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Blended Learning: Podcasts for Taxi Drivers


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Using podcasts to help learners improve their English speaking and listening skills

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Blended Learning: Podcasts for Taxi Drivers

  1. 1. Using podcasts to help learners improvetheir speaking and listening skills1. Context2. Issues3. Pedagogical consideration4. Rationale behind the courseware5. ReferencesEDUC70032/2010
  2. 2. 1. Context — Students• 15 Taxi drivers aged 26 to 52•• Traditional educational background••• High school graduates•••• Some basic English knowledge••••• Used to dealing with foreigners•••••• Very good rapport (family atmosphere)••••••• Immediate use for English•••••••• Highly motivated
  3. 3. 1. Context — Students needs “Tourists prefer taxi drivers who speak “They have more trust when English.” we speak English.” When you speak English and do small talk, you receive a higher tip.” “Tourists book you for tours when you speak English.” I had a foreign passenger last week and I could already speak a bit English with them.” “I did some small talk with a tourist and the tip was good.”
  4. 4. 1. Context — Course••• Duration •• Two months (with the possibility of a 4-week extension → tour guide)•• Twice a week, two hours••• Syllabus •• Functional language (e.g. providing information about the fare, recommendinghotels/restaurants/, offering assistance)•• Only brief explicit grammar explanations••• Course content ••Conversations throughout the stages of a taxi ride examplesprovided by teacher, further developed in class by students
  5. 5. 1. Context — Course••• Duration •• Two months (with the possibility of a 4-week extension → tour guide)•• Twice a week, two hours••• Syllabus •• Functional language (e.g. providing information about the fare, recommendinghotels/restaurants/, offering assistance)•• Only brief explicit grammar explanations••• Course content ••Conversations throughout the stages of a taxi ride examplesprovided by teacher, further developed in class by students
  6. 6. 1. Context — Facilities••• Location •• Classroom of taxi association••• Technology provision •• Large whiteboard•• Projector and screen••• Wireless Internet•••• Students have mobile phones and Internet at home
  7. 7. 2. Issues••• Students • Need to learn and improve listening and speaking skills in a short time They cannot attend face-to-face classes often. English pronunciation & intonation are challenges for Turkish speakers. ••• Technology • Designing sustainable courseware
  8. 8. 3. Pedagogical considerations••• Siutuative Perspective of learning •“A learner will always be subjectedto influences from the social and cultural “learning must besetting in which the learning occurs, personally meaningful” (ibid)which will also, at least partly, definethe learning outcomes.” (Mayes & De Freitas, 2007: 18) ••• Socio-psychological view •“every effort is made to make Learning communitythe learning activity authentic “a strong sense of identifyingto the social context in which with such groups, and a strong needthe skills or knowledge are to participate as a full member” (ibid: 19)normally embedded” (ibid)
  9. 9. 3. Pedagogical considerations••• Flexibility/Responsiveness • study material programme location 5 dimensions of flexibility (Collis & Moonen, 2002) types of interaction forms of communication→ realized through blended learning
  10. 10. 3. Pedagogical considerationsBlended learning → a hybrid model of e-learning: face-to-face + e-learning activities (Littlejohn and Pegler 2007)
  11. 11. 3. Pedagogical considerations→ Blended courses often mean more TIME investment. Short recordings, chunked material Reusable learning objectsEasy and flexibleaccess to material Taxi drivers need similar type of language RSS, tagging, search tool Easy to update, reorganize, reassemble or copy Easy familiarization with Limited number of tools, tasks, and layout easy-to-use tools(Garrison and Kanuka 2004; Littlejohn 2004, Edirisingha et al 2007, Gruba et al 2009)
  12. 12. 4. Courseware rationale — face-to-face introduce blog and podcast personal & learning strategy training* meets students expectationssynchronous create good rapportcommunication social interaction immediate feedback & help students work environment** pair, group, class work collaborative building of content* (* Edirisingha, Rizzi, Nie & Rothwell 2007) (**Mayes & De Freitas 2007)
  13. 13. 4. Courseware rational — online clear layoutpersonal search & find relevant podcasts interactiveasynchronouscommunication audio easy access transcript
  14. 14. 4. Courseware rationale - mobileA technology students already have “Communications tools dont get sociallyand feel comfortable using including interesting until they get technologicallyusing it to listen to audio (music). boring.” (Shirky 2009: 105)→ “normalized” (Bax, 2003) Portable Easy file transferStudents can listen to the short podcasts Students can easilyduring work making use of downtimes and record themselves &study in the environment where they have to exchange files foruse English. (Mayes & De Freitas 2007) peer feedback.
  15. 15. 4. Courseware rational — podcasts “A podcast (or non-streamed webcast) is a series of digital media files (either audio or video) that are released episodically and often downloaded through web syndication.” (wikipedia 2010, According to Rosell-Aguilar (2007), podcasting for learning languages can be supported by several learning theories such as constructivism, providing materials in the form of learning objects, mobile learning, learning in chunks, and just-in-time teaching.
