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04/26/13 1
Welcome to AI
Ëåêö ¹1: ÕÈÉÌÝË ÎÞÓÍ, ТҮҮНИЙ
ХӨГЖИЛ
04/26/13 2
ÀØÈÃËÀÕ ÌÀÒÅÐÈÀË
Stuart Russel & Peter Norvig "
Artificial Intelligence Modern Approach"
1997.
Энэ номыг дэлхийн 500 гаруй их
сургуульд "Хиймэл оюун" хичээлийг
заахад ашиглаæ áàéíà.
04/26/13 3
ÀØÈÃËÀÕ ÌÀÒÅÐÈÀË
Ýíý õàÿãààð õèчýýëòýé õîëáîãäîëòîé
ìàòåðèàëóóä, ÿâöûí ä¿í, Lisp õýëíèé
õºðâ¿¿ëýãч áîëîí áóñàä ç¿éëñ áàéãàà.
04/26/13 4
Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õ
1943-1956 Gestation of AI I
1952-1969 Early Enthusiasm, great expectations II
1966-1974 A dose of reality III
1969-1979 Knowledge based systems IV
1980-1988 AI becomes an industry V
1986-1990 The return of neural networks VI
1987-1995 Modern events VII
1990-2000 Recent events VIII
2000- …… Present IX
04/26/13 5
Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1943-1956)
1943: Warren McCulloch & Walter Witts1943: Warren McCulloch & Walter Witts
Òàðõèíû ýñèéí áîîëèàí çàãâàðûã ãàðãàâ.
Ýñ á¿ð “on”,”off” òºëºâèéí àëü íýãýíä
îðøäîã. Òýä, òîîöîîëîãäîì á¿õ ë ¿éëäë¿¿ä íü
(ìºí ëîãèê õîëáîîñóóä íü) õîîðîíäîî õîëáîãäñîí
õýñýã ýñ¿¿äèéí ñ¿ëæýýãýýð áîäîãäîæ
÷àäàõûã áàòàëñàí. ̺í ýâòýéõýí òîäîðõîéëæ
ºãñºí ñ¿ëæýý íü ñóðàëöàõ чàäâàðòàé
áîëîõûã òîãòîîæýý.
04/26/13 6
Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1943-1956)
1950: Claude Shannon(1950) & Alan Turing (1953)1950: Claude Shannon(1950) & Alan Turing (1953)
Øàòàðûí ïðîãðàì áèчèæ áàéâ.
04/26/13 7
Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1943-1956)
1951: Marvin Minsky & Dean Edmonds (Prinston)1951: Marvin Minsky & Dean Edmonds (Prinston)
Ïðèíñòîíû èõ ñóðãóóëèéí ìàòåìàòèêèéí
ñàëáàðûí òºãñºõ õî¸ð îþóòàí àíõíû íåîðî
ñ¿ëæýýã á¿òýýâ. SNARC õýìýýõ ýíý
ñ¿ëæýýíèé 40 ýñèéã îðëóóëàõûí òóëä
3000 âàêóóì ãóóðñàí õîîëîé, B-24
áºìáºãäºãч îíãîöíû àâòîìàò æîëîîäëîãûí
òºõººðºìæèéã àøèãëàæýý.
04/26/13 8
Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1943-1956)
1951: Marvin Minsky & Dean Edmonds (Prinston)1951: Marvin Minsky & Dean Edmonds (Prinston)
Ïðèíñòîíû èõ ñóðãóóëèéí ìàòåìàòèêèéí
ñàëáàðûí òºãñºõ õî¸ð îþóòàí àíõíû íåîðî
ñ¿ëæýýã á¿òýýâ. SNARC õýìýýõ ýíý
ñ¿ëæýýíèé 40 ýñèéã îðëóóëàõûí òóëä
3000 âàêóóì ãóóðñàí õîîëîé, B-24
áºìáºãäºã÷ îíãîöíû àâòîìàò æîëîîäëîãûí
òºõººðºìæèéã àøèãëàæýý.
