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Materials, Objects and
Technologies
13. New Challenges, New
Materials
What Do You Know About It?
 Why do you think these materials are

piece of news? Which features do they
have to be consid...
 Which other natural or synthetic materials

do they replace? Which improvements do
they show regarding the older ones?
...
Materials Science
 Materials

science is the name we give to
the field of science and engineering that
studies the relati...
 We may divide Prehistory in

Copper Age,
Bronze Age or Iron Age, according to the
metal or alloy they used then
 Presen...
 Materials Science is an interdisciplinary

science: one material is featured by its
physical and chemical properties but...
 Chemical properties: reactions that

transform material’s nature, oxidation,
acidity or alkalinity (reaction against pH)...
Structure:
Atomic, Micro and Macro Levels
 At an atomic scale we are interested in

which atoms or molecules constitute t...







Microstructure refers to whether it is formed by
fibers, tubes, sheets or microscopic pores
Macrostructure refe...
Metals and New Metallic Materials




According to their origin, materials can be
natural or artificial. According to th...




Properties: good heat and electricity conductors,
high density, solid at ordinary temperature (high
melting points),...
 NEW METALLIC MATERIALS: the most

interesting innovation in the world of metals
is the production of shape-memory alloys...
Surgical prosthesis made
of NITINOL, when
it is implanted it expands
due to human body’s
temperature
http://www.acceleratingfuture.com/michael/blog/2008/04/ten-futuristic-materials/
Ceramics and New Ceramic Materials
 Traditional ceramics

are made up of
silicates and have been used in
craftsmanship (c...
 Applications: space shuttle covering, engine

components, artificial bones and teeth,
electronics, powerful magnets, opt...
 Ceramics are prepared from powder,

natural or chemically synthesized, in
ovens at very high temperatures (15002400 °C)
...
 New ceramic materials

have very different

uses
 Smart ceramics are used in sensors and
actuators, like electrochromic...
Polymers
 Formed by very large molecules, of an

organic origin usually
 Some structural units, called monomers,
are rep...
 Some polymers with a

natural origin are
well known from ancient times: silk, rubber,
shellac
 The ones we usually use ...
 Specific properties

of a polymer depend
on the monomer and type of bond formed:
Van der Waals forces, hydrogen bonds
 ...
WATER ABSORTION POLYMER: BALLS BLOW UP
PLASTICS FLOATING AT “THE GREAT PACIFIC GARBAGE PATCH”
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uLrVCI4N67M
http://en.wikipedia.org/...
Biomaterials
 These materials are

compatible with living
tissues and organisms with which they
interact
 Many of them a...
Materials for a More Efficient
World: Carbon Fiber
 Very well known material because of its

extraordinary resistance and...







Each fiber is made up of thousands of carbon
filaments between 5 and 8 μm diameter
As it is a composed materia...
http://www.renovat.org/energia-medi-ambient/materials/la-fibra-de-carboni
EPOXY RESIN MADE
BY VACUUM INFUSION
BOEING 787 COCKPIT
BOEING 787 DREAMLINER INSIDE
Materials for a More Global World:
Optic Fiber and LED
 Without optic fiber nor light emitting

semiconductor diodes (LED...
Optic Fibers







They are made up of glass (ceramic material) or
plastic (polymer)
They are obtained making melt gl...
 Optic fibers conduct light

without almost
any fading and in curve trajectories
 The phenomenon of total reflection ins...
 As fibers can be made very thin, cables

with optic fiber transmit much more
information than traditional copper cables
...
CAMERA WITH OPTIC
FIBER FOR PRACTICING
ENDOSCOPIES
Laser Diodes and LED
 The use of optic fibers has been parallel to

the development of new less expensive
means to produc...
 They have the advantage of being

little,
energy-saving (use of 50 % less than
traditional sources), easy to replace,
ch...
SEVERAL DEVICES
WITH
LED AND LASER
DIODES
Nanotechnology
 The new materials we have seen until now

are obtained by modifying internal
composition, microstructure ...
 It is foreseen that nanotechnology will

have an impact in our lives similar to that
of electricity in its time or moder...
The Nano Scale






