemfibrozil Pravastatin Fluvastatin Atorvastatin Hydrochlorothiazide Furosemide Torasemide Losartan Irbesartan Valsartan Dexamethasone Phenazone Propyphenazone Oxycodone Codeine Carbamazepine 10,11-Epoxy-carbamazepine 2-Hydroxy-carbamazepine Acridone Sertraline Citalopram Venlafaxine Olanzapine Trazodone Fluoxetine Norfluoxetine Paroxetine Diazepam Lorazepam Alprazolam Loratadine Desloratadine Ranitidine Famotidine Cimetidine Atenolol Sotalol Propanolol Metoprolol Nadolol Carazolol Glibenclamide Amlodipine Clopidogrel Tamsulosin Salbutamol Warfarin Iopromide Albendazole Norverapamil Levamisole Xylazine Azaperone Azaperol Erythromycin Azithromycin Clarithromycin Tetracycline Ofloxacin Ciprofloxacin Sulfa-methoxazole Trimethoprim Metronidazole Metronidazole-OH Dimetridazole Ronidazole Cefalexin Diltiazem Verapamil Amoxiciline Concentration (ng/L)  Guide values of theoretical toxicology (obtained from various literature sources) of sustained human intake over time supplied by Health Department of Catalunya. Conservative values (safety margin: 1log)
  50. 50. 50 7. Results 7.2. Characterization of inlet water to the pilot plant PESTICIDESCOMPOUNDS 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 Imidacloprid Thiacloprid Thiamethoxam Clothianidin Acetamiprid Methiocarb Trifluralin Simazine Atrazine Atrazine-desethyl (DEA) Desisopropylatrazine (DIA) Alachlor Terbutryn Chlorpyrifos-ethyl Chlorfenvinphos Isoproturon Diuron 4,4’-Dichlorobenzophenone Quinoxyfen Aclonifen Bifenox Cybutryne Cypermethrin Dichlorvos Heptachlor Heptachlor epoxide Oxadiazon* 1,2,3-Trichlorobenzene 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 1,3,5-Trichlorobenzene Hexachlorobutadiene Pentachlorobenzene Hexachlorobenzene α-HCH β-HCH δ-HCH γ-HCH (lindane) o,p’-DDE o,p’-DDD p,p’-DDE p.p’DDD o,p’DDT p,p’-DDT Aldrin Isodrin Dieldrin Endrin α-Endosulfan β-Endosulfan Endosulfan-sulfate Terbuthylazine Metolachlor Azinphos-methyl Azinphos-ethyl Diazinon Dimethoate Fenitrothion Chlorothalonil Glyphosate AMPA 2,4-D 2,4,5-T MCPA Dichlorprop Mecoprop MCPB Chloridazon Flufenacet Fluopicolide Azoxystrobin Trifloxystrobin Tritosulfuron Iodosulfuron-methyl Quinmerac Dimethaclor Dimethamid-P Metazaclor Metalaxyl-M Propiconazole Metolachlor OA Metolachlor ESA Concentration (ng/L) Limit of RD140/2003 related to drinking water
  51. 51. 51 7. Results 7.2. Characterization of inlet water to the pilot plant 100000 120000 140000 160000 180000 200000 220000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 Concentration (ng/L) 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 Concentration (ng/L) EDCs Other compounds  Guide values of theoretical toxicology (obtained from various literature sources) of sustained human intake over time supplied by Health Department of Catalunya. Conservative values (safety margin: 1log)
  52. 52. 52 7. Results 7.3. Selection of TrOCs to be determined monthly Quarterly Screening of TrOC Determination of 5 TrOC Monthly 1 [TrOC] effluent from sand filter > limit fixed by the legislation or [TrOC] effluent from sand filter > guide value proposed [TrOC] regenerated water > limit fixed by the legislation or [TrOC] regenerated water > guide value proposed Removal from NF with RO regenerated membranes < 90% [TrOC] > 100 ng/L in all the sampling campaigns TrOC included in the Watch List 2018 Nº Code 2 3 4 5 1. Caffeine (EDC) 2. Benzotriazole-1H (EDC) 3. AMPA (Pesticide) 4. 2,4-D (Pesticide) 5. Azithromycin (WL 2018) (Pharmaceutical compound)
  53. 53. 53 7. Results 7.4. Preliminary experiments with regenerated RO membranes 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Removal (%) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Removal (%) WL 2018 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Removal (%) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Ketoprofen Naproxen Ibuprofen Salicylic acid Diclofenac Gemfibrozil Atorvastatin Hydrochlorothiazide Losartan Irbesartan Valsartan Codeine Carbamazepine 10,11-Epoxy-carbamazepine 2-Hydroxy-carbamazepine Citalopram Venlafaxine Trazodone Lorazepam Atenolol Sotalol Propanolol Metoprolol Clopidogrel Tamsulosin Iopromide Norverapamil Levamisole Azithromycin Clarithromycin Ofloxacin Sulfa-methoxazole Trimethoprim Dimetridazole Diltiazem Verapamil Removal (%) WL 2018
  54. 54. 54 7. Results 7.5. Preliminary tests with the pilot plant y = 0,4173x + 7,9843 R² = 0,9665 13 13,5 14 14,5 15 15,5 16 0 5 10 15 20 RO Flux (L/m2/h) TMP (bar) LMH vs Pressure Operated at 70% conversion – 13 lmh Fouling observed in the membrane Turbidity (NTU) SDI Conductivity (mS/cm) Mean St. Dev Mean St. Dev Feed of SF 6,96 1,38 Feed to UF 5,41 0,81 >5 Permeate UF 0,50 0,37 1,7 1,297007 0,010531 Permeate regenerated NF 0,33 0,15 0,251437 0,001177
  55. 55. 55 8. Progress and next steps planned Case Study number & name Subtasks Technology baseline NextGen intervention in circular economy for water sector Status Status/ Contingency plan # 2 Costa Brava (ES) Location: Tossa de Mar Sub-Task 1.2.2 Integration of recycled membranes in multiquality- multipurpose water reuse WWTP with a tertiary treatment integrated by a pre-chlorination treatment, a coagulation / flocculation process, a sand filter and UV lamp treatment. Pilot plant from ZEROBRINE Project consists of an ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) modules that can treat up to 2 m3/h of water. Refurbishment and adaptation of the pilot plant from ZEROBRINE Project: ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) modules are fitted with reverse osmosis (RO) regenerated membranes used as a final treatment of urban effluents in the WWTP of Tossa de Mar to obtain a regenerated water for being used to irrigate private gardens. The pilot plant is already installed in the Tossa de Mar WWTP from February 2020. The start-up of the pilot plant was planned for June 2020 (M24). However, due to SARS-CoV-2 restrictions, the start-up of the pilot plant experimented some delay. So at the end, the pilot plant is in operation during September 2020. Ongoing. Pilot plant refurbished, adapted, implemented and in operation. It is foreseen to shorten the time dedicated to evaluate the several types of regenerated membranes: 21 months instead of 24 months. So there is still enough time to properly evaluate the proposed technologies. Sub-Task 1.2.2 Integration of recycled membranes in multiquality- multipurpose water reuse Regenerated effluent from tertiary treatment is nowadays used for public garden irrigation. Multi-purpose water reclamation and reuse: - Irrigation of private gardens (which requires a higher quality of the effluent compared to the used for public garden irrigation, according to Spanish RD 1620/2007) - Theoretical study of indirect potable water reuse throughout the determination of the emergent pollutants in the regenerated effluent compared with current one.
