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Marine Incinerator

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Shipboard Incinerators and Marpol Annex VI Regulation 16

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Marine Incinerator

  1. 1. SHIPBOARD INCINERATOR Annex VI - Regulation 16 - Shipboard incineration
  2. 2. What is an incinerator : The incinerator is a machinery in which we burn all types of waste generated on the ship like, the waste oil from OWS, oily rags, sometimes galley waste, and of cource in special incinerator plastic waste too. If you are burning the plastic or glass in the incinerator, we have a special incinerator for them.
  3. 3. Typical incinerator features include: Heavy-duty all welded construction with high strength, durable castable high temperature refractory lining Fully automatic electrical controls with simple and reliable operation Single batch or continuous waste loading May be in Vertical and horizontal design, plus modular construction for easy installation Full swing combustion chamber door for total access. Liquid waste dam and auto loading systems Class and USCG approval for shipboard use according to MARPOL Annex VI & MEPC.76(40)
  4. 4. In normal operation , the incinerator start up procedure involves firing the incinerator on MDO, ensuring that a vacuum is ”pulled” on the exterior skin, loading waste, and monitoring combustion. When combustion is well established sludge burning may be attempted. Sludge is prepared by heating circulating and draining of any excess water. Sludge is introduced and is burnt with fuel for a period of time until combustion is well established. Fuel is then shut off, and sludge is burnt alone Excess water in the sludge may cause combustion temperature to fall, in which case fuel burning recommences.
  5. 5. WHAT CAN BE INCINERATED? According to the IMO regulations the following solid and liquid waste can be burned in an IMO certified shipboard incinerator: •Plastic, cardboard, wood •Rubber, cloth, oily rags, lub oil filters •Diesel engine scavenge scraping •Paint scraping •Food waste, etc. •Sludge oil, waste lubrication oil •Hospital waste, female hygienic binds •Destruction of contaminated water
  6. 6. Material, which contains more than traces of heavy metal and of refined petroleum products containing halogen compounds, is prohibited to be incinerated. Light bulbs contain heavy metal and thus, are prohibited to incinerate. •Under shipboard operational waste the following materials have a density placing them in the category of heavy metal: •Mercury •Lead •Nickel •Vanadium •Zinc
  7. 7. MEPC.244(66) Adopted on 4 April 2014 2014 STANDARD SPECIFICATION FOR SHIPBOARD INCINERATORS
  8. 8. DEFINITIONS • The 2014 Standard specification for shipboard incinerators (the Specification) covers the design, manufacture, performance, operation and testing of incinerators intended to incinerate garbage and other shipboard wastes generated during the ship's normal service. • This Specification applies to those incinerator plants with capacities up to 4,000 kW per unit.
  9. 9. • Ship means a vessel of any type whatsoever operating in the marine environment and includes hydrofoil boats, air-cushioned vehicles, submersibles, floating craft and fixed or floating platforms. • Shipboard incinerator or incinerator means a shipboard facility designed for the primary purpose of incineration. • Garbage means all kinds of food wastes, domestic wastes and operational wastes, all plastics, cargo residues, incinerator ashes, cooking oil, fishing gear, and animal carcasses generated during the normal operation of the ship and liable to be disposed of continuously or periodically except those substances which are defined or listed in Annexes to MARPOL.
  10. 10. • Waste means useless, unneeded matter which is to be discarded. • Food wastes means any spoiled or unspoiled food substances and includes fruits, vegetables, dairy products, poultry, meat products and food scraps generated aboard ship. • Plastic means all garbage that consists of or includes plastic in any form, including synthetic ropes, synthetic fishing nets, plastic garbage bags and incinerator ashes from plastic products.
  11. 11. • Domestic wastes means all types of wastes not covered by Annexes to MARPOL that are generated in the accommodation spaces on board the ship. Domestic wastes does not include grey water. • Operational wastes means all solid wastes (including slurries) not covered by Annexes to MARPOL that are collected on board during normal maintenance or operations of a ship, or used for cargo stowage and handling. Operational wastes does not include grey water, bilge water or other similar discharges essential to the operation of a ship, taking into account the guidelines developed by the Organization. • Oil residue (sludge) means the residual waste oil products generated during the normal operation of a ship such as those resulting from the purification of fuel or lubricating oil for main or auxiliary machinery, separated waste oil from oil filtering equipment.
