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Forum PET – PET-Getränkeflaschen Mythen & Fakten

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Der Kunststoff Polyethylenterephthalat oder kurz PET feierte 2016 seinen 75. Geburtstag.
Ursprünglich als Alternative zur Herstellung von Textilfasern entwickelt, ist das Material heute
eines der wichtigsten in der Verpackungs- und Textilindustrie. Flaschen aus PET haben
den Getränkemarkt nachhaltig geprägt. Doch noch immer liest man widersprüchliche Aussagen
zum Thema. Immer wieder heißt es, PET sei schädlich für Gesundheit und Umwelt.
Aber stimmt das überhaupt?

Published in: Food
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Forum PET – PET-Getränkeflaschen Mythen & Fakten

  1. 1. Getr�nkeflaschen aus PET Acht Mythen ... ... und die zugeh�rigen Fakten
  2. 2. M Y T H O S 1 : Glasflaschen sind �kologischer als Flaschen aus PET. Das stimmt so pauschal nicht. Bei der komplexen �kobilanz einer Verpackung spielen unterschiedlichste Faktoren wie Verpackungsmaterial und -gewicht, Transportstrecken oder das Recycling eine Rolle. W�hrend PET-Mehrwegflaschen schon l�nger ein gutes �kologisches Profil aufweisen, konnten auch die PET-Einwegflaschen �kologisch stetig weiter verbessert werden. Sie sind in den vergangenen Jahren vor allem durch Ma�nahmen wie Gewichtsverringerung, Recycling, k�rzere Transporte und die Senkung des Energieverbrauchs bei der Herstellung immer umweltfreundlicher geworden. Bereits im Jahr 2010 fand das Institut f�r Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg GmbH (ifeu) heraus, dass die h�ufigste PET-Einwegflasche am Markt, die 1,5 Liter-Flasche f�r Wasser und kohlens�urehaltige Erfrischungsgetr�nke, zur Glas-Mehrwegflasche �kologisch gleichwertig ist.
  3. 3. Diese Behauptung ist falsch. PET-Flaschen enthalten keine Weichmacher, erkl�rt das Bundesamt f�r Risikobewertung auf seiner Webseite. Phthalate und andere Weichmacher werden zur Herstellung von PET- Flaschen gar nicht ben�tigt. Eine Beigabe von Weichmachern w�rde auch keinen Sinn ergeben, denn die Flaschen w�rden hierdurch ihre Stabilit�t verlieren. Diese falsche Annahme h�lt sich vermutlich aufgrund der �hnlichkeit der Namen Phthalat und Polyethylenterephthalat. M Y T H O S 2 : PET-Getr�nkeflaschen enthalten Weichmacher.
  4. 4. Bei der Herstellung von PET-Flaschen wird Bisphenol A (BPA) eingesetzt. Auch diese Behauptung widerlegt das Bundesamt f�r Risikobewertung, denn BPA wird f�r die Herstellung von PET-Flaschen nicht verwendet. Bisphenol A geh�rt zu einer Gruppe von Substanzen, die hormon- �hnlich wirken k�nnen und in Gegenst�nden aus Kunststoff vorkommen k�nnen. Bei der PET-Flaschen-Produktion kommt Bisphenol A jedoch nicht zum Einsatz. M Y T H O S 3 :
  5. 5. Von PET-Flaschen gehen hormon�hnliche Substanzen in das Mineralwasser �ber. Auch das stimmt so nicht. Laut Bundesamt f�r Risikobewertung (BfR) konnten Studien keinen Unterschied zwischen der �strogenen Aktivit�t von Mineralw�ssern aus PET-Flaschen und solchen aus Glasflaschen finden. Die bei vereinzelten Studien nachgewiesene Aktivit�t war bei beiden Verpackungen gleich und zudem etwa 10.000-fach geringer als die nat�rliche �strogene Aktivit�t von Getr�nken wie Milch, Bier oder Rotwein. Das BfR geht davon aus, dass diese geringe Aktivit�t nicht auf die PET-Flaschen zur�ckzuf�hren sei. M Y T H O S 4 :
  6. 6. Gebrauchte PET-Flaschen wandern zuerst in die Pfandautomaten und danach in den M�ll. Seit Einf�hrung der Pfandpflicht auf Einweg-Getr�nkeverpackungen im Jahr 2003 werden in Deutschland pfandpflichtige PET-Flaschen vom Handel zur�ckgenommen. Dank des Pfandsystems werden fast 99 Prozent der pfandpflichtigen PET- Flaschen gesammelt, und das wertvolle Material wird wiederverwertet. Denn PET l�sst sich problemlos recyceln. M Y T H O S 5 :
  7. 7. Gebrauchte PET-Getr�nkeflaschen aus Deutschland werden vor allem nach China exportiert. Auch das stimmt so nicht. Eine Studie der Gesellschaft f�r Verpackungsmarktforschung mbH (GVM), aus dem Jahr 2015 belegt: Etwa 80 Prozent des PET-Recyclings findet mittlerweile in Deutschland statt. Die restlichen Wertstoffmengen werden gr��tenteils im grenznahen Ausland wiederverwertet. Die Kosten f�r den Transport in weiter entfernte L�nder sind in der Regel zu hoch. Au�erdem nimmt die Nachfrage nach Recycling- Material in Europa weiter zu. M Y T H O S 6 :
  8. 8. Aus wiederverwerteten PET-Getr�nkeflaschen werden nur minderwertige Produkte hergestellt. Das ist nicht richtig. Zu �ber einem Drittel werden die gesammelten PET- Getr�nkeflaschen heute genau wieder zu dem, was sie waren: Rohstoff f�r neue PET-Getr�nkeflaschen. Zu dem Schluss kommt die oben erw�hnte GVM-Studie ebenfalls. Weitere Abnehmer sind die Folien (27 Prozent) und Textilfaserindustrie (23 Prozent). Aus dem Rest werden weitere Produkte hergestellt wie B�nder oder Reinigungsmittelflaschen (16 Prozent). M Y T H O S 7 :
  9. 9. Mineralwasser aus PET-Flaschen schmeckt nicht nat�rlich. Das ist ebenfalls so nicht korrekt. Richtig ist zwar, dass der Stoff Acetaldehyd aus PET-Flaschen ins Getr�nk �bergehen und bereits ab sehr geringen Mengen einen leicht s��lich-fruchtigen Geschmack hervorrufen kann. Gesundheitlich ist das �brigens unbedenklich, weil Acetaldehyd in Wasser schon ab weniger als einem Hundertstel des gesetzlichen Grenzwertes deutlich gerochen oder geschmeckt werden kann. Damit aber der nat�rliche Geschmack von Mineralwasser unver�ndert bleibt, enthalten PET-Flaschen in Deutschland Blocker, die verhindern, dass das Acetaldehyd ins Wasser �bergehen kann. Acetaldehyd ist �brigens auch ein nat�rlicher Bestandteil von Fr�chten und anderen Lebensmitteln wie K�se; teilweise kommt der Stoff dort in wesentlich h�heren Konzentrationen vor als in den Mineralw�ssern aus PET-Flaschen. M Y T H O S 8 :
  10. 10. Information des Forum PET Weitere Hintergrundmaterialien via forum-pet.de

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