(von Neumann: “If it isn’t no w it willbe so m e day”)
04/26/13 9
Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1943-1956)
1956: John McCarthy1956: John McCarthy (Ñóäàëãààíû áàã)Ñóäàëãààíû áàã)
Èõ ñóðãóóëèà òºãññºíèé äàðàà McCarthy
Dartmouth êîëëåæèä øèëæñýí áºãººä ýíä õèéìýë
îþóíû ñàëáàð òºðñºí ãýæ áîëíî. Òýðýýð Minsky,
Shannon íàðûã ÿòãàæ íåîðî ñ¿ëæýý, îþóí óõààí
çýðãèéã ñóäëóóëàõààð ÀÍÓ-ûí ñóäëàà÷äûã
öóãëóóëàõàä òóñëóóëàâ. Òýíä íèéò 10 õ¿í áàéñàí
áºãººä 2 ñàð õàìò àæèëëàñàí.
(Trincahrd More-Princeten, Arthur Samuel-IBM,
Ray Solomoff & Oliver Selfridge-MIT)
04/26/13 10
Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1943-1956)
AI ñàëáàðûí ýöýã ãýãäýõ
John McCarthyJohn McCarthy áîëîí Alan TuringAlan Turing
04/26/13 11
Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1943-1956)
1956: John McCarthy1956: John McCarthy (Ñóäàëãààíû áàã)Ñóäàëãààíû áàã)
Õýäèéãýýð áàãèéí çàðèì ãèø¿¿ä ººðñäèéí ñàíàà
çàðèì íýã ïðîãðàìòàé (äààì) áàéñàí áîëîâ÷ Allen
Newell & Herbert Simon íàðò Logic Theorist õýìýýõ
áîäëîãî øèéääýã ïðîãðàì áàéëàà. “Áèä òîîí áóñààð
ñýòãýæ ÷àäàõ òýãñíýýðýý àëäàðò áèå-ñýòãýëèéíáèå-ñýòãýëèéí
àñóóäëûãàñóóäëûã øèéäâýðëýñýí ïðîãðàì õèéñýí” ãýæ
õýëñýí áàéíà. Ýíý ïðîãðàì íü Russell-èéí
“Ìàòåìàòèêèéí ¿íäýñ” íîìíû 2-ð á¿ëãèéí èõýíõ
òåîðåìóóäûã áàòàëæ ÷àääàã áàéñàí áºãººä íýãèéã
íü íîìîí äýýðõýýñ íü èë¿¿ òîâ÷õîí áàòàëæ чàäñàí
áàéíà.
04/26/13 12
Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1943-1956)
1956: John McCarthy1956: John McCarthy (Ñóäàëãààíû áàã)Ñóäàëãààíû áàã)
Dartmouth-èéí áàã ÿìàð íýã øèíý ç¿éë
õèéãýýã¿é áîëîâ÷ á¿õ ¿íäñýí óõàãäàõóóíóóäûã
áèå áèåäýý òàíèëöóóëñàí áàéíà. Äàðàà÷èéí 20
æèëèéí õóãàöààíä AI ñàëáàðûã ýäãýýð õ¿ì¿¿ñ
áîëîí òýäíèé MIT, Stanford, IBM äýõ îþóòàí,
õàìòðàã÷ íàð àâ÷ ÿâñàí þì. Ìàãàäã¿é ýíý áàãààñ
ãàðñàí õàìãèéí ñîíèðõîëòîé ç¿éë áîë
ýíýõ¿¿ ñàëáàðò ºãñºí McCarthy-ãèéí íýðèéã á¿ãä
çºâøººðñºí ÿâäàë áîëîâ óó. Òýä ArtificialArtificial
IntelligenceIntelligence ãýæ íýðëýæýý.
04/26/13 13
Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1952-1969)
Newel & SimonNewel & Simon
Generel Problem Solver ãàðãàâ. Logic
Theorist-ñ ÿëãààòàé íü õ¿íèé ñýòãýëãýýíèé
áàéäëûã äóóðèàëãàí õèéñýí áàéíà. Ýíý íü
“õ¿í øèãõ¿í øèã” ñýòãýäýã ýõíèé ïðîãðàì áàéñàí
ãýæ áîëíî.
04/26/13 14
Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1952-1969)
Herbert Gelernter(1959)Herbert Gelernter(1959)
“Ãåîìåòðèéí òåîðåì áàòëàãч GTP” ñèñòåì
ãàðãàâ. Ýíý ïðîãðàì íü Logic Theorist-òýé èæëýýð
óðüäчèëàí áýëäñýí àêñèîìóóäûã àøèãëàäàã áàéâ.