  12. 12. • Oily rags means rags which have been saturated with oil as controlled in Annex I to MARPOL. • Cargo residues means the remnants of any cargo which are not covered by Annexes to MARPOL and which remain on the deck or in holds following loading or unloading, including loading and unloading excess or spillage, whether in wet or dry condition or entrained in wash water • Fishing gear means any physical device or part thereof or combination of items that may be placed on or in the water or on the sea-bed with the intended purpose of capturing or controlling for subsequent capture or harvesting, marine or fresh water organisms.
  13. 13. MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURE • The materials used in the individual parts of the incinerator are to be suitable for the intended application with respect to heat resistance, mechanical properties, oxidation, corrosion, etc. as in other auxiliary marine equipment. • Piping for fuel and oil residue (sludge) should be seamless steel of adequate strength and to the satisfaction of the Administration. • All rotating or moving mechanical and exposed electrical parts should be protected against accidental contact. • Incinerator walls are to be protected with insulated fire bricks/refractory and a cooling system. Outside surface temperature of the incinerator casing being touched during normal operations should not exceed 20°C above ambient temperature.
  14. 14. • Refractory should be resistant to thermal shocks and resistant to normal ship's vibration. The refractory design temperature should be equal to the combustion chamber design temperature plus 20% . • Incinerating systems should be designed such that corrosion will be minimized on the inside of the systems. • In systems equipped for incinerating liquid wastes, safe ignition and maintenance of combustion should be ensured. • The combustion chamber(s) should be designed for easy maintenance of all internal parts including the refractory and insulation. • The combustion process should take place under negative pressure which means that the pressure in the furnace under all circumstances should be lower than the ambient pressure in the room where the incinerator is installed. A flue gas fan may be fitted to secure negative pressure.
  15. 15. • The incinerating furnace may be charged with solid waste either by hand or automatically. In every case, fire dangers should be avoided and charging should be possible without danger to the operating personnel.  For instance, where charging is carried out by hand, a charging lock may be provided which ensures that the charging space is isolated from the fire box as long as the filling hatch is open.  Where charging is not effected through a charging lock, an interlock should be installed to prevent the charging door from opening while the incinerator is in operation with burning of garbage in progress or while the furnace temperature is above 220°C.
  16. 16. • Incinerators equipped with a feeding sluice or system should ensure that the material charged will move to the combustion chamber. Such system should be designed such that both operator and environment are protected from hazardous exposure. • Interlocks should be installed to prevent ash removal doors from opening while burning is in progress or while the furnace temperature is above 220°C. • The incinerator should be provided with a safe observation port of the combustion chamber in order to provide visual control of the burning process and waste accumulation in the combustion chamber. Neither heat, flame, nor particles should be able to pass through the observation port.
  17. 17. Electrical requirements • Electrical installation requirements should apply to all electrical equipment, including controls, safety devices, cables, and burners and incinerators. • A disconnecting means capable of being locked in the open position should be installed at an accessible location at the incinerator so that the incinerator can be disconnected from all sources of potential. This disconnecting means should be an integral part of the incinerator or adjacent to it. • All uninsulated live metal parts should be guarded to avoid accidental contact.
  18. 18. • The electrical equipment should be so arranged so that failure of this equipment will cause the fuel supply to be shut off. • All electrical contacts of every safety device installed in the control circuit should be electrically connected in series.
  19. 19. OPERATING REQUIREMENTS The incinerator system should be designed and constructed for operation with the following conditions: • Max. combustion chamber flue gas outlet temperature 1,200°C • Min. combustion chamber flue gas outlet temperature 850°C • Preheat temperature of combustion chamber 650°C
  20. 20. For batch loaded incinerators, there are no preheating requirements. However, the incinerator should be designed that the temperature in the actual combustion space should reach 600°C within 5 minutes after start. • Prepurge, before ignition: at least 4 air changes in the chamber(s) and stack, but not less than 15 s. • Time between restarts: at least 4 air changes in the chamber(s) and stack, but not less than 15 s. • Postpurge, after shut-off fuel oil: not less than 15 s after the closing of the fuel oil valve. Incinerator discharge gases: Minimum 6% O2 (measured in dry flue gas).