  56. 56. 56 Planned timetable Updated timetable Task description Task M1 - M6 M7 - M12 M13-M18 M19-M24 M25-M30 M31-M36 M37-M42 M43-48 Establishment of current status (baseline conditions) and design of the pilot reclamation scheme for irrigation of private gardens with local operator 1.2.2 Obtaining end-of-life membranes and optimization of regeneration conditions at bench scale to reach UF and NF conditions. 1.2.2 Regeneration and testing of 8-inch modules. 1.2.2 Refurbishment and adaptation of pilot plant from ZEROBRINE project 1.2.2 Installation and commissioning of pilot plant at Tossa de Mar WWTP 1.2.2 Operation of water reuse pilot. Evaluation of performance according to Spanish regulations for private irrigation and study of specific microbial (UF evaluation) 1.2.2 Operation of water reuse pilot. Evaluation of performance according to Spanish regulations for other uses (i.e. aquifer recharge) and study of specific microbial and trace pollutants removal (NF-RO evaluation) 1.2.2 Assessment of results and extrapolation to other WWTP in the demo site 1.2.2 Task description Task M1 - M6 M7 - M12 M13-M18 M19-M24 M31-M36 M37-M42 M43-48 Establishment of current status (baseline conditions) and design of the pilot reclamation scheme for irrigation of private gardens with local operator 1.2.2 Obtaining end-of-life membranes and optimization of regeneration conditions at bench scale to reach UF and NF conditions. 1.2.2 Regeneration and testing of 8-inch modules. 1.2.2 Refurbishment and adaptation of pilot plant from ZEROBRINE project 1.2.2 Installation and commissioning of pilot plant at Tossa de Mar WWTP 1.2.2 Operation of water reuse pilot. Evaluation of performance according to Spanish regulations for private irrigation and study of specific microbial and trace organic compounds removals (NF fitted with RO regenerated membranes & UF with comercial membranes) 1.2.2 Operation of water reuse pilot. Evaluation of performance according to Spanish regulations for private irrigation and study of specific microbial and trace organic compounds removals (UF & NF fitted with RO regenerated membranes) Operation of water reuse pilot. Evaluation of performance according to Spanish regulations for other uses (i.e. aquifer recharge) and study of specific microbial and trace pollutants removals (best RO regenerated membranes used to fit the UF & NF modules) 1.2.2 Assessment of results and extrapolation to other WWTP in the demo site 1.2.2 M25-M30 8. Progress and next steps planned
  57. 57. 57 Circular solutions for Water Westland Region Relevant data Relevant sectors Horticulture Heavy port industry Chemicals industry Lead partners 0,5 M households served 100-150 PJ Excess heat supply (industry near outside Westland) 600 horticulture companies, 2300 ha 120-75 PJ Excess heat demand (horticulture, cities) Energy Drinking water companies Introduction to the demo case: https://nextgenwater.eu/westland-region/
  58. 58. 58 1. General description of the site
  59. 59. 59 2. State of play at the start of NextGen 2.1. Current situation greenhouse horticulture industry Westland Block diagram of the pre-existing treatment scheme in horticulture Horticulture uses rainwater (collected in shallow basins) for irrigation but in times of shortages this is supplemented with brackish groundwater (desalinated by RO). Inside the greenhouses, water is recirculated, evaporated water is condensed and emission of nutrients and pesticides minimised. Final wastewater treatment to reduce PPP/pesticides emissions. Natural gas and electricity are used for heating and lightning. CO2 of the CHP is used to increase crop yields.
  60. 60. 60 2. State of play at the start of NextGen 2.2. Current situation urban area Delfland region In the urban areas (Rotterdam,The Hague, Delft), water level management is in place with the purpose of flood prevention. High quality drinking water is provided from treated surface water (Dunea, Evides) and recovered materials are brokered to end users (AquaMinerals). At the 4 WWTPs, advanced treatment systems are in place, including biogas production and nutrient recovery. Effluent is discharged to the sea (HH Delfland) WWTP Harnaschpolder
  61. 61. 61 ASR Parameter Mean value for 2018 Standard deviation Comments Water yield of the system Current system Rainfall climatology of the area (mm/year or L/m2/year) 720 ca. 100 This is the amount of rainwater fallen in the Rotterdam). The long year average is 845 mm source for irrigation water is common in horticu Volume of water recovered vs rainfall (m3 /year) 6,500,000 2,000,000 The 6.5 M m3 is approximately the annual amou horticulture in the Westland area (harvesting eff Water quality Quality of rainwater harvested COD (mg O2 /l) 32 - - BOD5 (mg O2 /l) 5.7 - - pH 6.2 - - TSS (mg/l) 17 - - N Kjeldahl (mg N/l) 1.9 - - Total nitrogen (mg N/l) 1.9 - - Total phosphorus (mg P/l) 0.4 - - Energy consumption Current water storage / infiltration / pumping system Whole system (kWh/m3) 0.55 - - ATES Parameter Mean value for 2018 Standard deviation Comments Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage systems (ATES) Primary energy Reduction of consumption (%) 50 Thermal T cold well (0C) 5 T warm well (0C) 18 Heat demand warm well (TJ) 23 Cooling demand cold well (TJ) 16 2. State of play at the start of NextGen 2.3. Current situation for ASR and ATES
  62. 62. 62 3. Objectives of the NextGen solutions The main objective of the Westland demo case is the demonstration of an integrated approach for a circular water system at the Delfland region. In the region already numerous initiatives exist of circular technologies related to e.g. rainwater harvesting and reuse in horticulture, aquifer thermal energy storage, urban water management and resource recovery from WWTPs. In NextGen, a regional management strategy for a circular water-energy-materials system will be implemented at regional scale, supported by a CoP to have active cooperation between stakeholders.
  63. 63. 63 3. Objectives of the NextGen solutions The key innovations and actions: 1. For the transition towards a more circular water system in the Delfland region, an integrated assessment of performance of technologies and strategies will be done. This assessment will include (T1.2.1): • the use of alternative water sources (through region-wide rainwater storage and reuse using large scale Aquifer Storage & Recovery (ASR) systems and reuse of WWTP effluent) and advanced water treatment systems (recycling and purification) for the horticulture sector, • and several urban water management systems (rainwater harvesting, grey water recycling, green roofs and domestic water saving). 2. For an integrated water-energy approach in the Delfland region, the contribution of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage systems (ATES) to the overall energy balance will be assessed. This assessment will include (T1.3.5): • a feasibility study of a High Temperature-Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage system (HT-ATES) at the horticulture Koppert Cress, and the role HT-ATES could play in the South-Holland heat roundabout. 3. For the upscaling of the recovery of materials and resources from the water system, a novel business model of reused materials brokerage will be demonstrated (T5.1)
  64. 64. 64 Technology Evidence Base (TEB). Initial draft – to be finalised in D1.6 Westland Positioning of demo case within the CE 3. Objectives of the NextGen solutions
  65. 65. 65 4. Summary Table Case Study number & name Subtasks Technology baseline NextGen intervention in circular economy for water sector TRL Capacity Quantifiable target Status / progress #3 Westland, Netherlands Location: Delfland region. It is the catchment area of the Waterboard Delfland Sub-Task 1.2.1 One ASR showcase in the Delfland region. Total area 27 ha. Location: Groeneweg 75, ‘S Gravenzande Aquifer Storage & Recovery (ASR) systems TRL 7/8 → 9 Average of 8500 m3/ha/year Volume of rainwater collected from the roofs and partly stored in aboveground basins and recovered for horticulture irrigation. Region-wide water balance (from linear to circular; m3/y). Ongoing. In NextGen a more circular water concept for the Delfland region (initiate, propagate, analyze) is demonstrated. In the region several initiatives are already in development, such as Coastar (upscaling ASR) and Waterbank (solution for discharge of brine in the subsurface). The options to use alternative water sources for the horticulture sector (region-wide rainwater use through ASR and reuse of WWTP-effluent) and urban water management systems (rainwater harvesting, grey water recycling, domestic water saving, green roofs) are being assessed and discussed with stakeholders.
  66. 66. 66 4. Summary Table Case Study number & name Subtasks Technology baseline NextGen intervention in circular economy for water sector TRL Capacity Quantifiable target Status / progress #3 Westland, Netherlands Location: Delfland region. It is the catchment area of the Waterboard Delfland Sub-Task 1.2.1 No wastewater purification systems at the horticulture companies before 2018 Water recycling and individual/collective water purification system for horticulture TRL 9 TRL 6 → 8 Average use of water 7500 m3/ha/year in company Waste water stream horticulture varies from 0 – 500 m3/ha/ year. Water use (m3/ha/y) and water efficiency (condensate and use evaporate water). Wastewater treated (m3/ha/y). Ongoing. Almost all greenhouses in the region (total 2500 ha) already have cyclic irrigation water streams. There is a new obligation by law to have a water purification system or zero emission (realization period (2018 – 2021). Currently the horticulture farmers are opting for either individual, collective, or central collective wastewater treatment. Within NextGen, the options for enhanced water treatment systems (recycling and purification) in horticulture are included in the assessment of a closed water system in Delfland (see above).
