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PREPARED BY: Margarita Unigovskaya
NOTION OF PERSONAL SELLING
• "Personal selling" singles out those situations in which a
real human being is trying to sell something to another
• "Impersonal selling" is carried out by advertising, sales
promotion and public relations
THE BUYING-SELLING SITUATION
•Not routine occurences
•The decision is difficult
for the buyer
•Many choices are
CHARACTERISTICS OF SALESMANSHIP
• Have deep product knowledge
• Have good communications skills
• Internalize the customer's point of view
• Have a good sense for all kinds of people
and a good sense of timing
LEVELS OF SALES
the sales clerk
ability to present
TYPES OF PERSONAL SALES
Inside: telephone sales, mainstream retail sales in stores where
product knowledge and presentation skills are required, auto sales
and similar equipment sales where customers visit the dealership;
may be combined with other functions such as scheduling and early
information gathering for an outside agent.
Outside: real estate sales; may be combined with estimating tasks
as in the case of bidding on construction work; product delivery;
sales engineer highly skilled industrial operations - provide
Both: financial, consulting, market research, engineering,
construction, and equipment categories.
Sales representatives/sales agents:
Advantage: no in-house costs, seasonality
Disadvantage: work for several different firms and do not devote all of
their time to one client
Replacement of personal selling in all
areas: because personal selling is
Packaging, promotion, lower-cost and
Example: distribution of computers
Standard packaged forms
Sales function is reduced to clerking
aimed to help customers find—not to
Servicing products (including their
installation) is being transferred
overseas to lower labor-cost markets;
the service is provided by telephone
USAGE OF PRIVATE
• Financial products, real estate, and major consumer durables (autos,
appliances, boats, furniture, carpeting); construction and
• Up-scale retail - high prices require attention to customer needs.
• In business-to-business or business-to-institution sales personal
selling remains the principal mode of selling capital goods, raw
materials, and parts, services.
The personal selling process has eight steps
STEP 1 - PROSPECTING
• Finding and identifying buyers who
are most likely to buy the product or
• Ways to qualify leads: cold calls by
telephone, email, through social
networking, or personal referrals.
The word "cold" refers to fact that
the person receiving the call is not
expecting it or has not specifically
asked to be contacted by a sales
STEP 2 – PRE-APPROACH
• Prepare for the presentation.
• It consists of customer research and goal planning.
STEP 3 – THE APPROACH
• Initial meeting between the salesperson
and the customer.
• Assessment step - the customer’s need
for the product is evaluated by the
• During this step, questions are asked to
identify the current situation, the
source and impact of any problems, the
benefits of the product as part of the
solution, and the buyer’s level of
STEP 4 – PRESENTATION &
• To grab the buyer’s attention, ignite
interest, create desire, and inspire action
(AIDA) by showing the product’s
advantages and benefits.
• At this point, customer objections
involving price, value, adequacy, the
commitment to buy, or other issues are
• Successful salespeople anticipate
objections and respond to them
respectfully before advancing to gaining
commitment, which involves closing the
deal or making the sale.
STEP 5 – CLOSING THE
Different types of methods to close deals: the alternative
close, the assumptive close, the summary close, or the
STEP 6 – FOLLOWING UP
The last and most crucial step - follow up to ensure
customer satisfaction and help establish a relationship.
OTHER TYPES OF SELLING
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