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n Ôø¾-²Î¼ÓÁËÒ»¸öÏîÄ¿                                                                                                      ...
×÷ ¨Êô    Unixes ϵͳÖÐıê×¼                                                                                              ...
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½«À©Õ¹³É                        cd /usr/src/linux                                                                         ...
l <CTRL u>                                                                                                                ...
Red Hat Linux ΪÄúÌṩÁËÒ»ÐÔ¤ÏÈÉèÖõĿì½Ý·Ê                                                                               ...
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ÕâÑùËäÈ»¿ÉÒÔ¼õÙÊë                                                                                                         ...
Linux shell
Linux shell
Linux shell
Linux shell
Linux shell
Linux shell
Linux shell
Linux shell
Linux shell
Linux shell
Linux shell
Linux shell
Linux shell
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Linux shell

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Linux shell

  1. 1. Linux Shell ¼ò½é °æȨÐÅÏ¢ ×÷Õß Î´Öª ÎÄÕ³ö´¦ »Æ×ì ó¶ ÂÛ̳ flaboy ÐÖתÌù Îĵ ÖÆ×÷ ¾Ü øÕý°æ ±¾Îĵ ÚÈÝÀ´Ô Ó MUO µÄ Basics ²¿·Ö ÆäÔ-ʼӢÎÄ°æ¿ÉÒ ´ ÕâÀï»ñµÃ http://www. mandrakeuser.org/docs/ ÖÐÎÄ°æÀ´×ÔâÏþ¹µ CMUO http://dummy.linux.net.cn/~xgwu/c muo/ MUO ÊÇ Mandrake Linux http://www.mandrakelinux.com/ ΪÓû§ÌṩµÄÈëÅÊÖ ²á ÆäÄÚÈÝʵÓò¢ÇÒ±¸üР·Ç³£ÊºÏõѧÕß×öÈëÃŲο¼ Óë³£¼ûµÄ¸÷Ö Linux ½Ì ³Ì²»Í¬ MUO ½éÉܸø Linux ³õѧÕßµÄÊÇÏ° Linux µÄ·½¨¶øÇÔ³¸öÏ͵ÄÃèÊ Õâ¶Ô¸÷Ö ÓÐ×Åǧ ²îÍò±ðµÄ Linux ·¢ аæµÄѧÏÓÈΪÖØÒ ±¾ÎÄàÒëÕûÀíʶÔϹؽÚ×öÁËÓ¦µÉ¸´ È¥µôÁËÕë¶Ô Mandrake Linux µÄ²¿·ÖÚÈÝ Ê¹Óà Shell ÒÔϽ« éÉܲ¢ âÊÍ»ù±¾µÄ shell ÃüÁîºÍ»úÖÆ µÚһƪ ³¬¼¶¹¤¾ß Terminals xterms ºÍ Shells ³¬¼¶¹¤¾ß Äú»òÐíÌý¹ÕâÑùµÂÛ÷ ÃüÁîÐ (the mommand line)Ôç ¾ÍÒÑ-¹ýʱÁË ÄǶ«Î÷ÉñÃØÙâµ µÈ ÓÐ ©ÈËÉõÖÁ¾ µÃ²Ù×÷Ï Í³ ÐÓ¦¸ » Õâ ©ÃüÁî²Åº Ê µ ÇÉÏ Äú¿ÉÒÔ²»¶®Èκ shell ¾ÍÄÜʹÓà Linux ÄúÆô¶¯ÏµÍ³ºó¿ÉÒÔÖ±½Ó øÈë X Wi ndow ×îºóÔÚ X Window Ϲػú ÎÒ¼áÐÅ Óà Linux ¶ø²»® shell ¾ÍÏ󿪳µÖ» áÓà · (first gear)Ò»Ñù µ±È» ×î³õ¿´Æð À´ Ö±½Ó¶ø¼òµ¥ ÔÚ´ó¶àÊýÇé¿öÏ ¼¹ÜÓà µ«ËÙ¶ÈÂý ¶øÇÒÎÞ·¨Õæ ýÌåÑé¼ÝÊ»µÄÀÖȤ ¶Ô ÃüÁîкÜÓȤ ¾ÍÏóÓÃÒ»´¶ÑÊÕ¼¯µ½Äý ¾¹¿ÉÒÔÍê³Ðí¶àâÏë²»µ½Ä´Ù һЩ ¼« Æ临ÔӵŤ×÷ Ö»Ð輸ÃüÁî¾Í¿ÉÒÔ½âö ÕâÊÇÒòΪ ÔÚ Unix ÖÐ shell ¿É²»ÊǼòµ¥ÄÃü Áî½âÊÍÆ÷ µäÐÍ ÄÓ Windows ÖÐµÄ DOS ¶øÊÇÒ»¸öÈ«¹¦Äܵ ±à³Ì ·¾ Õâ²¢ »Ò ζ×Å shell ·Ç³£ÈÝÒ×ѧͨ ÄúÖªµÀ ºÃʶàÄ¥ Õ⻹ÊÇÒª ¨µã ¤·ò Ä ;-) µ«ÇëÏà ÐÅÎÒ Õâ¾ø¶Ôֵà ÄúÔںܶÌʱ¼ä ¾ÍÄܱ»Ò´ó°ïÃÅ⺵õΪ Unix wizard Ææ²Å *grin* ΪÁË µÃ÷ shell ÕâÀïÐèÒª » ©±³¾°Ö ʶ Terminals, xterms Óë Shells ×·Ëݵ½ Unix µ®ÉúÄǸöê´ µ±Ê»¹ÃÓÐÏÖÔÚÁ÷Ä "¸öÈ˼Æã»ú " ±»³ÆΪ¼ËãúµÄ÷ »¹ÊÇÍÌ Â´Å øÓë magnetic memory ÓÃÊõ ï 'core'À´±íʾϵͳ memory µÄÅÓÈ»´óÎï D EC ¹«Ë¾ ÚÔÖÏ Äµ Compaq ÍƳöµÄ PDP-11 Ìå»ýС ±»³ÆΪ mini ¶øÇÒ¼Û¸ñµ× ÔÚ´ó ѧÖÐÒýÆðÁ˾޴óµÄ·Ïì ºÜ¶àѧУֱµ½ÄÇʲÅÂòÃÆðһ̨¼Ëãú PDP-11 ÎïÃÀ¼ÛÁ® Ö»ÓÐ 10000$ ÕâЩ»úÆ÷µÄ²Ù×ÏͳÓÉã±àïÑÔ »úÆ÷ÓïÑÔд³É ËùÒÔÐÆðÀ´§ÂÊºÜ¸ß µ«¶¼ÎÞ·¨ÒÆÖ² (u nportable) ÿ¼Ò ÆËã»ú¹« ¾¶ ¸ø×Ô¼ºµÄ Æ÷ÅäÉ϶ÀÓÐ ²Ù× µÍ³ È»ºóÔÙÏúÊÛ ÕâÖ±¿×¾µÄ÷·¨ºÜìÍ»ÈËÃÇÒʶ½Á ÓÚÊǾͿª¼Ð˽¨Ò»¸öÉÔ²¬Æ·Åú÷쵀 ²Ù×÷ϵͳ 1969 Äê Ken Thompson ¿ªÊ¼Ð´ºóÀ³ÉÎ Unix µÄÚһдúÂë Thompso 1
  2. 2. n Ôø¾-²Î¼ÓÁËÒ»¸öÏîÄ¿ MULTICS Unix ÊÇÓëÕâйصÄÒ»¸öÍæ¦´Ê Æäʵ Dennis Rit chie ΪÕâ¸öеIJÙ×÷ÏͳÉè¼ÆÁËÒ»ÖеıàÌÓïÑÔ -- C ÓïÑÔºó ÊÂÇé²ÅÕæ ý¿ª ¼ ËäÈ» Unix µÄЧÂʲ»¼°Ô-À´Ù×÷Ïͳ µ«ÓÐÈý¸öÍ»³ÄÅã ¿ÉÒÔÈÎâÆÖ²µ½äËû»ú÷ ÆäÖÐµÄ C ÓïÑÔ´ó ¼ò»¯Á˱à³Ì ¶øÇÒÕâЩ ¼ free ºÜ¿ì È«ÃÀ¹úµÄ´óѧ¶¼ ¦×Å¿ªÊ Î »ú Æ÷°²× Unix ÖÕ¶Ë Terminals Unix ÊÇ¿ÉÒÔÚÐí¶àÖ»úÆ÷Ï˵IJÙ×ͳ µ«ÈËÃÇÓÖ çºÎʹ ÕâЩ»úÆ÷ÄØ ËûÃÇÊͨ¹ý ÑÆÖÕ¶ËÀ´Á¬½ÓµâЩ»ú÷ Ò²¾ÍÊÇÓüüÅÌ ÏÔʾÆ÷¼°×ã¹»µÄ electronics µç×ÓÔª¼þ ×é³É µÄ»úÆ÷ÓëÖÐѼËã (central computer)ÏàÁ¬ ÔÚÕâЩֶËÉÏ Óû§¿ÉÒÔÇ×Ö·û teletypy Õâ¾ÍÊÇ×Ö·û´® 'tty'±íʾÖÕ¶ËÉ豸Îļþ ºÍ 'getty'ÃüÁîµÄÃû³ÆÀ´ú Äú¿É Ü»áÎÊ ÏÖÔÚÕâЩ¶«Î÷ ¼ Ä ù ÕâÐ©Ö ¶ËµÄ³§¼ÒÎÞ·¨´ï É »Ïî× ÖÕ±ê ×¼ Õâµ¼ÖÂÿ ÖÅÆ×ÓµÄն˼и÷Ôü̲¾ ¸÷×ÔµÄÚÆÁ»ÉÏʾַû½¨ ·¢ËÍ»ò½ÓÊղôÐź ±íʾ ²Ã´×Ö·û ¿ØÖÆ´úÂëµÈ ΪÁ˱ÜÃâÕ Ð©»ìÂÒ ¾Í´ ½¨ÁËÒ»¸öº¬ÓÐ ù ² Í ÖÕ¶ËÌØ Ô µÄ (capability)Îļþ Õâ¾ÍÊÇ 'termc ap' ÓÃÒ»¸ö¹¤¾ß´ò¿ª '/etc/termcap'ÇÆÇ ¿É±ðÏÅ× ÁË ;-) Linux Öն˴óàÊýÓà 'vt100'»ò 'linux'×÷ΪÖÕ¶ËÀàÐÍ xterms ÔÚ°ËÊ®Äê´ú³õÆ ²úÉ ÁËÒ»¸ö Unix µÄͼÐÎ×Óϳ -- the X Window System ¾ÅÊ®Äê´ú ÔçÆÚ ÎªÁ˸üºÃµØÊ ÏÖ»ùÓÚ Intel µÄ Unix ÀàÏµÍ³É Èç FreeBSD NetBSD Linux µÄ Ó¦ à ²úÉ ÁËÒ»¸öϵͳ·Ö § -- XFree86 X Window ÖÐÒ»¸öºÜ´óµÄæÊÇ¿ÉÒÔËжà¸öéÄâ (virtual)ÖÕ¶Ë ÉõÖÁÔÚ X Window ÏÂ¾Í ÓÐÕâô¸ö ¦ ³Ì ò --'xterm' Äú½«·¢ÏÖ 'xterm'ºÍ 'virtual terminal'ÔںܶàÇé¿öϼÊÒ»ÑùµÄ ÓеÄØ·½Ë '´ò¿ªÒ»¸ö xterm' ÆäʵÄú²»Ç·ÒªÓà 'xterm'³ÌÐò ÆäËûµÄÖÕ¶£â÷ (terminal emulator) Èç rxvt konsole aterm eterm wterm µÈ Ò»ÑùÓÐ § ÖÕ¶ËÄ£âÆ÷ ÓÖ³ÆΪÐéÄâÕ¶Ë Í¨¹ýα (pseudo) tty É豸 -- pty ÓëϵͳàÁ¬ ²¢ÇÒʹÓÃ×Ô¼º µÄÏÔʾ±ê×¼ -- xterm Õâµ¼Ö²»Í¬Ä¶Ë£Æ÷¿ÉÜÔÚÒЩ°´üò³ÌÏ渡î±ð ÕâÈ¡¾öÓÚÄ£ Æ÷¶à´ó³Ì ÈÉÏ×ñÊØÁË 'xterm'µÄÏÔʾ±ê×¼ Shells ΪÁËÔÚÖնгÌò ÐèÒª shell shell ÊDzÙ×÷ϵͳÄÒ»¿·Ö ÓÃÀ´ë»§ò½µ ²¢ ÇÒ¿É ÔÓÃÀ´Ð-µ÷¸ ö üÁî µÚÒ»¸öÕæýÄ Unix shell -- 'sh' Òà³ÆΪ 'Bourne shell' µ®ÉúÓÚ 1975 Äê ×÷ÕßÊÇ Steve Bourne ºÜ¿ì ³öÏÖÁËÆä û shell Èç»ùÓÚÔ-ʼ 'Bourne shell'µÄ 'ksh' 'zsh' ºóÕß³£Óà 2
  3. 3. ×÷ ¨Êô Unixes ϵͳÖÐıê×¼ shell Ò²ÓÐ » ©´ C ÓïÑÔÖÐ ÜÉú³öÀ´µÄ shell Èç 'csh' »ò 'tcsh' ÔÚ Linux ÖÐ ±ê×¢µÄ shell ÊÇ 'bash' ¼´ the GNU Bourne-Again Shell ÓеãÍæ ¦ Äζ µÀ Õâ¸ö shell ¹¦Äܷdz£¿´ó ÉõÖÁÓÐÈ˾µÃÌ«Å´ó ѹËõµÄ man page ¾ÍÓÐ 50 KB Shell Æð²½ Ê×ÏÈ ÓÐÒ»µã ¡Ë Ã÷ ÔÚƽ³£Ó¦ ÃÖÐ ½¨ÒéÄú²» ªÓà 'root'ÕʺÅÔËÐ shell Èç¹ûÄú» ÊÇРÊÖ ÕâÒ»µãÓÈÆäª×¢ ×÷ΪÆÕͨÓû§ ²»¹ÜÄúÓÐÒâÊÇÎÞ ¶¼ÎÞ·¨Æ»µÏͳ µ«Èç¹û ÊÇ 'root' ÄǾͲ»¬ÁË Ö»ÒªÇü¸ ö× Ä ¾Í¿ÉÄܵ¼ÖÂÔ ÑÐ ºó¹û µ±ÄúÇÈëÏͳ»ò´¿ªÒ¸ö xterm ´°¿Ú Ê×ÏÈ¿´µ½ÄÇÌá¾·û (prompt) Red Hat Linux µÄ ±ê×¼Ìáʾ·û°üÀ¨ÁËÄúµ Óû§ µÇÈë ÄÖ÷»úÃû ûÓÐÉèÖ µÄ ° ÊÇ 'localhost' µ±Ç°ËùÔÚ µÄ ¿Â¼ (working directory) Ìáʾ·ûºÅ [tom@belbo tom]$ ÎÒ ÔÓû§ û 'tom'µÇÈëÃûΪ 'belbo'µÄÖ÷»ú µ±Ç°ÔÚÎÒ Ä home Ŀ¼ --'/home/tom'ÖÐ 'root'µÄ Ìáʾ·û [root@belbo root]# ³ýÁ˲»Í¬µÄÓçûâ Ìáʾ·ûºÅÓÉ '$'±ä³ÉÁË '#' ¸ù¾Ý Bourne shell µÄ´«Í³ ÆÕͨÓû§µÄÌá ʾ·ûÒÔ '$'½áβ ¶ø³¬¼ Óû§ '#' Ìáʾ·ûµÄÿ¸ö² Ö¶¼ ÉÒÔ ¨ Æ ÄúÔÚºóÃ潫ÓиüÉîµ ÁË â ÒªÔËÐ ÃüÁîµÄ»° ÄúÖ»ÒªÔÚÌáʾ·ûºóÇýø üÁî È»ºóÔÚ°´ <ENTER> ¼ü shell ½«ÔÚÆä· ¾¶ÖÐ ÏêÇé¼ûºó ËÑ÷Õâ¸öÃüÁî ÕÒµ½Ôºó¾ÍËÐ ²¢ÔÚÖÕ¶ËÀïÊä³öÏàÓ¦µÄ½á¹û Èç¹ûÓÐ µÄ »° ÃüÁî½áÊøºó ÔÙ¸ø³öеÄÌáʾ·û [tom@belbo tom]$ whoami tom [tom@belbo tom]$ ˳´øÖ¸ö µ±ÄúÇà ENTER ʱ ¹â±ê (cursor)ÔÚ ÄÀï²¢»Òª½ô ÒòΪ shell ×ÜÊÇ»áÕûеضÁ È¡ »ù±¾µÄÃüÁîÓÐ 'ls' list directory ÁгöĿ¼ÚÈÝ 'cp' copy ¸´ÖÆ 'mv' move / rename Òƶ¯ ÖØÃüû 'cd ' change directory ¸Ä±ä¿Â¼ ÕâЩÃüÁîºó涼¿É ÒÔ¸úÉÏ »°ï¿ Ñ¡ î Õâ·½Ãæ man page ÓÐÏ긵ĽéÉÜ man ls, man mv µÈ ÔÚÄú¶¯ÉíÇ°Íù shell ÁìµØÇ° ÕâÀïÓм¸öÊõ (terminology)µÄ ¼ò¶Ì˵Ã÷ ÃüÁî¿ÉÄÜ´øһЩ 3
  4. 4. Ñ¡Ïî options ²ÎÊý arguments mv -i file dir ÆäÖÐ '-i'ÊÇÃüÁî 'mv'µÄÒ»¸ö¿ÉÑ¡Ïî ¶ø 'file'ºÍ 'dir'ÔòÊDzÎý ËùÓпÉÑ¡ÏîÔڸà üÁ µÄ man pag e ¶¼ÖÐÓ Ïê ¸µÄ½éÉÜ ´ËÀýÖÐÓà man mv ¶ø²ÎÊýÔòÓÉÄúÌṩ ¿ÉÑ¡Ïî¾ö¶¨ÃüÁ ÈçºÎ¹¤ ×÷ ¶ø²ÎÊýÔòÓà ÚÈ· ¨ üÁî×÷ µÄ ¿±ê µ½Ä¿Ç°ÎªÖ¹ ½éÉܵÃÓÐãÏóí¶àÈËÑáñÇÊÄ DOS shell µ«°éËæ×ÅÏÂÃĽÉÜ Äú½«»á ÓРµÄÌåÑé µÚ¶þƪ ×Ô¶¯²¹Æë ÃüÁîÐ µÄÀúÊ·¼Ç ±à¼-ÃüÁîÐ ¿ÉÓÃµÄ Shell ¿ì½Ý·Ê Unix ¼°ºóÌÕß Linux ÔÚÃüÁîÐÏÂæµ®Éú Òò´Ë Unix ÖеÄÃüÁîÓí¶à·Ç³£Ê¹¦ ÄÜ ÔÚ±¾ÆªÖÐ ÎÒÃǽ«À´×÷ »Ð©ÁË â ×Ô¶¯²¹Æë ÈçºÎÓà 'cd' ¸Ä±ä ¿Â¼ change directory ×î¿ìµØ´ÓÄú ±Ç°ËùÔÚ home Ŀ¼Ìøµ½ '/usr/sr c/redhat/'ÄØ cd /u<TAB>sr<TAB>r<TAB> Õâ³ÆΪ 'ÃüÁîÐ×Ô¶¯²¹Æë '(automatic command line completion) ÕâÔÚƽ³£Ó¦ÃÖÐÊDz»¿Éȱ ÉÙµÄ ÈÃÎÒ Ç×Ðϸ¿´ Õâ öÀý Ó cd /u<TAB> À©Õ¹³ÉÁË cd /usr/ ºÜ¼òµ¥°É ÏÂÃæµÄ cd /u<TAB>sr<TAB> À©Õ¹Îª cd /usr/src/ Èç¹ûÄúÖ»ÇÃÁË cd /u<TAB>s<TAB> '/usr'Ï ƥÅäµÄ 'cd /u*/s*' Èý ¸ö×ÓĿ¼½«Áг ¹© úÑ¡Ôñ '/usr/sbin' '/usr/share'ºÍ '/usr/src' Òò´Ë <TAB> ¼ü¿ÉÒԺܷ½±ãµØÓÃÚ¸ù¾ÝÇ°ö×ÖÄ À´²éÕÒÆ¥ÅäµÄμþ»ò×Ó¿Â ±Èç ls /usr/bin/zip<TAB> ½«ÁгöËùÓ '/usr/bin'ÏÂÃæ ÒÔ×Ö·û´® 'zip'¿ªÍ·µÄμþ»ò×Ó¿Â µ±È» Íê³ÉÕâÀàÈÎ ñ»¹Óиü ÷º¦µÄà Áî µ«Õâ¸ö·½ ¨È Ê ºÜ¹ Óà ÁíÍâ Åöµ½³¤ÎļþÃûʱ¾ÍÏÔ ÌØ ð·½ ã ¼ÙÉèÄúÒª°²× »¸öÃûÎ 'boomshakalakwhizbang- 4.6.4.5-i586.rpm'µÄ RPM °ü ÄúÊäÈë rpm -i boom<TAB> Èç¹ûĿ¼ÏûÓÐÆäËÎþÜ ¹»Æ¥Åä ÄÇ shell ¾Í»á×Ô¶¯°ïæ²¹Æë cd /u<TAB>sr<TAB>l<TAB> 4
  5. 5. ½«À©Õ¹³É cd /usr/src/linux ²¢µÈ´ý¼ÌÐø '/usr/src'ÖÐÓÁ½¸öÆ¥ÅäµÄ¿Â¼ '/usr/src/linux-[...] ' '/usr/src/linux' ÈçºÎ¸æËß shell ÄúÏëÒªºóÃæµÇ¸öØ Ö»Òª¸ú öбÏß / slash ¾Í¿ÉÒÔÑ¡ ñºóÃæµÄ ǸöÁË ¼ÙÈçÄú²» ·¶¨ÊÇ '/usr/src/linux/Documentation'»¹ÊÇ '/usr/src/linux/documentation' ¶øÄúÖª µÀ Linux ÊÇø·Ö´óСµÄ Èç¹ûÒѾ-×Ðϸ¶Á ýÇ°Ã沿·ÖµÄ» ÄúÏëµ½¿ÉÒÔÓà cd /u<TAB>sr<TAB>l<TAB>/d<TAB> À©Õ¹³ÉÁË '/usr/src/linux/drivers/' Òò´ËÓ¦¸ÃÊÇ 'Documentation'(´óдµÄ 'D') ÕâÖ ²¹Æë¶ÔÃüÁîÒ ÓÐ § [tom@belbo tom]$ gre<TAB> grecord grefer grep [tom@belbo tom]$ gre ÔÚÕâÀï shell ½«ÁгöËùÓÒÔ×Ö·û´® 'gre'¿ªÍ·µÄÒÑÖÃüÁî ÃüÁîÐ µÄÀúÊ·¼Ç ͨ¹ý°´ÏòÉ·½¼ü Äú¿ÉÒÔÏòºó±éÀ½ü´Ú¸ÃØÖÆ̨ÂÊäÈëµÁî ÓÃÏò·½¼ü¿ÉÒÔÇ° ±éÀú Óë SHIFT ¼üÁ¬ÓõĻ° Äú»¹¿ÉÒÔ±éÀÍùÚ¸ÃØÖÆ̨еÊä³ö ÄúÒ²¿ÉÔ±à¼-¾µ ÃüÁî È»ºóÔÙ ËÐ °´ <CTRL r> ºó shell ¾Í½øÈë "reverse-i(ncremental)-search" ÏòºóÔöÁ¿ËÑ÷ ģʽ ÏÖ ÔÚÊäÈëÄúÒªÕ µ ÃüÁî Ê× Öĸ (reverse-i-search)`':. ÇÃÈë 'i'¿ÉÄÜ»á±ä³ (reverse-i-search)`i': isdnctrl hangup ippp0 Èç¹ûÄúÔÙ°´ <ENTER> ¼ü ÉÏÃæµÄüÁÔÙ´ÎÖÐ ¶øÈç¹ûÄú°´ÁËÏòÓÒ Ïò×ó·½¼ü» < ESC> ÉÏÃæµÄ üÁ»Ø ÆÕͨ à РÕâÑùÄú¾Í¿ÉÒÔ½øÐ Ê µ± à¼- ±à¼-ÃüÁîРͨ¹ýâ±êº¦Äܼü Home End µÈ¼ü Äú¿ÉÒÔä¯À²¢±à¼-ÃüÁîÐ Èç¹ûÄúÐèÒª »¹¿É ÒÔ ÓüüÅ̵Ŀì½Ý· Ê À´Íê³ÉÒ»°ãµÄ±à¼- l <CTRL k> ɾ³ý´Ó¹â±êµ½Ð β Ä ¿·Ö 5