  67. 67. 67 4. Summary Table Case Study number & name Subtasks Technology baseline NextGen intervention in circular economy for water sector TRL Capacity Quantifiable target Status / progress #3 Westland, Netherlands Location: Delfland region. It is the catchment area of the Waterboard Delfland Sub-Task 1.3.5 Several in operation Heat harvesting unit (ATES) TRL 5 → 7 ATES systems (TJ) Region-wide water-energy balance. Common practice in rural/urban area. Ongoing. In Delfland region several ATES systems are in operation. Within NextGen, the contribution of ATES systems to the region-wide water- energy balance (including the heat roundabout) is being assessed. In particular, the option to enhance ATES into HT-ATES systems is demonstrated (see below). Sub-Task 1.3.5 Pilot set-up High Temperature-Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage system (HT-ATES) TRL 4 → 6 Pilot location: heat demand 23 TJ, cold demand 16 TJ Energy efficiency (energy and exergy produced/stored, %). Ongoing. The HT-ATES at horticulture Koppert Cress is in operation and within NextGen the performance is being monitored. The knowledge gained from this test location will be used to assess the region-wide water-energy balance. Next step to make it possible by law and license.
  68. 68. 68 5. NextGen solutions For the transition towards a more circular water system in the Delfland region (T1.2.1): • Assessment of the contribution of several technology options to further close the water system, by UWOT modelling of scenarios. Scenarios include: • extension of large scale rainwater harvesting through Aquifer Storage & Recovery (ASR) • water recycling and individual/collective water purification system at horticulture industry • the reuse of WWTP effluent for horticulture • urban water management systems (rainwater harvesting, grey water recycling, green roofs and domestic water saving). For an integrated water-energy approach in the Delfland region (T1.3.5): • Assessment of the contribution of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage systems (ATES) to the overall energy balance • Feasibility study of a High Temperature-Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage system (HT-ATES) at the horticulture Koppert Cress
  69. 69. 69 • Baseline conditions for Westland reflect the present-day state of the regional water system, including both urban and rural (horticulture) uses. • Reflects current water system technologies already in place: central networks for DW/WW, shallow RW basins for horticulture. • Data from multiple (open) sources are collected to form baseline conditions. A relevant geodatabase about Westland is populated that will be also used for modeling tasks (WP2). Baseline condition Sources Household consumption details (uses and frequencies of use) National statistics (WaterStatistieken) Number of households, household types cbs.nl (Provincie Zuid-Holland) hhdelfland.nl (Delfland Water Board) Rainfall (daily time-series), last 30 years KNMI Spatial characteristics of urban areas (pervious/impervious) Land uses in urban and horti areas hdddelfland.nl (Delfland Water Board) pdok.nl (Dutch open datasets) zuid-holland.nl (Provincie Zuid-Holland) CORINE land cover (EU dataset) Spatial characteristics of rural areas Number of greenhouses Greenhouse demands (daily time-series) Past KWR consultancy (COASTAR, Waterbanking) Internal KWR data Baseline Households follow linear WM Greenhouses rely on shallow RW basins 5. NextGen solutions 5.1. Towards a circular regional water system Baselinescenarios
  70. 70. 70 5. NextGen solutions 5.1. Towards a circular regional water system UWOT topology • Pairing with a spreadsheet database for model I/O. Baseline hh’s follow linear WM Greenhouses rely on shallow RW basins data in data out spreadsheet geodatabase The baseline conditions geodatabase for Westland feeds into the Westland UWOT model of WP2. Baselinescenarios
  71. 71. 71 5. NextGen solutions 5.1. Towards a circular regional water system Baselinescenarios
  72. 72. 72 5. NextGen solutions 5.1. Towards a circular regional water system Circular scenarios A first draft of six scenarios that represent different circular futures: • different mixture of techs in urban settings (RWH/GWR) • different mixture of techs in horticulture (RWH/use of ASR technology) • one scenario with collective water purification system for horticulture that connects urban settings and horticulture (WWTP reuse to GH) Scenarios are discussed against key stakeholders in collaboration with WP3 (Westland CoP, Sept. 2020) – certain alterations will be made based on stakeholder feedback. These scenarios represent different policy pathways that materialize to technological decisions – improvements on either urban or horticulture water systems, or both. Rainproof 25% of hh’s have RWH GHs rely on RW basins A Circular 25% of hh’s have circular system (RWH/GWR) GHs rely on RW basins B Water-aware 25% of hh’s have circular system (RWH/GWR) 25% of hh’s have water-saving devices GHs rely on RW basins C Green roof 25% of hh’s have RWH 50% of public impervious spaces have green roofs GHs rely on RW basins D Water-aware ASR 25% of hh’s have circular system (RWH/GWR) 25% of hh’s have water-saving devices 10% of GHs have ASR E Black to green 25% of hh’s have circular system (RWH/GWR) 5% of water treated from WWTPs returned to GHs F
  73. 73. 73 5. NextGen solutions 5.1. Water recycling and collective water purification system for horticulture. ✓ Target: Zero emission of nutrients and pesticides in 2027; ✓ Water purification obligation from 1-1-21 ✓ Participation of 1100 ha horticulture area ✓ In 2020 a decision was taken to built an additional treatment step (O3) at WWTP Nieuwe Waterweg (Hoek van Holland) as collective wastewater treatment facility for Westland horticulture (by 2022). ✓ Wastewater will be purified at Nieuwe Waterweg and Groote Lucht to irrigation water quality for the horticulture (reverse osmosis) WWTP Hoek van Holland
  74. 74. 74 5. NextGen solutions 5.2/5.3. Water and energy storage systems for horticulture. Scheme of the new NextGen solution Extension of ASR (water T1.2.1) and ATES (energy T1.3.5) systems at greenhouse horticulture industry Assessment of the contribution of Aquifer Storage & Recovery (ASR) and Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage systems (ATES) to the regional water and energy balance.