The name comes from the fact that the atomic
and molecular scale is about nanometers (1 nm
= 10-9 ...
New Instruments

 Nanotechnology is possible thanks to the

development of new instruments to explore
nature at the new s...
S.T.M. MICROSCOPE
WORKING SCHEME
PROCESS OF ATOM MANIPULATION
“QUANTUM CORRAL”
BUILD BY PLACING IRON ATOMS ONTO A COPPER SURFACE
New Instruments
 At present we also use the

AFM, atomic
force microscopes, that measure the force
between a scan flexibl...
HOW DOES AN
A.F.M. WORK?
Biomimetic Nanotechnology
 Nanotechnology intends to imitate life

and
is inspired in living structures, like DNA,
that a...
 Nanofuzziness of lotus leaves , when they

are wet, they form water drops that carry
dirtiness away from leaves. This ca...
 Sponge called “Venus’s basket” forms an

inner skeleton with silica needles and a
weft similar to a wicker basket. Spong...
Present and Future Applications
Carbon Nanotubes
 Carbon nanotubes are a type of

fullerenes,
tridimensional carbon molecules with
different shapes and p...
ALLOTROPES
OF CARBON

a) diamond; b) graphite; c) hexagonal diamond; d) fullerene C60; e) fullerene C540
f) fullerene C70;...
WOULD THE NEW MATERIALS BE ABLE
TO COME THESE DREAMS TRUE?
To Learn More
 MIJANGOS, Carmen; MOYA, José

Serafín (coord.) Nuevos materiales en la
sociedad del siglo XXI. Madrid: CSI...
Està disponible en línia a:
ftp://ftp.cordis.europa.eu/pub/nanotechnolog
y/docs/nano_brochure_es.pdf
The Nanotube Site:
h...
13 new challengesnewmaterials
13 new challengesnewmaterials
13 new challengesnewmaterials
13 new challengesnewmaterials
13 new challengesnewmaterials
13 new challengesnewmaterials
13 new challengesnewmaterials
13 new challengesnewmaterials
13 new challengesnewmaterials
13 new challengesnewmaterials
13 new challengesnewmaterials
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13 new challengesnewmaterials