  21. 21. • Outside surface of combustion chamber(s) should be shielded from contact such that people in normal work situations will not be exposed to extreme heat (20°C above ambient temperature) or direct contact of surface temperatures exceeding 60°C. • Incinerating systems are to be operated with underpressure (negative pressure) in the combustion chamber such that no gases or smoke can leak out to the surrounding areas. • The incinerator should have warning plates attached in a prominent location on the unit, warning against unauthorized opening of doors to combustion chamber(s) during operation and against overloading the incinerator with garbage.
  22. 22. • The incinerator should have instruction plate(s) attached in a prominent location on the unit that clearly addresses the following: 1. Cleaning ashes and slag from the combustion chamber(s) and cleaning of combustion air openings before starting the incinerator . 2. Operating procedures and instructions. These should include proper start-up procedures, normal shut-down procedures, emergency shut-down procedures, and procedures for loading garbage . • To avoid building up of dioxins, the flue gas should be shock- cooled to a maximum 350°C within 2.5 m from the combustion chamber flue gas outlet.
  23. 23. OPERATING CONTROLS • The entire unit should be capable of being disconnected from all sources of electricity by means of one disconnect switch located near the incinerator . • There should be an emergency stop switch located outside the compartment which stops all power to the equipment. The emergency stop switch should also be able to stop all power to the fuel pumps. • If the incinerator is equipped with a flue gas fan, the fan should be capable of being restarted independently of the other equipment on the incinerator.
  24. 24. The control equipment should be so designed that any failure of the following equipment will prevent continued operations and cause the fuel supply to be cut off. • Safety thermostat/draft failure A flue gas temperature and combustion controller, with a sensor placed in the flue gas duct/combustion chamber should be provided that will shut down the burner if the flue gas temperature exceeds the temperature set by the manufacturer for the specific design. A negative pressure switch should be provided to monitor the draft and the negative pressure in the combustion chamber.
  25. 25. • Flame failure/fuel oil pressure The incinerator should have a flame safeguard control consisting of a flame sensing element and associated equipment for shut down of the unit in the event of ignition failure and flame failure during the firing cycle. The flame safeguard control should be capable of closing the fuel valves in not more than 4 s after a flame failure. • Loss of power If there is a loss of power to the incinerator control/alarm panel (not remote alarm panel), the system should shut down
  26. 26. • Fuel supply Two fuel control solenoid valves should be provided in series in the fuel supply line to each burner. On multiple burner units, a valve on the main fuel supply line and a valve at each burner will satisfy this requirement. The valves should be connected electrically in parallel so that both operate simultaneously. • Alarms An outlet for an audible alarm should be provided for connection to a local alarm system or a central alarm system. When a failure occurs, a visible indicator should show what caused the failure. The visible indicators should be designed so that, where failure is a safety related shutdown, manual reset is required.
  27. 27. OTHER REQUIREMENTS • Documentation A complete instruction and maintenance manual with drawings, electric diagrams, spare parts list, etc. should be furnished with each incinerator. • Installation All devices and components should, as fitted in the ship, be designed to operate when the ship is upright and when inclined at any angle of list up to and including 15° either way under static conditions and 22.5° under dynamic conditions (rolling) either way and simultaneously inclined dynamically (pitching) 7.5° by bow or stern.
  28. 28. MARKING Each incinerator should be permanently marked, indicating: 1. manufacturer's name or trademark 2. style, type, model or other manufacturer's designation for the incinerator. 3. capacity – to be indicated by net designed heat release of the incinerator in heat units per timed period; for example, British Thermal Units per hour, megajoules per hour, kilocalories per hour
  29. 29. Fuel/waste specification for type approval test (% by weight) • Oil residue (sludge) consisting of:  75% oil residue (sludge) from heavy fuel oil  5% waste lubricating oil  20% emulsified water • Solid waste (class 2) consisting of:  50% Food Waste  50% rubbish Containing Approx. 30% paper, 40% cardboard, 10% rags, 20% plastic The mixture will have up to 50% moisture and 7% incombustible solids.
  30. 30. Required emission standards to be verified by type approval test • O2 in combustion chamber 6 – 12% • CO in flue gas maximum average 200 mg/MJ • Soot number maximum average BACHARACH scale or RINGELMAN scale (A higher soot number is acceptable only during very short periods such as starting up.) • Unburned components in ash residues Max 10% by Weight • Combustion chamber flue gas outlet temp. range 850 – 1200 °C
  31. 31. Even with good incineration technology the emission from an incinerator will depend on the type of material being incinerated. If a fuel with high sulphur content, then oil residue (sludge) from separators which is burned in the incinerator will lead to emission of SOX. But again, the SOX emission from the incinerator would only amount to less than one per cent of the SOX discharged with the exhaust from main and auxiliary engines.