  75. 75. 75 5. NextGen solutions 5.2. Aquifer Storage & Recovery (ASR) systems. Principle ASR in the horticulture ✓ Water quality demand for irrigation: [Na] < 0.5 mM → Rainwater: primary irrigation water source for the horticulture ✓ By the ASR the excess of rainwater (winter) is temporarily stored in an aquifer (depth app. -20m to -40 m below surface) so that it can be recovered in summer period as irrigation water. ✓ The rainwater is collected from the roofs (area about 2500 ha) and partly stored in aboveground basins (average 800 m3/ha). ✓ Through ASR, almost all the annual rainfall (average about 8500 m3/ha) can be harvested. Moreover, the infiltration of freshwater limits also further salinization of the aquifer. ✓ One ASR showcase in the Delfland region. Total area 27 ha 1 2 3 4 Only extraction from Aq. 1 and concentrate injection in Aq. 2. ASR in Aq. 1 and concentrate injection in Aq. 2 1. Roof. Rain water harvesting 2. Basin. Water collection 3. Sand filtration 4. ASR. Subsurface water storage and recovery
  76. 76. 76 5. NextGen solutions 5.2. Aquifer Storage & Recovery (ASR) systems. Water banking to counteractsalinization and flooding Storing collected rainwater in the subsurface may help to counteract groundwater salinization and provide space in the basins in which peak rainfall can be collected However, recovery of stored water from brackish aquifers is difficult, so an incentive is lacking. Such an incentive can be created through water banking: groundwater extraction becomes conditional to rainwater infiltration. This concept is further investigated for several scenarios • Water balances, including system efficiency and overflow during rainfall events • Effects on groundwater salinity • Costs and (social) benefits • Governance and legal possibilities • Roadmap to implementation
  77. 77. 77 5. NextGen solutions 5.2. Aquifer Storage & Recovery (ASR) systems. Video of Aquifer Storage & Recovery (ASR) water banking systemin developmentin Westland
  78. 78. 78 5. NextGen solutions 5.3. High temperature Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (HT-ATES) In Westland, several Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage systems are in operation. In ATES, regular plate heat exchangers are used to harvest heat. Within NextGen: 1) The contribution of ATES to the regional energy balance is assessed. A heat demand and supply map is prepared. 2) The feasibility of converting ATES into High Temperature ATES is studied. At the horticulture Koppert-Cress a HT-ATES is piloted and its performance monitored. Aquifer Surface level COLD WELL WARM WELL Distributers Pond Cold store solar array condensor CHP Evaporator ATES Heat harvesting unit
  79. 79. 79 5. NextGen solutions 5.3. High temperature Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (HT-ATES) HT-ATES installedat horticulture Slide 7 Heat production geothermal doublet HT- heat demand (neighbouring greenhouses) LT-heat demand (koppert-cress) HT-ATES 80C HT-ATES 40C
  80. 80. 80 5. NextGen solutions 5.3. High temperature Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (HT-ATES) HT-ATES installedat horticulture Several heat exchangers in plant room HT-ATES at Koppert Cress
  81. 81. 81 6. Operational procedures 6.1 Monitoring HT-ATES performance Flow measurement in ATES well
  82. 82. 82 6. Operational procedures 6.2. Tools for environmental & economic impacts assessment at Westland (WP2) Water cycle tools: • UWOT – KWR and Hydroptim - ADASA • UWOT modelling will be used to model the current linear water system in the Delfland region and to simulate different scenarios towards a more circular system. This model will provide information on the effects on water quantity, including relevant consequences related to climate change (runoff) and financial dimensions. • The Hydroptim modelling will add to this the energy implications of the circular water scenarios Risk assessment: • QMRA, supported with measurements – KWB & KWR • Water quality related effects of the scenarios will be included, specifically by performing a microbiological risk assessment of effluent reuse for horticulture. • This information will be collected in D2.2
  83. 83. 83 7. Results and Specific KPIs of the NextGen solutions (actual vs expected) 7.1 Specific KPIs Case study Topic Objectives Specific Key Performance Indicator (KPI) Current value Expected value 3 Westland Region (NL) Wastewater treatment To reduce the emission of PPPs/pesticides in surface water Water purification units installed on various scale levels (individual/ collective/ central collective) Removal pesticides <50% Removal pesticides>> 95% (law rule) Rainwater harvesting To increase the self sufficiency of fresh water in Delfland (Westland) region % rainwater used for water related functions in cities, horticulture, etc. Horticulture: 30-70% used but increasing salinity of aquifer. Cities: <1% Horticulture: 30-70% but no increase in salinity of aquifer. Cities: scenario for 25% households with RWH. Energy To develop a High Temperature ATES system Efficiency comparison with ATES T < 20C Cooling demand 6TJ Heating demand 8TJ Heat recovery factor: 0,6-0,7 T : 45-80C Cooling demand 16TJ Heating demand 23TJ Heat recovery factor: 0,8-0,9
  84. 84. 84 7.2. Circular water system – preliminary scenario result 7. Results and Specific KPIs of the NextGen solutions
  85. 85. 85 Water balance of Westland horticultural companies Reference scenario (current situation) Waterbank basic scenario Surface horticultural companies (ha) 2431 Precipitation on roof (Mm3/j) 21.6 Retention on roof (Mm3/j) 2.7 Net precipitation in basin (Mm3/j) 18.9 Irrigation demand (Mm3/j) 17.7 Irrigation water from groundwater (RO) (Mm3/j) 3.7 5.0 Number of horticultural companies 1291 No. companies that infiltrate surplus rainwater 0 600 Infiltration (Mm3/j) 0.0 5.0 Evaporation from basins (Mm3/j) 0.2 Overflow to surface water (Mm3/j) 4.7 1.0 Overflow to surface water is strongly reduced, even for large precipitation events. Extra ‘tweaking’ (such as including weather forecast) can result in more efficiency Assessment results It is possible to ‘compensate’ all net extraction with infiltration if about half of the horticultural companies will infiltrate excess rain water. If companies work together or if other roofs (large industry) are used as well, the number of infiltration locations can be greatly reduced, up to about 150 locations. Daily precipitation (mm) Horticulture basin overflow (mm) 7.3. Aquifer Storage & Recovery (ASR) systems: Water Banking 7. Results and Specific KPIs of the NextGen solutions
  86. 86. 86 7.4. High temperature Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (HT-ATES) Energy balance The heat demand and supply in the Delfland region has been mapped. Next step is to assess the contribution of (HT-) ATES to the regional energy balance. 7. Results and Specific KPIs of the NextGen solutions
  87. 87. 87 Warm wells are installed in 2 different aquifers, DTS monitoring is installed at 4 locations from the well. Results below, to be extended and further analyze later. At 5m distance a monitoring well is placed for taking groundwater samples 7.4. High temperature Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (HT-ATES) 7. Results and Specific KPIs of the NextGen solutions
  88. 88. 88 8. Progress and next steps planned # Nº Case Study Involved sub-tasks Baseline: CE intervention / demo type Status Contingency plan #3 Westland Region (NL) Sub-Task 1.2.1 Aquifer Storage & Recovery (ASR) systems No deviations None Sub-Task 1.2.1 Water recycling and collective water purification system for horticulture No deviations None Sub-Task 1.3.5 Heat harvesting unit No deviations None Sub-Task 1.3.5 High Temperature-Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage system (HT-ATES) No deviations None
  89. 89. 89 8. Progress and next steps planned • T1.2.1 modelling circular scenarios & assessment of ASR contribution to regional water balance • T1.3.5 monitoring results of HT-ATES pilot plant at Koppert Cress & assessment of (HT)ATES contribution to regional energy balance Task description Task M1 - M6 M7 - M12 M13-M30 M31- M36 M37- M48 Set up of assessment tool for monitoring water cycle performance by appointing Key Performance Indicators (KPI) eg. percentage rainwater harvested, water quality, resource recovery products 1.2.1 Assessment of water management conditions of the Westland case (performance) and input to Technology Evidence Base. 1.2.1 Conclusive first results for Westland case: lessons learned and proposed integrated management of alternative water sources. 1.2.1 Comparative analysis with Gotland case for providing guidance on how to replicate the models in other regions. 1.2.1 Assessment of the Westland integrated watermanagement approach as best practice for closing the water cycle 1.2.1 Monitoring performance High Temperature- Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (HT-ATES) at horticulture location Koppert Cress Westland. Providing results to the Technology Evidence Base. 1.3.5 Preparing the energy balance of and the contribution of HT-ATES for the heat roundabout. Conclusive first results. 1.3.5 Assessment of HT-ATES pilot results and feasibility extrapolation to the heat roundabout in province South-Holland. Developing best practice of closing water related energy cycle. 1.3.5 M30 - M36:
  90. 90. 90 #4. Altenrhein Switzerland Circular solutions for Materials WWTP: 100,000 PE; 300,000 PE (sludge treatment) Relevant sectors Horticulture Water treatment Relevant data Energy Lead partner: Other partners: Introduction to the demo case: https://nextgenwater.eu/altenrhein/
  91. 91. 91 WWTP: 100,000 PE; 300,000 PE (sludge treatment) Primary treatment: bar screens, sand trap, primary clarifier Secondary treatment: nitrification, denitrification, enhanced biological phosphorus removal, secondary clarifier Sludge treatment: anaerobic digestion & sludge drying 1. General description of the site
  92. 92. 92 2. State of play at the start of NextGen
  93. 93. 93 3. Objectives of the NextGen solutions 1. Production of granular activated carbon (GAC) via pyrolysis of dried sludge with local biomass with a subsequent activation and granulation 2. Production of PK-fertilizer via pyrolysis of sewage sludge with a additional potassium source 3. Ammonia recovery via a hollow fiber membrane contactor for ammonium sulfate production
  94. 94. 94 Technology Evidence Base (TEB). Initial draft – to be finalised in D1.6 Altenrhei n Positioning of demo case within the CE 3. Objectives of the NextGen solutions
  95. 95. 95 4. Summary Table: material Case Study number & name Subtasks Technology baseline NextGen intervention in circular economy for water sector TRL Capacity Quantifiable target Status / progress # 4 Altenrhein (CH) Location: WWTP in Altenrhein Sub-Task 1.4.1 Large scale demonstration of ammonium recovery by HFMC Liquor from sludge dewatering returns to the WWTP Implementation of a hollow fiber membrane contactor for ammonia recovery as (NH4)2SO4 TRL 7 → 8 14 m³/h Production of ammonium sulfate (fertilizer) Ongoing. The construction of the stripping plant was delayed due to interactions with the construction of a micropollutant elimination plant in Altenrhein. Sub-Task 1.4.2 P-recovery by thermochemical treatment of sewage sludge Incineration of the dried sludge at the cement factory P recovery via pyrolysis as PK-fertilizer or NPK(S)- fertilizer TRL 5 → 7 Input: 20-50 kg/h Phosphorus in sludge modified and purified for reuse as market grade PK- fertilizer Ongoing. PK- fertilizer preparatory trials lasted longer than expected. Sub-Task 1.4.3 Renewable granular activated carbon (GAC) Filtration with commercial GAC after ozonation Production of renewable GAC via pyrolysis, activation & granulation TRL 5 → 6 Input: 1 kg/h Renewable GAC used for micro- pollutants removal Ongoing. Corona-related delays in pilot trials due to limited availability of production and testing facilities. Long-term tests planned 18 months starting M25, might have to be shortened. However evaluation of long term tests after 12 or 15 months also possible.