Ãýâч òåîðåì áàòëàõ ÿâöàä õýòýðõèé îëîí øàëãàæ
áîëîõ çàìóóä áàéãàà íü òîäîðõîé áîëñîí óчðààñ óã ïð
íü áàòëàõ òåîðåìîî ÿìàð íýã òîõèîëäîëä íü øàëãàäàã
¿íýíèé õ¿ñíýãòèéã ¿¿ñãýõ áîëîìæòîéãîîð
õèéãäæýý.
04/26/13 15
Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1952-1969)
ArthurSamuel (1952)ArthurSamuel (1952)
Äààì ãàðãàâ. Ýíý äààì íü ºðñºëäºãчººñºº
ñóðàëöàõ чàäâàðòàé áºãººä òóí óäàëã¿é
çîõèîãчîî òºâºãã¿é õîæäîã áîëæýý.
1956 îíä óã ïðîãðàìûã íèéòýä ÒV-ýýð
¿ç¿¿ëñýí.
04/26/13 16
Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1952-1969)
John McCarthy (1958)John McCarthy (1958)
Dartmouth-ñ MIT-í AI-í ëàáîðàòîðèä
øèëæèí îчèæ òýíä LISP õýëèéã çîõèîñîí íü
ýíý ñàëáàð äàõü òýðã¿¿ëýõ õýë áîëæ
чàäæýý.
04/26/13 17
Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1952-1969)
John McCarthy (1958)John McCarthy (1958)
̺í ýíý îíä òýðýýð “Programs with common sense”
íýðòýé ºã¿¿ëýë õýâë¿¿ëñýí áºãººä ýíä “Çºâºë㺺
ºãºãч” ïðîãðàìûã òàéëáàðëàñàí áàéíà. ¯¿íèéã àíõíû
á¿ðýí AI ñèñòåì ãýæ ¿çäýã. LT áîëîí GTP òýé
èæëýýð ìýäëýã àøèãëàäàã áîëîâ÷ ÿëãààòàé íü
åðòºíöèéí òóõàé åðºíõèé ìýäëýã àøèãëàäàã.
Æèøýý íü óã ï𠺺ðèéí ýíãèéí àêñèîìóóäûã àøèãëàí
îíãîö áóóäàëä õ¿ðýõ çàìûã òºëºâëºí ãàðãàæ áàéâ.
̺í øèíý àêñèîìóóäûã àâàõ чàäâàðòàé óчðààñ øèíý
“Äàõèí ïðîãðàìчëàãäàõã¿é” ñàëáàðò íýð õ¿íäèéã
îëæýý. Ýíý ºã¿¿ëýë 35 øàõàì æèëèéí òóðø
íºëººòýé áàéñàí áàéíà!
04/26/13 18
Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1952-1969)
John McCarthy (1963)John McCarthy (1963)
Òýðýýð Stanford-ä AI ëàáîðàòîð
áàéãóóëæýý. Ýíä ò¿¿íèé “Çºâºë㺺 ºãºãч”
ïð íü J.A.Robinson-û øèíý íýýëò áîëîõ
øèéäâýð ãàðãàãч àëãîðèòìààð (First Order
Logic-ò çîðèóëñàí òåîðåì áàòëàãòåîðåì áàòëàãчч á¿ðýí
àëãîðèòì 9.6) ñàéæðóóëàãäàâ. Ýíý
àëãîðèòìûã áèä ñ¿¿ëä àâч ¿çíý.
04/26/13 19
Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1952-1969)
Minsky (1963)Minsky (1963)
Óõààí øààðäàãäàõ æèæèã àñóóäëóóäûã
(Microworlds) øèéäâýðëýõýýð àæèëëàæ
áóé õýñýã îþóòíóóäûã óäèðäàí àæèëëàâ.
¯ð ä¿íä íü:
 Òîm Evans: Analogy ïð (1968). IQ òåñòýä
òààðàëääàã ãåîìåòð ä¿ðñòýé
àñóóäëóóäûã øèéäýæ áàéâ.
 Äîîð æèøýý çóðãèéã õàðóóëàâ.
04/26/13 20
Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1952-1969)
MicroWorlds…MicroWorlds…
Ðîáîòûí ãàð íýã àãøèíä íýã
áëîê ë áàðüäàã. Òýãâýë
“óëààí äºðâºëæèí áëîêûã
àâ!”
Àëü ä¿ðñ òîõèðîõ âý?.