  32. 32. Onboard operation/emission control For a shipboard incinerator with IMO type approval, emission control/monitoring should be limited to the following: 1. control/monitor O2 content in combustion chamber (spot checks only; an O2 content analyser is not required to be kept on board). 2. control/monitor temperature in combustion chamber flue gas outlet. By continuous (auto) control of the incineration process, ensure that the abovementioned two parameters are kept within the prescribed limits.
  33. 33. FIRE PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR INCINERATORS AND WASTE STOWAGE SPACES A fixed fire detection and fire-extinguishing system should be installed in enclosed spaces containing incinerators, in combined incinerator/waste storage spaces, and in any waste storage space in accordance with the following table:
  34. 34. INCINERATORS INTEGRATED WITH HEAT RECOVERY UNITS 1. The flue gas system, for incinerators where the flue gas is led through a heat recovery device, should be designed so that the incinerator can continue operation with the economizer coils dry. 2. The incinerator unit should be equipped with a visual and an audible alarm in case of loss of feed-water. 3. The gas-side of the heat recovery device should have equipment for proper cleaning. Sufficient access should be provided for adequate inspection of external heating surfaces.
  35. 35. Annex VI- Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships Chapter 3 - Requirements for control of emissions from ships Regulation 16 - Shipboard incineration Shipboard incineration shall be allowed only in a shipboard incinerator. Each incinerator installed on board a ship on or after 1 January 2000 shall meet the requirements contained in appendix IV to this Annex. (Appendix IV - Type approval and operating limits for shipboard incinerators ) Each incinerator shall be approved by the Administration taking into account the standard specifications for shipboard incinerators developed by the Organization.
  36. 36. Shipboard incineration of the following substances shall be prohibited: (a) Annex I, II and III cargo residues of the present Convention and related contaminated packing materials; (b) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); (c) garbage, as defined in Annex V of the present Convention, containing more than traces of heavy metals; and (d) refined petroleum products containing halogen compounds.
  37. 37. Shipboard incineration of sewage sludge and sludge oil generated during the normal operation of a ship may also take place in the main or auxiliary power plant or boilers, but in those cases, shall not take place inside ports, harbours and estuaries. Shipboard incineration of polyvinyl chlorides (PVCs) shall be prohibited, except in shipboard incinerators for which IMO Type Approval Certificates have been issued. Personnel responsible for operation of any incinerator shall be trained and capable of implementing the guidance provided in the manufacturer's operating manual.
  38. 38. Monitoring of combustion flue gas outlet temperature shall be required at all times and waste shall not be fed into a continuous- feed shipboard incinerator when the temperature is below the minimum allowed temperature of 850 degrees Centigrade. For batch-loaded shipboard incinerators, the unit shall be designed so that the temperature in the combustion chamber shall reach 600 degrees Centigrade within five minutes after start-up.
  39. 39. Is there any special area where incinerator can not operate? Is there any regulation regarding burning of residue generated from HSFO in shipboard incinerator in SECA ? The only area where incinerator cannot operate is ports, harbours, and estuaries. An estuary is the wide part of the river that nears the sea. The incinerator can be operated in SECA also but only outside the port limits.
  40. 40. There is no regulation that prohibits the ship to burn residues generated from HSFO in SECA. As per MARPOL Annex VI, Regulation 16, the incineration is prohibited for; • residues of cargoes subject to Annex I, II or III or related contaminated packing materials; • polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); • garbage, as defined by Annex V, containing more than traces of heavy metals; • refined petroleum products containing halogen compounds; • sewage sludge and sludge oil either of which is not generated on board the ship; and • exhaust gas cleaning system residues.
  41. 41. Types of incinerator
  42. 42. Vertical cyclone type and horizontal burner type are two most commonly used incinerator on the ship. Horizontal burner type The set up is similar to a horizontal fired boiler with burner arrangement horizontal to the incinerator combustion chamber axis. The ash and noncombustible material remaining at the end of the operation has to be cleared out manually. Vertical Cyclone type In this type, the burner is mounted on the top and the waste to be incinerated in introduced into the combustion chamber from the top. A rotating arm device is provided to improve combustion and remove ash and non-combustibles from the surface.