  96. 96. 96 5. NextGen solutions
  97. 97. 97 6. Large scale demonstration of ammonium recovery Production plant and operational procedure Program • Optimize process parameters (temperature, pH, centrate flow) • Determine KPI (area specific ammonia mass transfer, absolute ammonia yield, yield specific caustic soda and heat consumption) • Granulation tests, NPK(S) fertilizer Collaboration FHNW and AVA with expertise from EAWAG and Alpha Wassertechnik Constructionlargely finalized - planned commissioning:Feb2021(M32)
  98. 98. 98 6. Large scale demonstration of ammonium recovery P&I diagram and design parameters of the plant Elimination Parameters Unit Value Nitrogen recovery yield % 75 Minimum concentration nitrogen in fertilizer % 3.5 Availability of production plant % 85 Dimension Parameters Unit Value Flow m3/h 14 CSB concentration mg/l 1’700 N-NH4 concentration mg/l 900 ± 200 GUS concentration mg/l 800 Temperature °C 14 pH - 8
  99. 99. 99 6. Renewable granular activated carbon (GAC) Pictures and operational procedure T= 53 °C T= 53 °C GAC from sewage sludge after pyrolysis All methods have been tested with two renewable materials (FHNW): • Pyrolysis • Activation • Performance • Physical and chemical characterization 1st phase - Parameter screening • DSC/TGA plus adsorption (UV 254) • Upscaling to pilot (1 kg/h) to verify surface area, porosity, hardness, density 2nd phase - Production of optimised GAC • 2x 150 L • Sewage sludge, CO2, 800°C • Cherry pits, H2O, 1000°C • Reference Chemviron Cyclecarb
  100. 100. 100 6. Renewable granular activated carbon (GAC) Flow scheme of the pyrolysis H2O, CO2 Dried sewage sludge Cherry pits Pyrolysis/Activation 850°C – 900°C One Step N2 GAC GC-GAC Syn-Gas Pyrogas Oil Multiple production parameters are considered: 1. Feedstock material (dried sewage sludge and cherry pits) 2. Conditions of pyrolisis and activation (temperature, residence time, activating gas) Quality of GAC is assessed based on: 1. Adsorption capacity 2. Physical properties (hardness, surface, porosity, density)
  101. 101. 101 6. Renewable granular activated carbon (GAC) Production of SS and CP GACs Milled and sieved cherry pits CP_GAC after pyrolisis Cherry pits Sieving and conditioning Milling and sieving SS_GAK (~ 65 kg) Dried SS from AVA Altenrhein GAC after pyrolisis PYREKA Agroscope Pyrolysis Sieving Pyrolysis
  102. 102. 102 Long term tests T= 53 °C Goals 1. To assess the performance of renewable GAC at pilot scale over 12 months of operation 2. To investigate on biofilm development over time (BAC) Methodology Operate the system (O3 + GAC) at 80% OMPs removal. Three consecutive phases are defined 1st ph. : Standard (EBCT 20’, 2 mg O3/L) 2nd ph. : Adjust EBCT to achieve 80% elimination 3rd ph. : Adjust O3 dosage to achieve 80% elimination 6. Renewable granular activated carbon (GAC) Pilot experiments operational procedure Sampling point for OMPs Ozonatio n 2 mg O3/L Ref. GAC SS GAC CP GAC Sand filtration discharge discharge discharge EBCT 20 mins 2ry treat.
  103. 103. 103 6. Renewable granular activated carbon (GAC) Pilot experiments operational procedure Monitoring of the pilots • Performance of the O3+GAC system (i.e. Organic micropollutant (OMPs) elimination by LC MS, and UV adsorption) • Operating period of renewable GAC (i.e. carbon loss in the effluent) • Biofilm formation (5-7 samples/yr) (TGA, flow cytometry, SEM, NGS) 200 cm The OMPs elimation of the GAC filters is monitored over time at different operating modes (i.e. EBCT, and O3 dosage)
  104. 104. 104 6. PK fertilizer Picture of pilot plant T= 53 °C T= 53 °C Feeder Gasifier Pyrolysis unit Filter Afterburner Steam unit
  105. 105. 105 6. PK fertilizer Preliminary pilot experiments T= 53 °C T= 53 °C Experiment with start up phase , gasification phase and cool down phase with biomass
  106. 106. 106 6. PK fertilizer Operational procedure for nextGen T= 53 °C T= 53 °C Burn Out • Improve further by adaptation of fluidization medium at bottom • Goal: < 0.2% TOC • PAK: not detectable P-Availability • Residence time to be increased to allow K for Ca replacement reaction Operating Conditions • Bed material replacement to be improved by more efficient screening, smaller bed Reconstruction of Pilot Plant • Decrease of diameter in certain areas • Additional section for burn out improvement • Improved screening system for bed material/ash
  107. 107. 107 6. Operational procedures and methodologies The parameters of material recovery procedures are monitored according to the specific requirements in order to ensure the quality standards of the products. Flow rates N concentrations (NH4)2SO4 Wastewater influent to WWTP Sludge input of third parties Liquor to ammonia stripping unit Effluent from ammonia stripping unit (NH4)2SO4 (material product) Flow rates P concentrations PK fertilizer Wastewater influent to WWTP Sewage sludge to mixing unit PK fertilizer (material product)
  108. 108. 108 6. Operational procedures and methodologies The parameters of material recovery procedures are monitored according to the specific requirements in order to ensure the quality standards of the products. GAC Adsorption capacity compared to that of commercially available GAC [%] via active surface (BJH) Lifetime until renewal compared to commercially available GAC indicated as BV (for removal > 80%, EBCT) → The testing of the GAC includes the use of the GAC filtration after ozonation. This will be evaluated for both conventional and renewable GAC. Removal rates Micropollutants 12 micropollutants in the Swiss regulation. https://www.newsd.admin.ch/newsd/message/attachments/41 551.pdf → Removal rates of the system will be compared to the results of the system in Costa Brava CS#2 for Diclofenac, Benzotriazole, Carbamazepine
  109. 109. 109 6. Operational procedures and methodologies: Tools (WP2) In the frame of WP2, different tools will be applied at the case study in Altenrhein: • Quantitative chemical risk assessment for PK fertilizer • Life cycle assessment • Life cycle costing • Cost efficiency analysis The results are elaborated in WP2 and will be presented in D2.1 and D2.2.
  110. 110. 110 7. Results: Renewable granular activated carbon (GAC) TGA Analysis of pilot materials activated @ 900°C 10’: • Sewage sludge GAC (SS) with 10-15% «anorganic carbon» content • Cherry pit GAC (CP) with 90% «anorganic carbon» content 32% 54% 25% 40% 44% 6% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% dried SS CP-dried fraction 14% 14% 13% 92% 90% 87% 85% 86% 86% 3% 3% 5% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% SS-0% steam SS-50% steam SS-100% steam CP-0% steam CP-50% steam CP-100% steam «anorganic carbon» as weight loss under under O2 «organic material», as weight loss under under N2 inert
  111. 111. 111 Sewage sludge GAC with higher density than reference Cherry pit GAC with lower density than reference 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 cp raw cp 0% steam cp 50% steam cp 100% steam dried SS SS 0% steam SS 50% steam SS 100% steam NORIT GAC true density [kg/m 3 ] 7. Results: Renewable granular activated carbon (GAC)
  112. 112. 112 7. Results: PK fertilizer T= 53 °C T= 53 °C Continuous operation was demonstrated • within an operating range of 340 to 110% of design throughput • startup/shutdown demonstrated • Good Burnout Heavy metals limits according to European Fertilizer product regulation achieved to a large extent Phosphate plant availability too low compared with expectation
  113. 113. 113 7. Results: specific KPIs (actual vs expected) Case study Topic Objectives Specific Key Performance Indicator (KPI) Current value Expected value #4 Alten- rhein (CH) Materials Recovery of ammonia via HFMC Nitrogen recovery rate [%] related to the inflow liquor to the recovery system 0 75 PK fertilizer production Phosphorus recovery rate [%] related to the influent of the WWTP and the sludge input of third parties 0 100 Plant availability of the P (PNAC) [%] n.a. (cement) 80 Renewable GAC production Active surface (BJH) [m²/g] 1000 200-1000 EBCT [min] 20 20 Lifetime until renewal [number of bed volumes (BV)] for micropollutant removal > 80% 80’000 25’000
  114. 114. 114 8. Progress and next steps # Nº Case Study Involved sub-tasks Baseline: CE intervention / demo type Status Contingency plan #4 Altenrhein, Switzerland Location: Altenrhein WWTP Lead Partner: FHNW Partners involved: AVA, CTU Sub-Task 1.4.1 Large scale demonstration of ammonium recovery by HFMC Liquor from sludge dewatering returns to the WWTP The construction of the stripping plant was delayed because of interactions with the construction of a micropollutant elimination plant in Altenrhein. However, this still leaves enough time for the production of ammonium sulfate as fertilizer, and the piloting of the P recovery. Sub-Task 1.4.2 P-recovery by thermochemical treatment of sewage sludge Incineration of the dried sludge at the cement factory PK- fertilizer preparatory trials were longer than expected Sub-Task 1.4.3 Renewable granular activated carbon (GAC) Filtration with commercial GAC after ozonation Corona-related delays in pilot trials due to limited availability of production and testing facilities. Long-term tests planned 18 months starting M25, might have to be shortened. However, evaluation of long term tests after 12 or 15 months also possible. Subcontracting of GAC production
  115. 115. 115 8. Progress and next steps Planned timetable Updated timetable 2020 M27 M28 M29 M30 M31 M32 M33 M34 M35 M36 M37 M38 M39 M40 M41 M42 M43 M44 M45 M46 M47 1.4.1 Commissioning Ammonia Stripping 1.4.1 Ammonia Stripping – operation & optimization 1.4.2 Lab test (PK-fertilizer) Granulation F F F G 1.4.2. Pilot trials PK-fertilizer NPT G G T T G G 1.4.3 Long-term tests GAC NPT National Project Trials F formulation G Granulation T thermal treatment 2020 2021 2022
  116. 116. 116 Circular solutions for Relevant data Lead partners Relevant sectors #5. Spernal (UK) Waste Water Treatment Plant Water Materials Energy Spernal WWTP serves as Severn Trent Water’s “Resource Recovery and Innovation Centre” where emerging technologies compatible with a low energy, circular economy approach will be evaluated. A multi-stream test bed facility was constructed in 2019 and this will incorporate an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) to be commissioned in Summer 2020. The AnMBR will also comprise a membrane degassing unit to recover dissolved methane and ion exchange processes to recover nitrogen and phosphorus from the effluent. AnMBR combines several benefits such as: • no aeration energy for removal of Chemical and Biological Oxygen Demand (COD/BOD) • low sludge production and hence reduced downstream sludge treatment costs • biogas production (production of electricity/heat • pathogen and solids free effluent which can be re-used in a number of applications (e.g.: farming and industrial use). Waste water plant serving the town of Redditch (Birmingham, UK): 92.000 PE Agriculture Domestic sector Energy sector Introduction to the demo case: https://nextgenwater.eu/spernal/
  117. 117. 117 1. General description of the site Spernal WwTW is the home of Severn Trent’s Resource Recovery and Innovation Centre (R2IC). This purpose built facility has been designed and built to undertake large scale wastewater demonstration trials. It is focused on developing and validating technologies and processes that will enable Severn Trent and the wider sector to transition from linear based treatment designs to a more circular economy approach. Opportunities to recover energy, materials and water from wastewater will be maximized. The R2IC is flexibly designed to host multiple parallel and in-series trials. The AnMBR and tertiary nutrient recovery flowsheet will be installed on the R2IC and will be commissioned in Summer 2020.
  118. 118. 118 2. State of play at the start of NextGen Aerial view of the Spernal WWTP
  119. 119. 119 3. Objectives of the NextGen solutions ✓ Nutrient removal and recovery through adsorption or ion exchange technologies ✓ AnMBR demonstration in cold climate northern European countries with a membrane degassing unit to recover dissolved methane for water and energy reuse
  120. 120. 120 Technology Evidence Base (TEB). Initial draft – to be finalised in D1.6 Spernal Positioning of demo case within the CE 3. Objectives of the NextGen solutions
  121. 121. 121 4. Summary Table Case Study number & name Subtasks Technolog y baseline NextGen intervention in circular economy for water sector TRL Capacity Quantifiable target Status / progress # 5 Spernal Location: Spernal WWTP Sub-Task 1.2.3 Multi- stream anaerobic MBR for district-scale reuse applications (Spernal) Spernal wastewater treatment plant serves as Severn Trent Water’s “Urban Strategy Demonstrati on Site” Decentralized water treatment by a multi- stream anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) TRL 6 → 7 500 m3/d (max). • Pathogen and solids free effluent which can be re-used in a number of applications (e.g.: farming and industrial use). • Low sludge production and hence reduced downstream sludge treatment costs. Ongoing. Construction and commissioning of resource recovery innovation center completed in October 2019 AnMBR to be commissioned in next months Sub-Task 1.3.3 Decentralized energy recovery and usage from anaerobic MBR (Spernal) Biogas recovery and energy production throughout two scenarios: i. CHP – electricity & heat (assuming an CHP engine efficiency of 40%) ii. Biogas upgrading and injection to the natural gas network. TRL 7→ 8 Expected methane yields based on pilot scale work at Cranfield University: • At 20ºC - 0.28 L CH4 / g COD removed • At 7ºC - 0.19 L CH4 / g COD removed Assuming 90% removal of COD (from pilot trials): • Maximum production: 33m3 CH4/d • Average: 11m3 CH4/d Electricity & heat produced for the two scenarios: i. 44kWh/day and ~ 50kWh heat/d (assuming around 15% losses) ii. 108kWh/d Ongoing. Linked with AnMBR comissioning and operation Sub-Task 1.4.5 Nutrient removal and recovery from AnMBR effluent for local reuse (Spernal) Nutrient recovery via adsorption / ion exchange (IEX): • N removal (zeolite column) & N recovery (ammonia stripping or membrane processes) • P removal (hybrid anion exchange (HAIX) column) & P recovery (addition of CaOH to the spent regenerant). TRL 6 → 7 10 m3/d nutrient stripped effluent Ammonia stripping or membrane processes can be used to produced ammonia solution at 3-5% s or ammonium sulphate, respectively. The regenerant is re-used. Ca2PO3 precipitated. The regenerant is re-used. Ongoing. The recovered nutrients from IEX installed at Cranfield University (move to Spernal Autumn 2020)
  122. 122. 122 5. NextGen solutions Scheme of the new NextGen solution
  123. 123. 123 5. NextGen solutions The anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) pilot plant comprises 3 main process units 1. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) • Technology provider - Waterleau • This will be housed in three 20’ shipping containers mounted one on top of the other • The UASB will contain granular sludge and have a 3 phase separator at the top of the reactor • Most of the solids will be retained in the UASB, the effluent will be directed to the UF membrane and the biogas will be sent to the on-site gas bag • Currently delivered to R2IC and undergoing installation and system testing 2. Ultra-filtration (UF) membrane • Technology provider – SFC / Trant Engineering • This will be housed in two 20’ shipping containers • The UF membrane will remove any remaining solids from the effluent returning the sludge to the UASB and the effluent to the membrane contactor for degassing • Currently delivered to R2IC and undergoing wet testing 3. Membrane contactor for degassing • Technology provider – 3M (Membrana) • The membrane contactor will remove the dissolved methane from the effluent • The methane will be sent to the gas bag and the effluent to the ion exchange nutrient recovery plant • Membrana modules on site and system build underway
  124. 124. 124 Ion Exchange (IEX) nutrient recovery pilot plant 5. NextGen solutions This is a 10 m3/day demonstration scale plant comprises 4 main process units 1. N removal column • Contains 70L of Zeolite, operated at an empty bed contact time of 10-30 min • Zeolite needs regeneration when ammonia in the effluent is > 5 mg/L • Zeolite is regenerated with NaCl or KCl 2. P removal column • Contains 35L of hybrid anion exchange (HAIX), LayneRT (Layne, USA), Operated at an empty bed contact time of 5-15 min • HAIX needs regeneration when phosphorus in the effluent is > 2-3 mg/L • HAIX is regenerated with NaOH 3. N recovery • Ammonia stripping or membrane processes can be used to produced ammonia solution at 3-5% or ammonium sulphate, respectively. The regenerant is re-used. 4. P recovery • Addition of CaOH to the spent regenerant, results in the immediate precipitation of CaP that is filtered from the regenerant. The regenerant is re-used.
  125. 125. 125 Pictures of AnMBR under construction • AnMBR under construction at R2IC and plant in use forecast for Jan 2021. • Current status (November 2020) • UASB interface pipe work under construction • UF membrane installed and wet tested • De-gas system civils works complete. 5. NextGen solutions Waterleau UASB SCF UF 3M Degas R2IC Gas handling R2IC Chemical dosing rig R2IC wastewater tank
  126. 126. 126 5. NextGen solutions Pictures and/or videos of the pilot plant Granular sludge supplied by Waterleau Pilot scale UASB reactors
  127. 127. 127 5. NextGen solutions Pictures and/or videos of the pilot plant Pilot scale membrane module Membrane cartridge is kept suspended inside the membrane tank Cover Cartridge Several hundreds of parallel fibres (1-3 m long with an outside diameter of 0.3-0.5 mm) are wound up around a carrier cartridge The cartridge has a permeate connection on the top and an air/biogas connection for gas sparging on the bottom
  128. 128. 128 5. NextGen solutions Pictures and/or videos of the pilot plant Pilot scale nutrient recovery IEX reactors mesolite for N recovery nano-particle impeded IEX beads for P recovery Adsorption media used in the columns
  129. 129. 129 Pictures and/or videos of the final product 5. NextGen solutions Filtering recovered CaP Recovered ammonium sulphate Gas sensors and dissolved methane probe to assist on the measurement of energy production in the AnMBR
  130. 130. 130 6. Operational procedures Only if info is available • Operational conditions for 70L pilot-plant that will inform the operation of the demonstration anMBR Test conditions for the MBR module to complete a critical flux analysis Flux SGDm* LMH m3 m-2 h-1 1 Filtration: 5 min 15 4 Backwash and gas sparging: 15-30 s 2 Filtration: 5 min 25 4 Backwash and gas sparging: 30-60 s 3 Filtration: 5 min 35 4-6 Backwash and gas sparging: 30-60 s UASB reactor operation HRT h 8 Vup m/h 0.8 Inoculated with 11 L of granular sludge donated by Waterleau The membrane module is a SFC C-MEM membrane, composed of polyethylene hollow fibres with a total membrane area of 1.4 m2
  131. 131. 131 6. Operational procedures Tools for environmental & economic impacts assessment at Spernal • Quantitative chemical risk assessment (QCRA) • Life cycle assessment (LCA) • Life cycle costing (LCC) • Cost efficiency analysis (CEA)
  132. 132. 132 7. Specific KPIs (actual vs expected) Case study Topic Objectives Specific Key Performance Indicator (KPI) Current value Expected value #5 Spernal (UK) Wastewater treatment and reuse To increase reuse application for external uses Volume of water recovered and its use (m3/day) ? 500 Water yield of the system (produ ced/collected, %) Not yet measured To enhance water quality: Influent and effluent quality – Rejection rate [%] Salinity Not yet measured ? BOD Not yet measured 95% removal COD Not yet measured 90% removal SS Not yet measured 100% removal Turbidity Not yet measured 100% removal TN Not yet measured 60-80% removal TP Not yet measured 70-90% removal To reduce the pathogens content of the effluent E.Coli [CFU/100 ml] Not yet measured 0 Legionella spp. [CFU/100 ml] Not yet measured 0 Organics removal Pesticides and pharmaceuticals Not yet measured ? Energy Energy recovery – create energy neutral WWTP and export to community (biogas) Methane yield [m3 CH4/(kg COD)] Not yet measured 0.19-0.28 Quantity of re-used heat (seasonal, m3/d) Not yet measured 11-33 Energy consumption [kWh/m3] Not yet measured ? Energy generation [kWh/m3] Not yet measured ? Materials To recover nutrients from wastewater effluent Calcium phosphate (as P, kg/day) Not yet measured 0.03 Ammonium sulphate (as N, Not yet measured 0.22
  133. 133. 133 7. Results obtained The wastewater has very low strength, making the UASB operation very challenging, as anaerobic processes are favoured by high organic loading rates The pilot UASB reactor, which mimics the reactor in Spernal, is producing the expected effluent quality The link to the MBR tank is delayed due to the closing of the pilot site for 4 months and supply chain issues Data on methane production are sparce and more data points are required OCT 2020 – ongoing (T=13°C) Biogas production L d-1 0.6 Dissolved CH4/total CH4 % 93.6 Methane yield L CH4/g COD 0.13 JUL-SEPT 2020 (T=18°C) Characterisation Removal rates (%) Influent UASB effluent COD mg L-1 153 56 63 sCOD mg L-1 36 29 19 BOD5 mg L-1 65 38 42 TSS mg L-1 117 37 68 VSS mg L-1 108 31 71 SO4 mg L-1 62 40 35 OCT 2020 – ongoing (T=13°C) Characterisation Removal rates (%) Influent UASB effluent COD mg L-1 195 103 47 sCOD mg L-1 44 39 11 BOD5 mg L-1 73 44 40 TSS mg L-1 120 40 67 VSS mg L-1 103 36 65 SO4 mg L-1 69 43 38
  134. 134. 134 8. Progress and next steps # Nº Case Study Involved sub-tasks Baseline: CE intervention / demo type Status Contingency plan # 5 Spernal, United Kingdom Location: Spernal WWTP Lead Partner: UCRAN Partners Involved: STW Sub-Task 1.2.3 Decentralized water treatment by a multi-stream anaerobic membrane bioreactor(AnMBR) Expected delays to site construction and commissioning of the Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor due to supply chain being effect by COVID related issues, specifically the UASB key component and other supporting equipment. Working with supply chain to mitigate and minimise COVID-19 delays.