04/26/13 21
Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1952-1969)
Minsky (1963)Minsky (1963)
Bertram Raphael (1968) -èéí SIR
(Semantic Information Retrieval) íü
ìàø õÿçãààðëàãäìàë àíãëè õýë äýýð
ºã¿¿ëáýð õ¿ëýýí àâч ìºí òýð õ¿ðýýí
äîð õàðèóëæ áàéâ.
04/26/13 22
Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1952-1969)
Minsky (1963)Minsky (1963)
Daniel Bobrow (1967) –èéí Student
ïðîãðàì íü ýíãèéí àëãåáðèéí
ºã¿¿ëáýðòýé áîäëîãóóäûã áîäîæ
áàéâ.
04/26/13 23
Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1966-1974)
Äàðààõ àñóóäëóóä òóëãàðàâ:
Ìýäëýã õýðýãëýõã¿é áàéäàë.
Sputnik îðчóóëãûí òºñºë äàìïóóðàâ.
 “The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak”
 “The vodka is good but the meat is rotten”
Òîîöîîëîõîä õ¿íä áàéäàë.
 (exponential, microworld íü öººí
îáüåêòòîé áîë …)
04/26/13 24
Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1966-1974)
Äàðààõ àñóóäëóóä òóëãàðàâ:
Ìýäëýã õýðýãëýõã¿é áàéäàë.
Sputnik îð÷óóëãûí òºñºë äàìïóóðàâ.
 “The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak”
 “The vodka is good but the meat is rotten”
Òîîöîîëîõîä õ¿íä áàéäàë.
 (exponential, microworld íü öººí
îáüåêòòîé áîë …)
04/26/13 25
Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1969-1979)
Minsky & PapertMinsky & Papert
Perceptrons (1969)Perceptrons (1969) ºã¿¿ëýë ãàðàâ. Ýíä
õýäèéãýýð äîõèîëóóðóóä íü ººðñäèéí õèéæ
чàäàõ ¿éë àæèëëàãààíä ñóðàëöàæ áîëîõ
áîëîâч òýä ìàø ºч¿¿õýí ç¿éë ä¿ðñýëæ
чàäíà ãýñýí ñàíàà áàéñàí. Õýäèéãýýð á¿õ
íåðî ñ¿ëæýýíèé á¿õ ñàëáàðûã õàìàðч
õýëýýã¿é ч ýíý ñàëáàð äàõü àæëóóä
óäàëã¿é á¿ðýí çîãññîí áàéíà.
04/26/13 26
Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1969-1979)
Buchanan, Feigenbaum(1969 Stanford)Buchanan, Feigenbaum(1969 Stanford)
Äýýðõ òóðøëàãàäàà ¿íäýñëýí òýä öóñíû
õàëäâàðûã øèíæèëäýã MYCINMYCIN ïðîãðàìûã
á¿òýýæýý. Ýíý ïð íü 450 ä¿ðìýýñ òîãòîõ
ñàíòàé áºãººä àæëûí ¿ð ä¿íãýýð “Junior
doctor”-ñ áàãà çýðýã èë¿¿ áàéâ.
DENDRAL-ñ äàâóó òàë íü ýìíýëãèéí
ìýäëýãòýé õîëáîîòîé uncertaintyuncertainty áóþó
òîäîðõîé áóñòîäîðõîé áóñ áàéäëûã òóñãàñàí áàéíà.
04/26/13 27
Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1969-1979)
Duda (1979)Duda (1979)
Ìýäëýãèéí äîìýéí чóõàë áîëîõ íü ìºí
íàòóðàë õýëíèé áîëîâñðóóëàëòûí ñàëáàðò
òîäîðõîé áîëëîî. SHRDLU ïð íü äàæã¿é
cýòãýãäýë òºð¿¿ëæ áàéñàí áîëîâч
ñèíòàêñûí øèíæèëãýýíýýñ õàìààðч áóé
áàéäàë íü ºìíº ãàðñàí ïð-óóäàä óчèðñàí
àñóóäëûã ìºí ë ¿¿ñãýæ áàéâ. Îðчóóëãûí
ñàéí ïð ãàðãàõûí òóëä åðòºíöèéí òóõàé
åðºíõèé ìýäëýã áîëîí ò¿¿íèéã õýðýãëýõ
åðºíõèé ôóíêö õýðýãòýé áîëîõ íü õàðàãäàâ.