  1. 1. Materials, Objects and Technologies 13. New Challenges, New Materials
  2. 2. What Do You Know About It?  Why do you think these materials are piece of news? Which features do they have to be considered as new materials?  Which is your opinion and your personal interest about these new materials?  Carbon fiber, optical fiber and carbon nanotubes are usually in nature or they have been synthesized artificially? How do you know it? Read your textbook
  3. 3.  Which other natural or synthetic materials do they replace? Which improvements do they show regarding the older ones?  Considering the definition of carbon nanotubes and the explanation about what scientists do with them, how would you define nanotechnology? Which impact may it have in other fields, besides biomedicine?  According to you, which problems could be originated by these and other new materials?
  4. 4. Materials Science  Materials science is the name we give to the field of science and engineering that studies the relations between materials structure and its properties and also its processing techniques and its behavior  Materials have been historically related with economic and social development
  5. 5.  We may divide Prehistory in Copper Age, Bronze Age or Iron Age, according to the metal or alloy they used then  Present-day society lives in Silicon Age, because of the significance of Electronics  The 20th century is considered Plastic Age  Materials that a society owns are a mirror of its lifestyle, its knowledge and scientific and technological abilities
  6. 6.  Materials Science is an interdisciplinary science: one material is featured by its physical and chemical properties but also by its biological compatibility  It is an applied science, because its aim is not only knowing materials, but also processing them and designing objects that be useful at an economic and environmental sustainable cost  Physical properties : density, thermal conductivity, electric resistivity, magnetic permeability, elasticity, hardness, fragility...
  7. 7.  Chemical properties: reactions that transform material’s nature, oxidation, acidity or alkalinity (reaction against pH), chemical stability in general  Biological compatibility is regarded whether material can be used in organisms or living tissues without provoking immunologic rejection or non desired toxic effects
  8. 8. Structure: Atomic, Micro and Macro Levels  At an atomic scale we are interested in which atoms or molecules constitute them  Which type of interactions do exist between them: metallic, ionic or covalent bonds, Van der Waals forces, hydrogen bonds  Which type of organization do they contain: crystalline (ordered) or amorphous (disordered)
  9. 9.     Microstructure refers to whether it is formed by fibers, tubes, sheets or microscopic pores Macrostructure refers to the aspect at our scale: visible parts of a material composed of many others We must know that one material’s behavior (“all”) does not equal the addition of its components (“parts”) Defects play an important role. Perfect crystals are impossible to obtain, but interesting properties stem from their defects: interstitial elements, empty positions and substitutions. Many materials are amorphous
  10. 10. Metals and New Metallic Materials   According to their origin, materials can be natural or artificial. According to their structure and properties there are three main groups: metals, ceramics and polymers. There are also composed materials from those groups Metals are electropositive, easily give or share electrons. They have a structure made up of crystal lattices formed by positive ions surrounded by free electrons that can be given to more electronegative elements and form ionic bonds or share between metals (metallic bonds)
  11. 11.   Properties: good heat and electricity conductors, high density, solid at ordinary temperature (high melting points), light reflecting (metallic brightness), they are hard, ductile and malleable. Some have magnetic properties (Fe, Co, Ni), others (Au, Pt, Ag, Cu, Al) have a very weak magnetism They form alloys with each other. An alloy is a solid mixture of different metals. Their original properties are modified: color, mechanical resistance, resistance to corrosion. The first one to be found in history was bronze: copper and tin, it improved hardness and resistance of copper and started the age of metallurgy
  12. 12.  NEW METALLIC MATERIALS: the most interesting innovation in the world of metals is the production of shape-memory alloys. After being deformed they have the capacity of remembering their earliest shape, because deformations are displacements of the original crystal lattice. The new lattice is not much symmetrical and becomes unstable. When you heat it up or set it free, the structure goes back to the earlier situation and metal recovers its original shape (Nitinol: nickel and titanium)
  13. 13. Surgical prosthesis made of NITINOL, when it is implanted it expands due to human body’s temperature
  14. 14. http://www.acceleratingfuture.com/michael/blog/2008/04/ten-futuristic-materials/
  15. 15. Ceramics and New Ceramic Materials  Traditional ceramics are made up of silicates and have been used in craftsmanship (clay, porcelain) and structural materials (bricks, glass, concrete)  Technical or advanced ceramics contain metallic and non-metallic elements making up oxides (Al, Zr), carbides, nitrates and borates