  135. 135. 135 8. Next steps planned AnMBR Installation End date WATERLEAU (Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor) Wet testing of UASB 16 Nov 2020 Commissioning and start up 20 Jan 2021 Trant (Ultra-filtration membrane) Wet testing of UF membrane 16 Nov 2020 Commissioning and start up 20 Jan 2021 3M (Membrane degassing system) Wet testing of Degas system 08 Jan 2021 Commissioning of 3M equipment 28 Jan 2021 ANMBR Plant in Use 28 Jan 2020
  136. 136. 136 8. Next steps planned: from November 2020 (M29) on Full-scale Pilot-scale Theoretical work Task description M29 M30 M31 M32 M33 M34 M35 M36 M37 M38 M39 M40 WATERLEAU (Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor) Wet testing of UASB Commissioning and start up Trant (Ultra-filtration membrane) Wet testing of UF membrane Commissioning and start up 3M (Membrane degassing system) Wet testing of Degas system Commissioning of 3M equipment ANMBR Plant in Use
  137. 137. 137 8. Next steps Updated timetable Full-scale Pilot-scale Theoretical work Task description Task 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 M1-M6 M7-M12 M13-M18 M19-M24 M25-M30 M31-M36 M37-M42 M43-M48 Detailed design of Anaerobic MBR (AnMBR). Appoint contractor 1.2.3 1.3.3 Construction, commissioning and hand-over of AnMBR demonstrator 1.2.3 1.3.3 Start-up and optimization of individual components – acclimatisation of Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (USAB), optimization of membrane filtration system, optimization of membrane degas unit 1.2.3 1.3.3 Installation and commissioning of IEX columns for nitrogen and phosphorus recovery from the AnMBR effluent 1.4.5 Optimisation and trouble-shooting of process flowsheet 1.2.3 Operation of IEX columns for nitrogen and phosphorus recovery from the AnMBR effluent 1.4.5 Operation of AnMBR demonstrator and evaluation of performance under static and dynamic flow and load conditions. Confirmation of the optimal design and operating parameters. 1.2.3 Assessment of results, delivery of a comprehensive energy balance and cost benefit assessment 1.2.3
  138. 138. 138 Circular solutions for Water Materials Relevant data Lead partners Relevant sectors #6. La Trappe (NL) La Trappe brewery Capacity: ~360 m3 /day (10,000 PE) Footprint: 847m2 Value: Water circularity showcase Beverage industry Municipal sector Space industry The Koningshoeven BioMakery is a biological wastewater treatment system based on modular and functionalreactor-basedecologicalengineering. Based upon the principle of water-based urban circularity, where energy, food, and waste systems are builtaroundaregenerativeandsustainablewatercycle. Powered by Metabolic Network Reactor (MNR) technology, which uses 2-3,000 different species of organisms ranging from bacteria to higher level organismssuchasplants. Introduction to the demo case: https://nextgenwater.eu/la-trappe/
  139. 139. 139 1. General description of the site ✓ The Koningshoeven BioMakery is fully integrated into the historical monument of the Koningshoeven Trappist Abbey and Brewery. The facility treats industrial wastewater from the brewery and municipal wastewater from the Abbey and Visitor center. ✓ The industrial wastewater is reused at the abbey for irrigation of the abbey grounds and plant nurseries. It is a long term goal to reuse the industrial wastewater for bottle rinsing within the brewery.
  140. 140. 140 2. State of play at the start of NextGen Brewery water treatment line MNR1 AE MNR2 AE MNR3 AE MNR4 AE MNR5 AE MNR6 AE MNR7 AE MNR8 AE 9,AE 10,AE 11,AE 12,AE 13,AE 14,AE Dissolved air flotation Microfiltration Sludge tank with aeration Belt filter press Polyelectrolyte dosage Municipal water treatment line FeCl3 dosage MNR1 AX/AE MNR2 AE Effluent water Microfiltration Dissolved air flotation Blower room Blower room Estimated Influent flow 18 m³/d Estimated Influent flow 360 m³/d Sludge tank with aeration Effluent water <Current situation> Notes: MNR1 – MNR4 were built so that they can be run as optional anoxic reactors, should the incoming wastewater have high levels of nitrogen. Currently, they are running as aerated reactors. The Influent flow rates have been highly variable due to Covid19. Production at the brewery was affected and the visitor center was temporarily closed. MNR00 AE An existing empty tank was transformed into an aerated reactor for the capacity increase of the brewery line. Brewery water High COD Fluctuating pH Cleaning chemicals AE: Aerobic Zone AX: Anoxic Zone
  141. 141. 141 Municipal Water 15-18m3/day Fluctuating N > 150000 visitors a year Unknown: pathogens & OMP Brewery water 320 m3/day High COD Fluctuating pH Cleaning chemicals and ✓ Different streams require a custom-made approach. As a consequence of the potential presence of pathogens and outer membrane proteins (OMPs) in the municipal water, brewery water is safer to start with. 2. State of play at the start of NextGen
  142. 142. 142 3. Objectives of the NextGen solutions ✓ Combine Metabolic Network Reactor (MNR) and membranes for nutrient and water recovery for fit-for-use industrial use such as irrigation, bottlewashing or make up water for beer production ✓ Use “Bio-makery” for water reuse in decentralized areas ✓ Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus recovery, with nutrients removed from the water converted into fertilizer used to produce plant or microbial protein
  143. 143. 143 Technology Evidence Base (TEB). Initial draft – to be finalised in D1.6 La Trappe Positioning of demo case within the CE 3. Objectives of the NextGen solutions
  144. 144. 144 4. Summary Table Case Study number & name Subtasks Technology baseline NextGen intervention in circular economy for water sector TRL Capacity Quantifiable target Status / progress # 6 La Trappe Location: La Trappe Brewery Sub-Task 1.2.6 Production of fit- for-purpose water in La Trappe La Trappe brewery wastewater treatment plant Metabolic Network Reactor (MNR - plant root enhanced fixed bed bioreactor) + MELiSSA Advanced Separation systems (MF/RO) to produce fit-for-purpose water MNR - plant root enhanced fixed bed bioreactor (TRL 7 → 9) + NF/RO/ED to produce fit- for-purpose water (TRL 4 → 6) NF/UF 150 L/h and RO 100 L/h MELiSSA inspired fit-for-purpose is smaller capacity. Recovery of regenerated effluent fit-for-use such as irrigation, bottle washing or make up water for beer production The MNR water treatment facility is fully operational. However, Covid19 continues to impact operations: operators were sick with the virus, affecting commissioning activities and sampling; the capacity continues to fluctuate due to production variations at the brewery and visitor center; travel restrictions affect fine-tuning of the facility, and integration of pilot technologies to the site. Set-up of the NextGen pilot systems, and preliminary tasks are currently taking place independently. Sub-task 1.4.4. Protein production in Bio-Makeries Use of photobioreactor and “Bio-makery” (utilization of axenic and mixed native species of “Spirulina” A. platensis in real life conditions): • C recovery • N recovery • P recovery TRL 4 → 6 60L/d Fertilizer Used in fish fodder or directly as human food Due to the available process water quality, it was decided to focus on photoheterotrophic compartment using PnSB instead of photoautotrophic Spirulina. An open pond reactor has been developed inspired by MELISSA CII compartment. Off-site tests using the La Trappe process water were successful. There were several delays for the onsite tests, but the system has been repaired and is back in operation after the corona crisis.
  145. 145. 145 5. NextGen solutions Scheme of the new NextGen solution Water discharged to the nearby canal, maintaining the local water cycle, preventing drought in the area. Water is also used for irrigation. © 2020, SEMiLLA IPStar
  146. 146. 146 Scenario studies best custom-made solution for brewery water 5. NextGen solutions Influent Reusable water Inspired by MELiSSA C2,Axenic cultivation of R.Rubrum Inspired by Concordia MELiSSA membrane system running at research station on Antarctica Hypothesis 1: Safe conversion of COD to mixed culture PnSB, reduces COD load on MNR and increases MNR capacity Hypothesis 2: Effluent microfiltration suitable for potable water production

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