  6. 6. l <CTRL u> ɾ³ý´Ó¹â±êµ½Ð Ê× Ä²¿·Ö l <ALT d> ɾ³ý´Ó¹â±êµ½ Ç° ¥ Ê áβ Ä ¿·Ö l <CTRL w> ɾ³ý´Ó¹â±êµ½ Ç° ¥ Ê¿ªÍ· IJ Ö l <CTRL a> ½«¹â±êÒƵ Ð Ê× l <CTRL e> ½«¹â±êÒƵ Рβ l <ALT a> ½«¹â±êÒƵ Ç° ¥´ÊÍ·²¿ l <ALT e> ½«¹â±êÒƵ Ç° ¥´Êβ ¿ l <CTRL y> ²åÈë×î½üɾ³ýµÄ ¥´Ê l <!$> Öظ´Ç°Ò» öÃüÁî× ºóµÄ²ÎÊý ÀýÈç ÄúÓÃüÁî mkdir peter/pan/documents/tinkerbell н¨ÁËÒ»¸öÄ¿¼ ÏÖÔÚÄúòÓÃüÁî 'cd'½øÈë¸ÃĿ¼ Äú¿ÉÒÔÓà cd !$ shell ½«°ÑÇÒ»¸öÃüÁî 'mkdir'µÄ²ÎÊýÌí¼Óµ½ÏÖÔÚ 'cd'ºó Ãæ µ±Äú¸üÉîÈëÁ˽â Linux ºó ½«¿´µÕâЩìÝ·ÊÔÚÆäËûӦóÌòÏÂÈë± ÓÐʱҲ§ ±È Èç ÔÚä¯À Æ÷ÖеÄÊ Èë¿ò ¿ÉÓÃµÄ Shell ¿ì½Ý·Ê Red Hat Linux ´øÓв»ÉÙ¿ì½Ý·Ê ÆäÖÐÒ»²¿· ÊÇ bash Ô-À´¾ÍÓÐµÄ ¶ø»¹ÓÐÒ ©ÔòÊÇΪ ÄúÔ¤ÏÈÉèÖõ ÔÚºóÃæÄú½«¿´µ Èç ÎÉèÖ ÓÉ Ú home Ŀ¼ÊÇÃλӧµî¶¯ÖÐÄ Ðí¶à Unix ¶Ô´ËÓÐÌØÊâµÄ¿ì½Ý· '~'¾Í ÊÇÄúµ home Ŀ¼µòдÎʽ ÎÒÃǼÙÉèÄúÔÚÆäËû¿Â Ïë°ÑÒ»¸öÃûΪ 'sometext'µÄÎ ¼þ¸´ÖƵ½Äú home Ŀ¼ϵ 'docs'×ÓĿ¼ÖÐ ³ýÁËÊäÈë cp sometext /home/myusername/docs Äú»¹¿ÉÒÔÓüòд cp sometext ~/docs ÀíÂÛÉÏ ÕâÒ²¿ÉÔÓ¦ÃÚüÁî 'cd'ÉÏ ÎÞÂÛµ±Ç°·¾¶ÔÚÄÀï cd ~ ½«»Øµ Äúµ home Ŀ¼ Æäʵ»¹¿ÉÒÔ¼ò ¯ Ö»Òª¼üÈë cd ¾Í¿ÉÒÔ·µ»Ø home Ŀ¼ÁË 6
  7. 7. Red Hat Linux ΪÄúÌṩÁËÒ»ÐÔ¤ÏÈÉèÖõĿì½Ý·Ê ³ÆΪ '±ðÃû ' aliases ±È ç l ll ½«Ö´Ð 'ls -l -k' ÒÔ³¤¸ñʽÁÐ öĿ¼ ÚÈÝ °üÀ¨Ò»Ð©ÎļþÊô Ô ²¢ÒÔ KB ¶ø²»ÊÇ byt e Ϊµ¥ »ÏÔʾ ļþ´óС l ls ½«Ö´Ð 'ls -F --color=auto' ÁгöĿ¼ ÚÈÝ ¼ÓÉÏÎÄ þÀàÐͱêʶ ²¢Ê¹ÓÃÑÕÉ« ÏÖÔÚ ÄúÓ¦¸Ã¶Ô shell ¼°Ò»Ð©¿ì½Ý·ÊÓÁËøÒ»²µÄ½â ÏÂÃæÎÒ ÇÀ´¿ ³ýÁËÓ¦ à »Ð© ¼òµ¥ ÄÃüÁî shell »¹ÄÜ×÷ʲô µÚÈýƪ ÃüÁîµÄÅ Ð ÃüÁîµÄÈÎ ñ ÷¶ ÃüÁîµÄÌæ» ÃüÁîµÄÅ Ð ÏÖÔÚÄú½«¿´µÒ»Ð©³£ÓÃüÁîÅ Äú¿ÉÜÏëÔÚÒ»ÐÖ¸ø³öËùÓÃüÁî È»ºó¾Í¿ÉÒÔ°Ñ×¢âÁ¦ תÒƵ½äËûØ· ûÎÊÌâ shell ÔÊÐíÄúÚ²»Í¬µÃüÁîÖ®¼ä ·ÅÉÏÌØÊâµÄÁÐ×Öû (queuing characters) Õâ¶ù½« éÉÜ×î³£ÓõÄÁ Ö Çë×¢Òâ ΪÁË¿´ÆðÀ¸üÇå³þ ÎÒÔÚÕâЩ×Ö·ûÁ½Å¼ÓË¿¸ñ ¶øÔÚʵ¼Ó¦ÃÖÐ Äú²»Ò¶¨ª Õâ ô×ö 'ls -a ; du -hs'ºÍ 'ls -a;du -hs'µÄЧ¹ûÊÇÒ»Ñùµ command1 ; command2 ÏÈÖ´Ð command1 ²»¹Ü command1 ÊÇ·ñ³ö´í ½ÓÏÂÀ´Ö Ð command2 ÀýÈç ls -a ; du -hs ½«ÏÈÔÚÆÁÄ»É Ð³ö ¿Â¼Ö µ ËùÓ ÄÚÈÝ È»ºóÁгöËùÓ Ä¿Â¼ °Æä× ËùÕ ´Å Ì óС command1 && command2 Ö»Óе± command1 ÕýÈ·ÔËÐÍê±Ïºó ²ÅÖ´Ð command2 ÀýÈç ls -a bogusdir && du -hs ½«·µ»Ø ls: bogusdir: No such file or directory ¶ø 'du'Ôò¸ù±¾Ã»ÓÐÔË ÕâÊÇÒòΪÄúû ÓÐ 'bogusdir'Ŀ¼ Èç¹ûÄú½«· ºÅ» ³ÉÁË ';' 'du'½«±»Ö´Ð ΪÁ˽øÒ»² µÃ÷ ';'ºÍ '&&'µÄÇø±ð ¼°Ò» ãÃüÁîŠеÄÓ ´¦ ÏÂÃæ¾ÙÒ»¸ö -µä ÄÀý×Ó Linux 7