  16. 16.  Applications: space shuttle covering, engine components, artificial bones and teeth, electronics, powerful magnets, optic fibers, cutting tools, ovens and sensors  All ceramics have in common that they are refractory, inorganic and non-metallic materials  They are usually crystalline, excepting glasses that are amorphous, and have very strong ionic or covalent bonds
  17. 17.  Ceramics are prepared from powder, natural or chemically synthesized, in ovens at very high temperatures (15002400 °C)  They have a low thermal and electrical conductivity (some are semiconductors and other even superconductors at very low temperatures), they have a high hardness (like diamonds) but are also fragile (breakable) and not much plastic. They are resistant to corrosion
  18. 18.  New ceramic materials have very different uses  Smart ceramics are used in sensors and actuators, like electrochromic glasses, that change their color with heat, or piezoelectric or pyroelectric sensors, that detect changes in mechanical tension or temperature and convert them into electrical voltage  As a future challenge there are hyperfiltration ceramic membranes at a molecular scale and superhard ceramics to make coverings and improving their ductility
  19. 19. Polymers  Formed by very large molecules, of an organic origin usually  Some structural units, called monomers, are repeated. They are united by means of covalent bonds  Frequently polymers are related with plastics, but cellulose, DNA and proteins are also polymers
  20. 20.  Some polymers with a natural origin are well known from ancient times: silk, rubber, shellac  The ones we usually use today are mainly synthetic: tissues, packing, frames for toys and electric devices, cable and electric components insulation  Properties: mechanical resistance (capacity to bear tensions without breaking) and elasticity (capacity to deform without breaking)
  21. 21.  Specific properties of a polymer depend on the monomer and type of bond formed: Van der Waals forces, hydrogen bonds  By combining resistance and elasticity different kinds of polymers are obtained: rigid fibers, flexible plastics, elastomers  They have a low electric and thermal conductivity, because of containing covalent bonds where electrons are immobilized and due to the long size of monomers that makes vibration difficult
  22. 22. WATER ABSORTION POLYMER: BALLS BLOW UP
  23. 23. PLASTICS FLOATING AT “THE GREAT PACIFIC GARBAGE PATCH” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uLrVCI4N67M http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Pacific_Garbage_Patch
  24. 24. Biomaterials  These materials are compatible with living tissues and organisms with which they interact  Many of them are used in medical applications: metals like titanium or biocompatible ceramics for practicing bone implants with the minimum patient’s rejection and systems to supply medicines with a time regulation
  25. 25. Materials for a More Efficient World: Carbon Fiber  Very well known material because of its extraordinary resistance and lightness, what allows to reduce fuel use in transport  The high manufacturing costs have made it to have an elitist use until now  It is about a composed material, manufactured from a polymer matrix (epoxy resin) reinforced with carbon fibers
  26. 26.      Each fiber is made up of thousands of carbon filaments between 5 and 8 μm diameter As it is a composed material it combines features from the matrix (sticky, hard and elastic resin) with those of fibers (very resistant) to form a “tissue” with a high resistance, lightness and elasticity It’s the very best material for frames that can be designed to measure It is good for thermal insulation and has fireretardant properties The only inconvenient is a high manufacture cost
  27. 27. http://www.renovat.org/energia-medi-ambient/materials/la-fibra-de-carboni
  28. 28. EPOXY RESIN MADE BY VACUUM INFUSION
  29. 29. BOEING 787 COCKPIT
  30. 30. BOEING 787 DREAMLINER INSIDE
  31. 31. Materials for a More Global World: Optic Fiber and LED  Without optic fiber nor light emitting semiconductor diodes (LED), the Internet would not have been possible  Long distances, where information has a long way to run, demand materials where signals do not fade too much  Optic fiber is needed to transmit great volumes of information (broadband)
  32. 32. Optic Fibers     They are made up of glass (ceramic material) or plastic (polymer) They are obtained making melt glass flow at a very high temperature through a mesh with very thin holes and form filaments that, once they are solidified, they keep enough elasticity to be used as fibers They have the same properties we know from glass: good electric and thermal insulation, high temperatures support and transparency They have both a low cost and row material abundance
  33. 33.  Optic fibers conduct light without almost any fading and in curve trajectories  The phenomenon of total reflection inside the fiber is applied
  34. 34.  As fibers can be made very thin, cables with optic fiber transmit much more information than traditional copper cables  They are, besides, light, flexible, cheap and do not go rusty  Optic fiber is not only used to transmit digital information, its simplest application is transmitting light into places difficult to accede, say, inside the human body: endoscopies, laser surgery…  They are also used as sensors of all kinds
  35. 35. CAMERA WITH OPTIC FIBER FOR PRACTICING ENDOSCOPIES
