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OpenVPN as a WAN - pfSense Hangout October 2016

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Slides for the October 2016 pfSense Hangout video

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OpenVPN as a WAN - pfSense Hangout October 2016

  1. 1. OpenVPN as a WAN October 2016 Hangout Jim Pingle
  2. 2. About this Hangout ● Project News ● Why use OpenVPN as a WAN? ● VPN Providers (General Info) ● Obtaining Connection Requirements ● Creating an OpenVPN Client ● Assigning an OpenVPN instance as an Interface ● Outbound NAT ● Firewall Rule Concerns ● Failover Scenarios ● Policy Routing and Selective Use ● Controlling Routing / Firewall-Sourced Traffic in VPN ● Preventing DNS Leaks ● Inbound Traffic / Port Forwards ● Server Setup for Host-Your-Own
  3. 3. Project News ● 10 Years of production pfSense! – 1.0-RELEASE was on Oct 13, 2006 – 1.0.1-RELEASE on Oct 29, 2006 ● 2.3.2_1 Security/Errata release out now – OpenSSL patches for recent issues – Package updates for PHP, libxml, others – Fixes for misc other bugs ● 2.4 ALPHA snapshots available ● SG-1000 preorders still open ● 24x7 Enterprise-level support is coming soon!
  4. 4. Why use OpenVPN as a WAN? ● Depends on what’s on the other side – Internet vs Site-to-Site ● Focusing on Internet in this Hangout, but many aspects apply to both – You have to trust the other end of the VPN ● Privacy & Anonymity – Potentially – Some providers log data, especially free providers / free trials ● Security – WAN could be untrusted/weak/compromised – Traffic from exit node to Internet is still unencrypted (unless the protocol in use is) ● Bypassing government censorship / restrictions / logging – Careful not to break the law, however... ● Alternate region for traffic origination – Region-locked video streams – Netflix has cut off many VPNs, is actively cutting off more ● Researching without revealing true traffic source
  5. 5. VPN Providers (General Info) ● Lots of options for VPN Providers, some more trustworthy than others ● We do not recommend or endorse any particular provider ● Research the company before paying! – Make sure they offer an OpenVPN option – Look for logging and data retention policies – Check exit node locations – Check feedback/reviews ● Search the pfSense forum for info from other users ● Host your own in a data center / cloud provider / main office
  6. 6. Obtaining Connection Requirements ● Each provider is different ● Ideally will have a secure means to download ● Some providers have pfSense guides/info on their site ● Download/copy all required info, such as: – CA Certificate – User Certificate & Key (May be omitted if there is a user/pass) – Credentials (Username/Password, optional if there is a user cert) – TLS Key (optional, adds extra security) – Sample Config / Server info ● Hostname/IP address, protocol, port number, encryption, compression
  7. 7. Creating an OpenVPN Client ● Import CA Cert – System > Cert Manager, CAs tab – Click Add, pick import, give it a name – Copy/paste Certificate data field from CA cert contents ● Import User Cert (optional if there is a user/pass) – System > Cert Manager, Certificates tab – Click Add, pick import, give it a name – Copy/paste Certificate data and Private Key Data from user cert/key files given by the VPN provider
  8. 8. Creating an OpenVPN Client ● VPN > OpenVPN, Clients tab ● Click Add, pick Peer to Peer (SSL/TLS), pick Interface (e.g. WAN) ● Align options to match server config: – Protocol, server host/IP address, server port, encryption, hash, compression, etc ● Some options can be left blank in most cases – Tunnel network is usually dynamically assigned by server – Remote networks are not usually desirable ● Custom options can typically be omitted but some may be required – Depends on the provider and options – Some can be left out like verb, engine, persist, etc – Some may be necessary if they are not supported in the GUI, like a tls-cipher list ● Save, check Status > OpenVPN – If it is not connected, settings must not be right. Compare again & fix
  9. 9. Assigning OpenVPN as an Interface ● What it does: – Adds a firewall tab under Firewall > Rules – Adds reply-to to rules on the VPN interface tab for return routing – Adds a Gateway entry for the far side of the VPN for policy routing – Allows the interface to be selected elsewhere in the GUI and packages – Allows more fine-grained control of Port Forwards and Outbound NAT for the VPN
  10. 10. Assigning OpenVPN as an Interface ● Interfaces > (assign) ● Pick OpenVPN client from list (e.g. ovpncX), click Add ● Check its name (e.g. OPT1) ● Visit the interface config page, e.g. Interfaces > OPT1 ● Enable, give it a name like WANVPN or VPNCLIENT ● Leave IPv4/IPv6 Config Types set to None! ● Save the interface, then click Apply Changes – Will disrupt the client! ● Go back to VPN > OpenVPN, Client tab, edit/save to reset VPN ● Now the VPN is active as an interface with a rules tab, gateways, etc.