  43. 43. Evac cyclone incinerator The incinerator fulfills the emissions requirements set out in Annex VI of the IMO guidelines
  44. 44. The incinerator is modular, consisting of two separate chambers: • the moving grate chamber • the cyclone chamber. The moving grates are in the primary chamber, forcing the waste to flow downwards so that it doesn’t accumulate in any one location. This increases the surface area of the waste, resulting in a higher burning rate. A secondary cyclone chamber ensures high flying ash separation and the burning of flue gases. Gas can be cooled using the boiler (energy recovery) or through air cooling. Airflow in the incinerator is actively controlled using advanced measurements, resulting in a smaller flue gas pipeline and blower. Evac cyclone incinerator
  45. 45. The important parts of the incinerator are: • Combustion chamber with diesel oil burner, sludge burner, pilot fuel heater and electric control panel • Flue gas fan which may be fitted with flue gas damper or frequency inverter • Sludge service tank with circulating pump and heater • Sludge settling tank with filling pump and heater (Optional) • Water injection (Optional) • Rotating arm to remove ash and non-combustibles (for vertical cyclone type)
  46. 46. 1. Charging Door 2. Combustion Chamber 3. Afterburning Chamber 4. Second After burning Chamber 5. Oil Burner with Built In Pump 6. Ash Cleaning Door 7. Air blower 8. Induced Draught Air Ejector 9. Damper 10. W.O burner 11. Double Wall for Air Cooling 12. Air Inlet nozzle 13. W.O supply tank 14. Mill pump15. Compressed Air 16. W.O Dosing Pump 17. Heating Element 18. Diesel Oil tank 19. Sluice CONNECTIONS a. W.O Oil Inlet b. Steam Inlet c. Steam Outlet d. W.O Oil Ventilation Outlet e. Diesel Oil Inlet f. Diesel Oil Ventilation Outlet g. Compressed Air Inlet h. Electric Power Supply i. Flue gas outlet j. Drain W.O tank k. Drain Diesel oil tank COMPONENTS OF AN INCINERATOR:
  47. 47. PREPARATION FOR START-UP OF THE INCINERATOR Before start-up of the incinerator, the following is to be carried out : 1. Open all inlet and outlet valves for diesel oil. 2. Open all inlet and outlet valves for waste oil and air. 3. Make sure that there are no hindrances for air admission to primary blower as well as flue gas outlet.
  48. 48. START-UP OF THE INCINERATOR OP PROGRAM 'SOLID WASTE’ 1. Activate the main switch on the control panel. 2. Reset the alarm lamps on the push button 'reset alarm’ 3. Make sure that all the lamps are alight by pressing the button 'lamp test’ 4. For starting of the incinerator, activate the switch for 'incinerator- start’ 5. The incinerator will now start automatically by activating the secondary burner in the secondary combustion chamber. 6. The secondary combustion chamber will have a temperature of 650℃, and the primary burner in the primary combustion chamber will be activated. The incinerator the operate within set temperatures. 7. If the flame in the incinerator goes out, the incinerator is to be reset by means of "reset flame failure primary and secondary burner" 8. If add solid waste to the primary combustion chamber using the sluice by activating the pushbutton on the incinerator wall.
  49. 49. START-UP OF THE INCINERATOR ON PROGRAM 'W. O' 1. Make sure that switch is turned to 'W.O on’ 2. Before start-up of the incinerator, follow the instructions manuals. 3. When the temperature of the secondary combustion chamber is 650℃ the primary D.O burner in the primary combustion chamber will be activated. After a preheating period of 25 seconds the W.O burner starts automatically and operates within the set points. 4.When the 'delay burner' is switched to automatic 'AUT', the primary D.O burner operates for 25 seconds to ignite the W.O burner automatically. 5. When the 'delay burner' is switched to manual 'MAN' the primary D.O burner operates all the time together with the W.O burner.
  50. 50. ADDING OF SOLID WASTE Before adding a new charge of solid waste, control whether the incinerator is ready to receive more waste or not, by looking through the sight glass. STOPING OF INCINERATOR 1. Activate the switch 'incinerator stop’ 2. When the temperature in the incinerator drops to below 100℃, the incinerator stops automatically. 3. When the incinerator has stopped, switch off the main switch on control panel after the blower has been off for 30 minutes.