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Lecture1

  • 1. 04/26/13 1 Welcome to AI Ëåêö ¹1: ÕÈÉÌÝË ÎÞÓÍ, ТҮҮНИЙ ХӨГЖИЛ
  • 2. 04/26/13 2 ÀØÈÃËÀÕ ÌÀÒÅÐÈÀË Stuart Russel & Peter Norvig " Artificial Intelligence Modern Approach" 1997. Энэ номыг дэлхийн 500 гаруй их сургуульд "Хиймэл оюун" хичээлийг заахад ашиглаæ áàéíà.
  • 3. 04/26/13 3 ÀØÈÃËÀÕ ÌÀÒÅÐÈÀË Ýíý õàÿãààð õèчýýëòýé õîëáîãäîëòîé ìàòåðèàëóóä, ÿâöûí ä¿í, Lisp õýëíèé õºðâ¿¿ëýãч áîëîí áóñàä ç¿éëñ áàéãàà.
  • 4. 04/26/13 4 Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õ 1943-1956 Gestation of AI I 1952-1969 Early Enthusiasm, great expectations II 1966-1974 A dose of reality III 1969-1979 Knowledge based systems IV 1980-1988 AI becomes an industry V 1986-1990 The return of neural networks VI 1987-1995 Modern events VII 1990-2000 Recent events VIII 2000- …… Present IX
  • 5. 04/26/13 5 Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1943-1956) 1943: Warren McCulloch & Walter Witts1943: Warren McCulloch & Walter Witts Òàðõèíû ýñèéí áîîëèàí çàãâàðûã ãàðãàâ. Ýñ á¿ð “on”,”off” òºëºâèéí àëü íýãýíä îðøäîã. Òýä, òîîöîîëîãäîì á¿õ ë ¿éëäë¿¿ä íü (ìºí ëîãèê õîëáîîñóóä íü) õîîðîíäîî õîëáîãäñîí õýñýã ýñ¿¿äèéí ñ¿ëæýýãýýð áîäîãäîæ ÷àäàõûã áàòàëñàí. ̺í ýâòýéõýí òîäîðõîéëæ ºãñºí ñ¿ëæýý íü ñóðàëöàõ чàäâàðòàé áîëîõûã òîãòîîæýý.
  • 6. 04/26/13 6 Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1943-1956) 1950: Claude Shannon(1950) & Alan Turing (1953)1950: Claude Shannon(1950) & Alan Turing (1953) Øàòàðûí ïðîãðàì áèчèæ áàéâ.
  • 7. 04/26/13 7 Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1943-1956) 1951: Marvin Minsky & Dean Edmonds (Prinston)1951: Marvin Minsky & Dean Edmonds (Prinston) Ïðèíñòîíû èõ ñóðãóóëèéí ìàòåìàòèêèéí ñàëáàðûí òºãñºõ õî¸ð îþóòàí àíõíû íåîðî ñ¿ëæýýã á¿òýýâ. SNARC õýìýýõ ýíý ñ¿ëæýýíèé 40 ýñèéã îðëóóëàõûí òóëä 3000 âàêóóì ãóóðñàí õîîëîé, B-24 áºìáºãäºãч îíãîöíû àâòîìàò æîëîîäëîãûí òºõººðºìæèéã àøèãëàæýý.