  16. 16. 4. Courseware rational — podcaststime-shift learning activities (Abdous, Camarena, & Facer 2009; Sze2006) and practise when, where, what, and how long make good use of time (while waiting in linethey want (extend class time) (Rosell-Aguilar 2007) during work) (Kukulska-Hulme & Shield 2008) Flexibility Portability Autonomylisten again, stop and replay and have control automaticity only comes with repeatedof pace (not worrying about missing an practice (Alonso, López, Manrique, & José 2005: 221)important point (Edirisingha, Salmon, & Fothergrill 2007;Edirisingha, Rizzi, Nie, &Rothwell 2007) Podcasts can promote active, mobile learning (Gruba, Clark, Ng, & Wells 2009; Kukulska-Hulme & Shield 2008).
  17. 17. 4. Courseware rational — podcasts In studies students reported that podcasts helped them with oral, aural skills, vocabulary and grammar (Abdous et al 2009) improved listening and speaking skills (Gruba et al 2009, Rosell-Aguilar 2007, Sze 2006) Listening Speaking PronunciationWith transcript, students can listen andread along/read aloud to improve Connecting sound and written form, theyspeaking, pronunciation & intonation. can improve their spelling as well.(Hickey 1991, Man Sze 2006, Rosell-Aguilar 2007)
  18. 18. 4. Courseware rational — podcasts provide different kinds of input to cater for learning style differences (Rosell-Aguilar 2007) If they missed a lecture, students have a and help slow learners (Edirisingha et al 2007) chance to not only review but also reflect on what we have done in class (Edirisingha et al 2007). Learning Styles ReviewStudents believe that podcasts are moreeffective revision tools (Evans 2008). My students mentioned they prefer my podcasts and transcripts to reviewing from their notes. as a refresher and to review (Sze 2006)
  19. 19. 4. Courseware rational — podcastslow cost, low barrier (technology for New and attractive experience can raiserecording and listening already exists motivation (Edirisingha et al 2007, Sze 2006, Rosell-(Rosell-Aguilar 2007) Aguilar 2007). Cost Motivation Organization Can allow students to organize learning into manageable chunks (Chinnery 2006) by keeping recordings short and to one topic or theme only (Kukulska-Hulme and Shield 2008).
  20. 20. 5. ReferencesAlonso et al. 2005. An instructional model for web-based e-learning education with a blended learning process approach . British Journal of EducationalTechnology. Volume 36/2, pp. 217–235. 36/2,Abdous et al. 2009. MALL Technology: Use of Academic Podcasting in the Foreign Language Classroom . ReCALL. Volume 21, pp. 76 - 95.Bax, St. 2003. CALL—past, present and future. System. Volume 31, pp. 13 – 28. future.Chinnery, G. M. 2006. Emerging Technologies — Going to the MALL: Mobile Assisted Language Learning. Language Learning & Technology . Volume 10/1,pp. 9 – 16. Retrieved April 25, 2010, from, B- & Moonen, J. 2002. Flexible Learning in a Digital World. Open Learning: The Journal World.of Open and Distance Learning, 17: 3, 217 — 230.Edirisingha, P.; Salmon, G. & Fothergill, J. 2007. Profcasting — a pilot study and guidance for integrating podcasts in a blended learning environment. In: U.Bernath and A. Sangrà (Eds.) Research on competence development in online distance education and e-learning. pp. 127-137. Oldenburg: BIS-Verlag.Evans, Ch. 2008. The effectiveness of m-learning in the form of podcast revision lectures in higher education. Computers & Education. Volume 50, pp. 491 – 498.Edirisingha, P.; Rizzi, Ch.; Nie, M. & Rothwell, L. 2007. Podcasting to provide teaching and learning support for an undergraduate module in Englishlanguage and communication. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education. Volume 8/3, Article 6. communication.Garrison, D.R & Kanuka, H. 2004. Blended Learning: Uncovering its transformative potential in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education. Volume 7, Education.pp. 95 – 105.Hickey, T. 1991. Leisure reading in a second language: An experiment with audio-tapes in Irish . Language, Culture and Curriculum, Volume 4/2, pp. 119 —131.Kukulska-Hulme, A. 2008. An overview of mobile assisted language learning: From content delivery to supported collaboration and interaction . ReCALL.Volume 20/3, 271 - 289.Littlejohn, A. 2004. Reusing online resources: a sustainable approach to e-learning. Routledge.Littlejohn, A. & Pegler, C. 2007. What is blended e-learning. In: Preparing for blended e-learning. Routledge pp. 9 – 28.…
  21. 21. 5. References continuedMayes, T. & De Freitas, S. 2007. In: Rethinking Pedagogy for a digital age by Beetham & Sharpe , Routledge pp. 13-25.Rosell-Aguilar, F. 2007. Top of the Pods — In Search of a Podcasting “Podagogy” for Language Learning . Computer Assisted Language Learning. Routledge.Volume 20/5, pp. 471 - 492.Shirky, C. 2009. Here Comes Everybody: How Change Happens When People Come Together. Penguin.Sze, P. M. 2006. Developing Students Listening and Speaking Skills Through ELT Podcasts . Educational Journal. Hong Kong. Volume 34/2, pp. 115 - 134.ImagesDecroos, Sigurd. "Meeting". Online image. April 20, 2008. stock.xchng vi. Retrieved May 19, 2010. vi., Michal. "Mobile phone 3". Online image. Sep. 12, 2009. stock.xchng vi. Retrieved May 19, 2010. vi., Jan. "Earth 3D". Online image. March 4, 2009. stock.xchng vi. Retrieved May 19, 2010. vi.Milev, Svilen. "www". Online image. April 10, 2009. stock.xchng vi. Retrieved May 19, 2010. vi. “Podcast icon”. Online image. March 17, 2010. Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved May 26, 2010., About, “Filé Of Yellow Cab”. Online image. Aug. 18, 2009. flickr. Retrieved May 19, 2010. flickr.