  51. 51. Things to remember • Keep the incinerator chamber inlet outlet and burner parts clean. A daily inspection must be carried out before the start in the morning • Do not throttle the air/steam needle valve more than 3⁄4 turn closed. If the pressure increases above the defined limit, clean the sludge burner nozzle • Do not turn off the main power before the chamber temperature is down below 170°C. Keep the fan running to cool down the chamber • If experiencing any problem with high temperature in the combustion chamber, flue gas or control of sludge dosing, replace the dosing pump stator
  52. 52. • Do not transfer sludge to the service tank during sludge burning in a single tank system as it can damage the refractory • It is always recommended to heat the sludge overnight, without starting the circulating pump. Drain off the free water and start the sludge program before performing the incinerator operation • Never load glass, lithium batteries or large quantities of spray cans in the incinerator. Avoid loading large amounts of oily rags or filter cartridges as all these may damage the flue gas fan • Inspect the cooling jacket every six months (open the cover plates) and clean as required with steam or hot water • Read the instruction manual, and never change any settings unless instructed by the makers
  53. 53. NOTE • Do not incinerate metals as soda and food can plate, flatware, serving spoons/tray, hardware (nuts & bolts), structural pieces, wire rope, chains, etc., glass such as bottles, jars, drinking glasses, etc. • Flammable materials such as bottles or cans containing flammable liquids or gasses and aerosol cans must not be incinerated. Loading of glass will result in a rock hard slag, which is hard to remove from the refractory lining. • In the case of a blackout, when the combustion chamber temperature is above 220°C, it is important to start the flue gas fan as soon as possible in order not to damage the incinerator by accumulated heat in the refractory lining • Wrong operation or under maintenance of incinerator may reduce the overall efficiency of the equipment and can also lead to serious accidents.
  54. 54. Common Problems of Ship’s Incinerator 1. Flame Failure Alarm One of the first things that needs to be done when receiving flame failure alarm is to check the flame sensor. More than often flame sensors get dirty resulting in flame failure alarm. Some other reasons for flame failure alarm are: • Dirty Burner • Ignition failure • Blocked diesel oil nozzle • Defective flame sensor • Defective solenoid valve • Incorrect opening of air damper • Clogged fuel line filter
  55. 55. 2. High Flue Gas Temperature Alarm There can be several reasons for high flue gas temperature alarms and the most common one is faulty or defective temperature sensor. Some of the other reasons for this alarm are: • Blocked air cooling inlet • Faulty inverter and transmitter • Leaking or defective solenoid valve • Leaking dosing pump stator • Defective pressure control • Clogged cooling panel slot • Throttling brick fallen out
  56. 56. 3. High Combustion Chamber Temperature Alarm Main reasons for high combustion chamber temperature alarm are: • Faulty alarm sensor • Solid waste inside the incinerator is more in quantity • Poor refractory condition • High combustion chamber temperature alarm can also occur if the outlet is blocked with slag or the slot at the combustion chamber floor level is blocked.
  57. 57. 4. Sludge Oil Leaking Sludge oil leaking mainly takes place from the base plate corners of the combustion chamber. Some of the main reasons for sludge oil leaking are: • Improper opening of oil burner air damper • Very low under-pressure • Closed Atomizing valve • Incorrect valves in Programmable logic controller (PLC) • Blocked sludge nozzle atomizing slot
  58. 58. 5. Cracks in Refractory of Combustion Chamber The main reason for cracks in combustion chamber refractory is rapid change in temperature caused by filling of water in the sludge tank during sludge operation at high temperature. It should always be noted not to fill the sludge tank when the sludge is burning. Vibrations of the machinery are also a prime reason for this problem. Adequate deck support should be reinforced to prevent this. Leaking door gaskets can also lead to this issue. Adjust and change the gaskets whenever required.
  59. 59. 6. Draft failure / Low Pressure Alarm One of the main things to check for solving problems related to draft failure or extremely low under pressure alarm is faulty pressure sensor. Some other reasons for the problem are: • Damaged door gasket • Broken fan belt • Wrong rotation of fan direction • Failure in opening of flue gas damper • Leakage in sensor tube Always make sure that fan belt and door gasket are properly checked at regular intervals of time. Faulty fan, flue gas damper and sensor tube must also be checked and repaired as required.