  • 8. 04/26/13 8 Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1943-1956) 1951: Marvin Minsky & Dean Edmonds (Prinston)1951: Marvin Minsky & Dean Edmonds (Prinston) Ïðèíñòîíû èõ ñóðãóóëèéí ìàòåìàòèêèéí ñàëáàðûí òºãñºõ õî¸ð îþóòàí àíõíû íåîðî ñ¿ëæýýã á¿òýýâ. SNARC õýìýýõ ýíý ñ¿ëæýýíèé 40 ýñèéã îðëóóëàõûí òóëä 3000 âàêóóì ãóóðñàí õîîëîé, B-24 áºìáºãäºã÷ îíãîöíû àâòîìàò æîëîîäëîãûí òºõººðºìæèéã àøèãëàæýý. (von Neumann: “If it isn’t no w it willbe so m e day”)
  • 9. 04/26/13 9 Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1943-1956) 1956: John McCarthy1956: John McCarthy (Ñóäàëãààíû áàã)Ñóäàëãààíû áàã) Èõ ñóðãóóëèà òºãññºíèé äàðàà McCarthy Dartmouth êîëëåæèä øèëæñýí áºãººä ýíä õèéìýë îþóíû ñàëáàð òºðñºí ãýæ áîëíî. Òýðýýð Minsky, Shannon íàðûã ÿòãàæ íåîðî ñ¿ëæýý, îþóí óõààí çýðãèéã ñóäëóóëàõààð ÀÍÓ-ûí ñóäëàà÷äûã öóãëóóëàõàä òóñëóóëàâ. Òýíä íèéò 10 õ¿í áàéñàí áºãººä 2 ñàð õàìò àæèëëàñàí. (Trincahrd More-Princeten, Arthur Samuel-IBM, Ray Solomoff & Oliver Selfridge-MIT)
  • 10. 04/26/13 10 Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1943-1956) AI ñàëáàðûí ýöýã ãýãäýõ John McCarthyJohn McCarthy áîëîí Alan TuringAlan Turing
  • 11. 04/26/13 11 Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1943-1956) 1956: John McCarthy1956: John McCarthy (Ñóäàëãààíû áàã)Ñóäàëãààíû áàã) Õýäèéãýýð áàãèéí çàðèì ãèø¿¿ä ººðñäèéí ñàíàà çàðèì íýã ïðîãðàìòàé (äààì) áàéñàí áîëîâ÷ Allen Newell & Herbert Simon íàðò Logic Theorist õýìýýõ áîäëîãî øèéääýã ïðîãðàì áàéëàà. “Áèä òîîí áóñààð ñýòãýæ ÷àäàõ òýãñíýýðýý àëäàðò áèå-ñýòãýëèéíáèå-ñýòãýëèéí àñóóäëûãàñóóäëûã øèéäâýðëýñýí ïðîãðàì õèéñýí” ãýæ õýëñýí áàéíà. Ýíý ïðîãðàì íü Russell-èéí “Ìàòåìàòèêèéí ¿íäýñ” íîìíû 2-ð á¿ëãèéí èõýíõ òåîðåìóóäûã áàòàëæ ÷àääàã áàéñàí áºãººä íýãèéã íü íîìîí äýýðõýýñ íü èë¿¿ òîâ÷õîí áàòàëæ чàäñàí áàéíà.
  • 12. 04/26/13 12 Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1943-1956) 1956: John McCarthy1956: John McCarthy (Ñóäàëãààíû áàã)Ñóäàëãààíû áàã) Dartmouth-èéí áàã ÿìàð íýã øèíý ç¿éë õèéãýýã¿é áîëîâ÷ á¿õ ¿íäñýí óõàãäàõóóíóóäûã áèå áèåäýý òàíèëöóóëñàí áàéíà. Äàðàà÷èéí 20 æèëèéí õóãàöààíä AI ñàëáàðûã ýäãýýð õ¿ì¿¿ñ áîëîí òýäíèé MIT, Stanford, IBM äýõ îþóòàí, õàìòðàã÷ íàð àâ÷ ÿâñàí þì. Ìàãàäã¿é ýíý áàãààñ ãàðñàí õàìãèéí ñîíèðõîëòîé ç¿éë áîë ýíýõ¿¿ ñàëáàðò ºãñºí McCarthy-ãèéí íýðèéã á¿ãä çºâøººðñºí ÿâäàë áîëîâ óó. Òýä ArtificialArtificial IntelligenceIntelligence ãýæ íýðëýæýý.
  • 13. 04/26/13 13 Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1952-1969) Newel & SimonNewel & Simon Generel Problem Solver ãàðãàâ. Logic Theorist-ñ ÿëãààòàé íü õ¿íèé ñýòãýëãýýíèé áàéäëûã äóóðèàëãàí õèéñýí áàéíà. Ýíý íü “õ¿í øèãõ¿í øèã” ñýòãýäýã ýõíèé ïðîãðàì áàéñàí ãýæ áîëíî.
  • 14. 04/26/13 14 Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1952-1969) Herbert Gelernter(1959)Herbert Gelernter(1959) “Ãåîìåòðèéí òåîðåì áàòëàãч GTP” ñèñòåì ãàðãàâ. Ýíý ïðîãðàì íü Logic Theorist-òýé èæëýýð óðüäчèëàí áýëäñýí àêñèîìóóäûã àøèãëàäàã áàéâ. Ãýâч òåîðåì áàòëàõ ÿâöàä õýòýðõèé îëîí øàëãàæ áîëîõ çàìóóä áàéãàà íü òîäîðõîé áîëñîí óчðààñ óã ïð íü áàòëàõ òåîðåìîî ÿìàð íýã òîõèîëäîëä íü øàëãàäàã ¿íýíèé õ¿ñíýãòèéã ¿¿ñãýõ áîëîìæòîéãîîð õèéãäæýý.
  • 15. 04/26/13 15 Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1952-1969) ArthurSamuel (1952)ArthurSamuel (1952) Äààì ãàðãàâ. Ýíý äààì íü ºðñºëäºãчººñºº ñóðàëöàõ чàäâàðòàé áºãººä òóí óäàëã¿é çîõèîãчîî òºâºãã¿é õîæäîã áîëæýý. 1956 îíä óã ïðîãðàìûã íèéòýä ÒV-ýýð ¿ç¿¿ëñýí.
  • 16. 04/26/13 16 Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1952-1969) John McCarthy (1958)John McCarthy (1958) Dartmouth-ñ MIT-í AI-í ëàáîðàòîðèä øèëæèí îчèæ òýíä LISP õýëèéã çîõèîñîí íü ýíý ñàëáàð äàõü òýðã¿¿ëýõ õýë áîëæ чàäæýý.
  • 17. 04/26/13 17 Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1952-1969) John McCarthy (1958)John McCarthy (1958) ̺í ýíý îíä òýðýýð “Programs with common sense” íýðòýé ºã¿¿ëýë õýâë¿¿ëñýí áºãººä ýíä “Çºâºë㺺 ºãºãч” ïðîãðàìûã òàéëáàðëàñàí áàéíà. ¯¿íèéã àíõíû á¿ðýí AI ñèñòåì ãýæ ¿çäýã. LT áîëîí GTP òýé èæëýýð ìýäëýã àøèãëàäàã áîëîâ÷ ÿëãààòàé íü åðòºíöèéí òóõàé åðºíõèé ìýäëýã àøèãëàäàã. Æèøýý íü óã ï𠺺ðèéí ýíãèéí àêñèîìóóäûã àøèãëàí îíãîö áóóäàëä õ¿ðýõ çàìûã òºëºâëºí ãàðãàæ áàéâ. ̺í øèíý àêñèîìóóäûã àâàõ чàäâàðòàé óчðààñ øèíý “Äàõèí ïðîãðàìчëàãäàõã¿é” ñàëáàðò íýð õ¿íäèéã îëæýý. Ýíý ºã¿¿ëýë 35 øàõàì æèëèéí òóðø íºëººòýé áàéñàí áàéíà!
  • 18. 04/26/13 18 Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1952-1969) John McCarthy (1963)John McCarthy (1963) Òýðýýð Stanford-ä AI ëàáîðàòîð áàéãóóëæýý. Ýíä ò¿¿íèé “Çºâºë㺺 ºãºãч” ïð íü J.A.Robinson-û øèíý íýýëò áîëîõ øèéäâýð ãàðãàãч àëãîðèòìààð (First Order Logic-ò çîðèóëñàí òåîðåì áàòëàãòåîðåì áàòëàãчч á¿ðýí àëãîðèòì 9.6) ñàéæðóóëàãäàâ. Ýíý àëãîðèòìûã áèä ñ¿¿ëä àâч ¿çíý.
  • 19. 04/26/13 19 Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1952-1969) Minsky (1963)Minsky (1963) Óõààí øààðäàãäàõ æèæèã àñóóäëóóäûã (Microworlds) øèéäâýðëýõýýð àæèëëàæ áóé õýñýã îþóòíóóäûã óäèðäàí àæèëëàâ. ¯ð ä¿íä íü:  Òîm Evans: Analogy ïð (1968). IQ òåñòýä òààðàëääàã ãåîìåòð ä¿ðñòýé àñóóäëóóäûã øèéäýæ áàéâ.  Äîîð æèøýý çóðãèéã õàðóóëàâ.
  • 20. 04/26/13 20 Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1952-1969) MicroWorlds…MicroWorlds… Ðîáîòûí ãàð íýã àãøèíä íýã áëîê ë áàðüäàã. Òýãâýë “óëààí äºðâºëæèí áëîêûã àâ!” Àëü ä¿ðñ òîõèðîõ âý?.