  36. 36. Laser Diodes and LED  The use of optic fibers has been parallel to the development of new less expensive means to produce light, say, laser diodes (on pointers) and LED (light-emitting diode)  It is about semiconductor ceramic devices (with insulating and conducting properties) that emit light when they are connected to an electric current in one specific direction but they do not let the current pass if they are connected in the contrary direction
  37. 37.  They have the advantage of being little, energy-saving (use of 50 % less than traditional sources), easy to replace, cheap and lasting  We are now having LED of different colors and also of white light that will help to save energy when they replace present-day devices
  38. 38. SEVERAL DEVICES WITH LED AND LASER DIODES
  39. 39. Nanotechnology  The new materials we have seen until now are obtained by modifying internal composition, microstructure or macrostructure, but always to a macroscopic scale  A great revolution has begun with the possibility of making a scale change  It consists in treating materials to a scale between atomic and molecular  Nanotechnology is part of materials science at this new scale
  40. 40.  It is foreseen that nanotechnology will have an impact in our lives similar to that of electricity in its time or modern transport systems  We should think what could mean to medicine news like the ones we read at the beginning of this unit regarding the technique to attack malignant tumors or to cure diabetes 1, now in a phase of testing  There is a long way to run full of advantages, but there could also be some risks
  41. 41. The Nano Scale    The name comes from the fact that the atomic and molecular scale is about nanometers (1 nm = 10-9 m) It is very difficult to manage objects there, because physical and chemical laws change: gravity is too weak and other interactions, like the Van der Waals forces, become essential Besides, the quantum effects cannot be despised: matter behaves in a dual way, both as a wave and as a particle, there is quantization of energy and uncertainty: we are not able to calculate once at a time one particle’s momentum and its position
  42. 42. New Instruments  Nanotechnology is possible thanks to the development of new instruments to explore nature at the new scale  The first one was the STM, scanning tunneling microscope, in which a tungsten point containing ONLY ONE ATOM in its head makes a scan and measures the electric nanocurrents generated between the point and the sample. Atoms cannot be “seen”, instead we can infer their position while scanning the sample (photo page 174 on your textbook)
  43. 43. S.T.M. MICROSCOPE WORKING SCHEME PROCESS OF ATOM MANIPULATION
  44. 44. “QUANTUM CORRAL” BUILD BY PLACING IRON ATOMS ONTO A COPPER SURFACE
  45. 45. New Instruments  At present we also use the AFM, atomic force microscopes, that measure the force between a scan flexible microlever and the sample and can be used with nonconductor samples
  46. 46. HOW DOES AN A.F.M. WORK?
  47. 47. Biomimetic Nanotechnology  Nanotechnology intends to imitate life and is inspired in living structures, like DNA, that are actually nanomolecules and so does all the intracellular working structure , containing many other “nanomachines”, sets of molecules that do a lot of functions
  48. 48.  Nanofuzziness of lotus leaves , when they are wet, they form water drops that carry dirtiness away from leaves. This can be applied to out-door paintings and sanitary ceramic, where water slips and keeps them clean  Salamanders have very slender hairs that are placed at nanometric distances from the surfaces and pull through Van der Waals forces. Synthetic hairs can interest the world of adhesives
  49. 49.  Sponge called “Venus’s basket” forms an inner skeleton with silica needles and a weft similar to a wicker basket. Sponge cells join together in extra-thin layers with nanometric silicon oxide blocks and then they wind up and form the needles . The result is a material with a big resistance and high packaging which is considered as a biological model for a future optic fiber design http://mentescuriosas.es/8-ejemplos-de-inventos-inspirados-en-la-naturaleza/
  50. 50. Present and Future Applications
  51. 51. Carbon Nanotubes  Carbon nanotubes are a type of fullerenes, tridimensional carbon molecules with different shapes and properties. The ones with a cylinder shape are called nanotubes  Nanotubes have an extraordinary mechanical resistance, although they are very light, and electrically they are from semiconductors to superconductors and they have a high heat conductivity
  52. 52. ALLOTROPES OF CARBON a) diamond; b) graphite; c) hexagonal diamond; d) fullerene C60; e) fullerene C540 f) fullerene C70; g) amorphous carbon; h) carbon nanotube
  53. 53. WOULD THE NEW MATERIALS BE ABLE TO COME THESE DREAMS TRUE?
  54. 54. To Learn More  MIJANGOS, Carmen; MOYA, José Serafín (coord.) Nuevos materiales en la sociedad del siglo XXI. Madrid: CSIC, 2077 Disponible en línia a: www.csic.es/documentos/colecciones/divulg acion/materiales.pdf  SCHULENGURG, Mathias. La nanotecnología. Innovaciones para el mundo del mañana. Luxemburg: Comissió Europea, 2004
  55. 55. Està disponible en línia a: ftp://ftp.cordis.europa.eu/pub/nanotechnolog y/docs/nano_brochure_es.pdf The Nanotube Site: http://nanotube.msu.edu/ CRICHTON, Michael. Presa. Barcelona: Círculo de Lectores, 2004 (Ciència ficció) Crítica a:http://www.nanotechnow.com/Chris-Phoenix/prey-critique.htm STEPHENSON, Neal. La era del diamante. Barcelona: Ediciones B, 2004

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