  60. 60. 7. Leaking Mechanical Seal Sludge pump In order to prevent leaking of mechanical seal, it should be noted that the sludge pump is not running dry for a long time. If need arise, change the seal. Also, large amount of debris in the sludge can also damage the mechanical seal. In such cases, restart the system by flushing and cleaning the lines. 8. Leakage in D.O. Pump Shaft End The main reason for this problem is blocked return. Open the return valve or remove return blocking. Replace the shaft seal if required.
  61. 61. Waste permitted to incinerate SOLID WASTE Domestic Waste All types of food waste, sewage and waste generated in the living spaces. Plastics (except PCB)1 Packaging, ship construction, utensils and cups, bags, sheeting, floats, fishing nets, strapping bands, rope and lines. Cargo-associated waste Dunnage, shoring pallets, lining and packing materials, plywood, paper, cardboard, wire, and steel strapping. Maintenance / Operational waste Materials collected by the engine and the deck department like soot, machinery deposits, scraped paint, deck sweeping, wiping wastes, oily rags, etc. Furthermore all cargo-associated wastes and maintenance waste (including ash and clinkers), and cargo residues in small quantities.
  62. 62. LIQUID WASTE Sludge oil Sludge from fuel and lubricating oil separators. Waste oil Waste lubricating oil from; •main and auxiliary machinery •bilge water separators •drip trays, etc. •cooking oil Contaminated water From Bilge Water Injection system any kind of contaminated water can be destructed during the sludge oil burning process.
  63. 63. Waste prohibited to incinerate In general, shipboard incineration should not be undertaken when the ship is in port or at offshore terminal unless permitted by the port authority concerned. •Annex I, II and III cargo residues of MARPOL 73/78 and related contaminated packing materials •Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) •Garbage containing more than traces of heavy metal •Refined petroleum products containing halogen compounds •Exhaust gas cleaning system residues •Fresh fish
  64. 64. PLASTICS The incineration of plastic wastes, as might be considered under some circumstances in complying with Annex V, requires more air and much higher temperatures for complete destruction. If plastics are to be burnt in a safe manner, the incinerator should be suitable for the purpose, otherwise the following problems can result: • Depending on the type of plastic and conditions of combustion, some toxic gases can be generated in the exhaust stream, including vaporized hydrochloric (HCl) and hydrocyanic (HCN) acids. These and other intermediary products of plastic combustion can be extremely dangerous.
  65. 65. • The ash from the combustion of some plastic products may contain heavy metal or other residues which can be toxic and should therefore not be discharged into the sea. Such ashes should be retained on board, where possible, and discharged at port reception facilities. • The temperatures generated during incineration of primarily plastic wastes are high enough to possibly damage some garbage incinerators. • Plastic incineration requires three to ten times more combustion air than average municipal refuse. If the proper level of oxygen is not supplied, high levels of soot will be formed in the exhaust stream.
  66. 66. Incineration options for shipboard-generated garbage
  67. 67. • Which of the following statements is true? A. The installation of an IMO approved incinerator is mandatory on all ships. B. The installation of an incinerator is mandatory on all ships above 400 GRT. C. The installation of an incinerator is not a mandatory requirement. D. The installation of incinerators is mandatory only for dry ships • Shipboard incineration of which of the following substances is allowed? A. Poly chlorinated Biphenyls(PCB s) B. Refined petroleum products containing halogen residues C. Sewage sludge D. Cargo residues(of Annex I, II and III of MARPOL convention) .
  68. 68. • What are the options for a vessel to dispose of plastics? They may either be disposed of ashore, or incinerated aboard so long as the plastic does not contain toxic or heavy metal residues (e.g. PVC plastic except in shipboard incinerators for which IMO Type Approval Certificates have been issued.) • What do you know about incinerator? What is the need of installing a incinerator on ship? Incinerator is like combustion machinery, which is used to burn oily rags, galley waster (Non plastic) and waster oil from the oily water separator. In Incinerator, these products are burned at high temperature and the left over ash is given to the port reception facility.
  69. 69. • Is it legal to dispose of incinerator ash overboard? No. Incinerator ash must be disposed of ashore and recorded in the Garbage Record Book. • Draw the pipe line diagram to the Incinerator, the tanks and name the parts?

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