  11. 11. Outbound NAT ● Optional if hosting your own, NAT could be done on the server side ● For VPN providers, NAT before it leaves your firewall or you won’t get return traffic except for queries from the firewall itself ● Automatic Outbound NAT does not cover assigned OpenVPN interfaces by default because it would be a hindrance to site-to-site VPNs ● Firewall > NAT, Outbound tab ● Use Hybrid mode (optimal) or if you are on Manual Outbound NAT that is OK too ● Add rules using the assigned VPN interface to match a source of the LAN and local networks going to any destination – Similar to existing rules, but for the VPN – Can use an RFC1918 alias to speed things up for multiple networks
  12. 12. Firewall Rule Concerns ● Firewall > Rules, assigned interface tab and OpenVPN tab ● OpenVPN tab rules can be dangerous! – Allowing all inbound on OpenVPN could be akin to an allow all rule on WAN – Ensure site-to-site rules do not allow too much – If the VPN is for Internet access only, no OpenVPN rules should be required – Even if the provider network is private that doesn’t mean you should allow their traffic to reach your firewall! ● OpenVPN tab rules apply first, then interface tab rules – Trick is to not match traffic on the tab rules, not to block it – Use specific sources, not blanket block/allow from any rules – Example: Blocking on the interface tab cannot override a pass on the OpenVPN group tab.
  13. 13. Failover Scenarios ● Depending on tastes/requirements, failover may or may not be desired. ● Some are OK with VPN failing back to WAN – Create a gateway group for failover if needed – System > Routing, Gateway Groups tab ● Others want traffic for VPN to never take WAN – To make sure this happens, System > Advanced, Miscellaneous: “Do not create rules when gateway is down” – Make sure no other rule can match VPN user traffic, or block after pass rule w/gw
  14. 14. Policy Routing and Selective Use ● On LAN rules, match traffic to send across VPN and set VPN gateway or Failover group on rules – Ex: Match phone traffic and send across VPN, other traffic out WAN – Ex: Match DVR traffic and send out WAN, match everything else & send over VPN ● Pass local network/site-to-site traffic using rules w/o gateway set above policy routing rules ● Remember to add a block or reject rule (or ensure no pass rules) if clients should not be allowed to fall back to WAN
  15. 15. Routing / Firewall Traffic in VPN ● Traffic from the firewall won’t use VPN unless the default route or routing table tells it to go that way – DNS traffic (resolver, forwarder), firmware updates, Squid traffic, etc. ● Server might push you a default route, which may/may not be desirable depending on what you want ● Use “Don’t Pull Routes” option on OpenVPN Client page to ignore routes from the provider ● To manually use VPN as default gateway, use “redirect-gateway def1;” in advanced options, don’t set under System > Routing ● OpenVPN will put 0.0.0.0/1 and 128.0.0.0/1 in routing table so it does not stomp system default gateway, otherwise VPN traffic couldn’t exit ● To only route specific addresses across VPN from the firewall (e.g. VPN provider DNS servers), use the Remote Networks box on the OpenVPN client page
  16. 16. Preventing DNS Leaks ● A DNS “Leak” is when the real WAN address is revealed to DNS servers – Can cause issues when trying to work around region locking – Privacy concerns because your actual address could be discovered ● Clients use remote DNS servers directly, DNS queries get policy routed ● Use DNS Resolver in non-forwarding mode, allow VPN to set firewall’s default gateway, then DNS resolver will send queries over VPN while connected ● Forwarding mode/DNS Forwarder – List VPN DNS servers only or at least first under System > General – Pick VPN for DNS gateway, unless VPN provider connects using hostname then at least one DNS server must not use VPN – If using DNS Forwarder, check Query DNS servers sequentially to stop pfSense from querying all servers at once
  17. 17. Inbound Traffic / Port Forwards ● Depends on provider/upstream, may not be an option – Some may require an API call/random port, not currently supported ● Add port forward on assigned interface, same as any other WAN port forward ● Check states/run a capture to test inbound traffic ● Works fine w/Host-Your-Own due to reply-to
  18. 18. Server Setup for Host-Your-Own ● Configure server like a standard Peer to Peer SSL/TLS server or even as a remote access server if the clients do NAT ● Can be any non-PSK mode (SSL/TLS, SSL/TLS + User Auth, User Auth) ● Can even use the wizard to set it up if necessary – May need adjustments depending on deployment style (e.g. where NAT is done) ● Add Outbound NAT rules to cover clients as needed – Can do NAT on the server side, route to client LAN – or do NAT in both places, easier config – NAT on server, needs client override remote net / server remote net for client LAN to setup route/iroute ● Allow to any destination in OpenVPN rules (block to RFC1918?) ● If clients will use DNS resolver on the server, add ACL to allow access
  19. 19. Conclusion ● Questions? ● Ideas for hangout topics? Post on forum, comment on the blog posts, Reddit, etc

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