  • 21. 04/26/13 21 Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1952-1969) Minsky (1963)Minsky (1963) Bertram Raphael (1968) -èéí SIR (Semantic Information Retrieval) íü ìàø õÿçãààðëàãäìàë àíãëè õýë äýýð ºã¿¿ëáýð õ¿ëýýí àâч ìºí òýð õ¿ðýýí äîð õàðèóëæ áàéâ.
  • 22. 04/26/13 22 Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1952-1969) Minsky (1963)Minsky (1963) Daniel Bobrow (1967) –èéí Student ïðîãðàì íü ýíãèéí àëãåáðèéí ºã¿¿ëáýðòýé áîäëîãóóäûã áîäîæ áàéâ.
  • 23. 04/26/13 23 Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1966-1974) Äàðààõ àñóóäëóóä òóëãàðàâ: Ìýäëýã õýðýãëýõã¿é áàéäàë. Sputnik îðчóóëãûí òºñºë äàìïóóðàâ.  “The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak”  “The vodka is good but the meat is rotten” Òîîöîîëîõîä õ¿íä áàéäàë.  (exponential, microworld íü öººí îáüåêòòîé áîë …)
  • 24. 04/26/13 24 Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1966-1974) Äàðààõ àñóóäëóóä òóëãàðàâ: Ìýäëýã õýðýãëýõã¿é áàéäàë. Sputnik îð÷óóëãûí òºñºë äàìïóóðàâ.  “The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak”  “The vodka is good but the meat is rotten” Òîîöîîëîõîä õ¿íä áàéäàë.  (exponential, microworld íü öººí îáüåêòòîé áîë …)
  • 25. 04/26/13 25 Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1969-1979) Minsky & PapertMinsky & Papert Perceptrons (1969)Perceptrons (1969) ºã¿¿ëýë ãàðàâ. Ýíä õýäèéãýýð äîõèîëóóðóóä íü ººðñäèéí õèéæ чàäàõ ¿éë àæèëëàãààíä ñóðàëöàæ áîëîõ áîëîâч òýä ìàø ºч¿¿õýí ç¿éë ä¿ðñýëæ чàäíà ãýñýí ñàíàà áàéñàí. Õýäèéãýýð á¿õ íåðî ñ¿ëæýýíèé á¿õ ñàëáàðûã õàìàðч õýëýýã¿é ч ýíý ñàëáàð äàõü àæëóóä óäàëã¿é á¿ðýí çîãññîí áàéíà.
  • 26. 04/26/13 26 Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1969-1979) Buchanan, Feigenbaum(1969 Stanford)Buchanan, Feigenbaum(1969 Stanford) Äýýðõ òóðøëàãàäàà ¿íäýñëýí òýä öóñíû õàëäâàðûã øèíæèëäýã MYCINMYCIN ïðîãðàìûã á¿òýýæýý. Ýíý ïð íü 450 ä¿ðìýýñ òîãòîõ ñàíòàé áºãººä àæëûí ¿ð ä¿íãýýð “Junior doctor”-ñ áàãà çýðýã èë¿¿ áàéâ. DENDRAL-ñ äàâóó òàë íü ýìíýëãèéí ìýäëýãòýé õîëáîîòîé uncertaintyuncertainty áóþó òîäîðõîé áóñòîäîðõîé áóñ áàéäëûã òóñãàñàí áàéíà.
  • 27. 04/26/13 27 Õºãæëèéí ò¿¿õýýñ (1969-1979) Duda (1979)Duda (1979) Ìýäëýãèéí äîìýéí чóõàë áîëîõ íü ìºí íàòóðàë õýëíèé áîëîâñðóóëàëòûí ñàëáàðò òîäîðõîé áîëëîî. SHRDLU ïð íü äàæã¿é cýòãýãäýë òºð¿¿ëæ áàéñàí áîëîâч ñèíòàêñûí øèíæèëãýýíýýñ õàìààðч áóé áàéäàë íü ºìíº ãàðñàí ïð-óóäàä óчèðñàí àñóóäëûã ìºí ë ¿¿ñãýæ áàéâ. Îðчóóëãûí ñàéí ïð ãàðãàõûí òóëä åðòºíöèéí òóõàé åðºíõèé ìýäëýã áîëîí ò¿¿íèéã õýðýãëýõ åðºíõèé ôóíêö õýðýãòýé áîëîõ íü õàðàãäàâ.