  8. 8. Äں˵ ±àÒë Í°²× Òª±à ë °²× Linux ÄúÐèÒªÖ´ » ®ÃüÁî 'make dep' 'make clean' 'make bzImag e' 'make modules' 'make modules_install'ºÍ 'make install' Èç¹ûÒªµ»¸öÃüÁîÍê³Éºó ÔÙÊäÈëÏÂÒ»¸ö ÔÙµÈ ÔÙÊäÈë ÄǾÍÌ«Âé·³ÁË ÁíÒ»·½Ãæ ÿ¸öüÁîÖ»Óе±Ç°æÄ ÁÕýÈ·Ö´ÐÍê±Ïºó ²ÅÄÜ¿ªÊ¼Ö´Ð Èç¹ûÄúÓà ';'À´ÅÁÐÃüî Ôò¼´Ê¹ÓÐÃüÁîÖ§°Ü ºó ÃæµÄÒ²Õ ³£ÔËÐ ×îºó Äú¿É ÜÔÚ '/boot'Ŀ¼ϵýһ¸öÓÐÎÊÌâÄں˳Ïñ (image) ¶øÓà ' &&' make dep && make clean && make bzImage && make modules && make modules _install && make install ²»ÐèÒªÖ Í¾´ò¶Ï ¾Í¿ÉÒÔ±à ëÄں˼°Æä £¿é ²¢Íê³ÉºóÃæµÄ° × ÃüÁîµÄÈÎ ñ ÷¶ µ±ÄúÔÚÖÕ¶ËÀïÐÒ»¸öÃüÁîò¿ªÆô³ÌÊ ÖÕ¶ËÒªµÈ½ÃüÁî»ò³ÌÐÔÍê±Ïºó ²ÅÄÜÔÙ ±»Ê¹Óà ÔÚ Unix ÖÐ ÎÒÃdzÆÕâÑùµÄ üÁî»ò ÌÐ ÔÚÇ° ¨ (foreground)ÔËÐ Èç¹ûÄúÏëÔÚÖÕ¶Ë ÏÂÔËÐ ÁíÒ»¸öÃü î ÔòÐèÒª Ù´ ¿ »¸ö µÄÖÕ¶Ë µ«ÕâÀﻹÓÐÒ ¸ö ü ÅÑ µÄ°ì·¨ ³ÆÎªÈ ñµ÷¶ (jobbing)»òºǫ́ (backgrounding) µ±ÄúÔËÓà ÈÎñµÄ÷¶»ò½«ÃüÁîÖÓÚºǫ́ Öն˾ÍÁ¢¼´½â·Å ÕâÑùÒ»À´ ÖÕ¶ËÁ¢¼´¾Í¿ÉÒÔ½ÓÊÜеÄä Èë ΪʵÏÖÕâÑù Ä ¿ ÄúÖ»ÐèÔÚÃüÁîºó æÌí¼ÓÒ»¸ö & gqview & ¸æËß shell ½«Í¼Æ¬²é¿´÷ 'GQview'·Åµ½ºǫ́ȥִР¼´µ±³É job À´ÔËÐ ÃüÁî jobs ½«¸æËßÄú ÔÚÕâ¸öÖ ¶Ë´°¿ Ð ÔËÐ ×ÅÄ ©ÃüÁîÓë³Ì ò jobs [1]+ Running gqview & µ±ÄúÒª¹ØÕֶ˴°¿ÚÊ ÕâÒ»µã¾ÍºÜÖت ÒòΪ¹Ø±Õֶ˽«µ¼ÂùÓÐÔÚÆäÄÈñ ±»ÖÐ ¹ ÔÚ´ËÀýÖÐ Èç¹ûÄú رÕÁËÖ ¶ ÓÉÕâ¸öÖ ¶Ë¿ªÆôµÄ GQview ³ÌÐòÒ²½«±»¹ØÕ µ«ÈçºÎ½ ǰ̨ÔËÐ ÄÒ»¸ö³ ò·Åµ½ºǫ́ȥ ûÎÊÌâ gqview <CTRL z> [2]+ Stopped gqview 8
  9. 9. bg [2]+ gqview & ×éºÏ¼ü <CTRL z> ½«¹ÒÆðÖÕ¶ËÐýÔڵijÌò È»ºóÄú¾Í¿ÉÒÔÓà bg ÃüÁÆä·Åµºǫ́ È¥Ö´Ð Çë×¢Òâ ÔÚºǫ́ËÐͼÎӦóòʱǴµÄ ÕâÑù¿ÉÒÔÚÖ¶ËÏÂʾ¸ö³ÌÐòµÄ ´íÐÅÏ¢ ËäÈ»Õâ¶ÔÄú¿ÉÜÃÓÐÖ±½µ°ï µ±Èç¹ûÅö½ÁËÂé·³ Ïò±ðÈËѯÎÊ ÕâЩ³ö´í Ìá ʾ ÍÓÐ ÃÎäÖ®µØÁË Ò»Ð©Í¼Î³Ìò ºÜ¿ÉÄ»¹´¦ÔÚ²âÊÆ (Beta) ¾¡¹ÜÔÚºǫִ́РҲ»áÔÚÖÕ¶ËÐÊä³ö©ÅÏ¢ Èç¹ûÄú¶Ô´Ë²»Â ¿ÉÒÔÓÃÏ æ üÁî command &>/dev/null & Õâ²»½ö«³ÌÐòË͵ºó¨Ö´ »¹½«Æäʳö·¢µ '/dev/null'Îļþ '/dev/null'ÊÇ ÏµÍ³Ä "ËéÖ½»ú " (s hredder) ËùÓР͵½ÄÇÀï ÅÏ¢¶¼ « ûʧ´ù¾¡ ÃüÁîµÄÌæ» ÃüÁîÌæ» (Command substitution)ÊÇÒ»ÏîºÜʵÓÃŦ ÎÒÃǼÙÉè ÄúÏë¿´ XFree86 ÎÄ µ ÖÐ Ä 'README.mouse'Îļþ µ«Äú²»Öª ÀÕâ¸öÎ ¼þµ à µ«ÄúÊÇλ Áé Óà § ÒѾ- Ìý˵Á 'locate'ÃüÁî Ò²° × ÁË 'slocate'°ü Äú¾Í¿ÉÒÔÓà locate README.mouse ·¢ÏÖÄǸöμþÔÚ '/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc' ÏÖÔÚÄú¾Í¿ÉÒÕ¶ËÀïÓà 'less'»òÔÚÎļþ¹ÜÀíÆ÷ÖÐ ½øÈëÄǸö ¿Â¼ »ºó¶Á ¡Î þ ¶øÃüÁîÌæ» ¿ÉÒÔ¸ Äú´øÀ Щ±ã½Ý less $(locate README.mouse) Ò»²½µ Î ÃüÁî 'locate README.mouse'µÄÊä³ö (= /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc/README.mou se)×÷Ϊ 'less'µÄ²ÎÊý È»ºó¾Í¿ÉÒÔÏ Ê Îļþ ÚÈÝÁË ÕâÖ »ú ƵÄÓï·¨ÊÇ command1 $(command2) ³ýÁË '$( )' Äú»¹¿ÉÒÔÓúó ý Å (backquote) command1 `command2` 9
  10. 10. ÕâÑùËäÈ»¿ÉÒÔ¼õÙÊë µ«¿É¶ÁÐÔ²î ¶øÇÒºÜÈÝ×¾ÍûÓÐÌ湦ĵ°ã¥ýÅìÏ ÎÒ ¸üÐÀÉÍÇ°Ò»Ö ·½ ¨ µ«Õâ×îÖ Æð¾öÓÚÄú ÕâÀïÓÐÁíÍ Ò»¸ö ý× ÎÒÃǼÙÉè Äú´òËã½áÊøÒ»¸öÃûΪ 'rob'µÄ³ÌÐò ÄúÏȵÃÓ üÁî 'pidof'ÕÒ ³öÏàÓ¦µÄ½ø ̺Š(Process ID) È»ºóÒÔÕâ¸ö PID Ϊ²Êý ÔËÐ 'kill'ÃüÁî ÕâÑù¾Í¿ÉÒÔ½áÊø 'r ob'³ÌÐò ³ýÁËÓà pidof rob 567 kill 567 Äú»¹¿ÉÒÔÊ kill `pidof rob` ÔõôÑù ЧÂÊÓ ËùÌá¸ß°É ÔÚÏÂһƪÖÐ ÎÒ½« Ó×Å éÉÜ shell µÄÁíÍâ½ÖÊÓûúÆ ÎļþÃûÆ¥Åä Êä³öÖض¨Ïò µÚËÄƪ ÎļþÃûÆ¥Åä Êä³öÖض¨Ïò ÎļþÃûÆ¥Åä ÎļþÃûÆ¥Åäʹµú²»±ØÒд³ö ¾Í¿ÉÒÔÖ¸¶¨àöÎļþ Äú½«ÓõһЩÌØÊâ×Ö·û ³Æ ΪͨÅä·û (wildcards) ¼ÙÉèÄúÏëÓà 'rm'ÃüÁîɾ³ýĿ¼ÏËùÓÐÒÔ×Ö·û´® '.bak'½áβµÄ¼þ ³ýÁËÔÚ 'rm'ºó¸úÉÏËùÓÐÎļþ Ãû×÷Ϊ² Êý Äú»¹¿ÉÒÔÓÃͨÅä·û '*' rm *.bak '*'¿ÉÆ¥ÅäÒ»¸öò¶à×Ö·û ÔÚ±¾ÀýÖÐ Äú¸æËß shell ½«ÃüÁî 'rm'µÄ²ÎÊýÀ©Õ¹µ½ "ËùÓÐÒÔ '*.bak' ½áβµÄ ¼þ " shell ¾Í½«À©Õ¹ºóµÄ²ÎÊý¸æËß 'rm'ÃüÁî Äú½«¿´µ shell ÔÚÃüÁîÖ´ÐÇ° ¾Í½«¶ÁÈ¡²¢âÊÃüîÐ ÕýÊÇÒòΪâ¸ö Äú²Å¿ÉÒÔ½«Í¨ä ·ûÓÃ Ú shell ÃüÁîµÄ²ÎÊýÖÐ ÈÃÎÒ Ç¸ü½ø »² µØÀ´ÈÏʶͨÅä·û '*' ¼Ù¶¨ÄúÓиö¿Â ÆäÖк¬Îļþ '124.bak' '346.bak'¼° '5 83.bak' ÄúÏëÖ»±£Áôμþ '583.bak' ¿ÉÒÔÓà rm *4*.bak 10

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