WHAT IS TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM?
• A community of organisms and their environment that occurs on the
land masses of continents and islands
• Distinguished from aquatic ecosystem by the lower availability of
water and the consequent importance of water as a limiting factor.
• Characterized by greater temperature fluctuations on both a
diurnal and seasonal basis than occur in aquatic ecosystems in similar
• Segmented into a subterranean portion from which most water and
ions are obtained, and an atmospheric portion from which gases are
obtained and where the physical energy of light is transformed into the
organic energy of carbon-carbon bonds through the process of
• There are six primary terrestrial ecosystem that exist:
tundra, taiga, temperate deciduous forest, tropical rain forest,
grassland and desert.
SIX PRIMARY ECOSYSTEM
• Tundra is type of biome where the tree growth is hindered
by low temperatures and short growing seasons.
• Taiga is a biome characterized by coniferous
• Temperate deciduous forests or temperate broad-leaf
forests are dominated by trees that lose their leaves each
year. They are found in areas with warm, moist summers and
• Tropical rainforests occur in areas of tropical rainforest
climate in which there is no dry season – all months
have an average precipitaton value of at least 60 mm –
and may also be referred to as lowland equatorial
• Grasslands are areas where the vegetaton is dominated
by grasses, however sedge and rush families can also be
• A desert is a barren area of land where
litle precipitaton occurs and consequently
living conditons are hostle for plant and animal
In the history of life (the first terrestrial organisms
appeared in the Silurian period, about 425 million years ago)
and occupy a much smaller portion of Earth's surface than
marine GUCCI FLIP FLOPS ecosystems
• Terrestrial ecosystems occupy 55,660,000 mi²
(144,150,000 km²), or 28.26% of Earth's surface
• Terrestrial ecosystems have been a major site of adaptive
radiation of both plants and animals.
Magnoliophyta (flowering plants) - are the most diverse
group of land plants, with about 350,000 species.
Like gymnosperms, angiosperms are seed-producing plants;
they are distinguished from gymnosperms by
characteristics including flowers, endosperm within the
seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds.
Pinophyta(conifers) - there are about
500 species. also known as division
Coniferophyta or Coniferae, are one
of 12 extant division-level taxa within the
kingdom Plantae and 10 within the extant
land plants. Pinophytes are
gymnosperms, cone- bearing seed plants
with vascular tissue.
Bryophyta (mosses and liverworts), of which there are
about 24,000 species, are also important in some terrestrial
Bryophyte is a traditional name used to refer to
all embryophytes (land plants) that do not have true vascular
tissue and are therefore called "non-vascular plants".Some
bryophytes do have specialized tissues for the transport of
water; however, since these do not contain lignin, they are not
considered to be true vascular tissue
Insecta (insects) - about 900,000 species. are
a class of invertebrates within the arthropod phylum that
have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body
(head, thorax and abdomen), three pairs of
jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae.
Aves (birds) - with 8,500 species. a group
of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers,
a beak with no teeth, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a
high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a
lightweight but strong skeleton.
Mammalia (mammals) - approximately 4,100 species.
are any members of a clade of endothermic amniotes
distinguished from reptiles and birds by the possession of
a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear
bones, and mammary glands. The mammalian brain regulates
body temperature and the circulatory system, including the
Organisms in terrestrial ecosystems have adaptatons
that allow them to obtain water when the entre body is no
longer bathed in that fluid, means of transportng the
water from limited sites of acquisiton to the rest of the
body, and means of preventng the evaporaton of water
from body surfaces. They also have traits that provide body
support in the atmosphere, a much less buoyant medium
than water, and other traits that render them capable of
withstanding the extremes of temperature, wind, and
humidity that characterize terrestrial ecosystems. Finally,
the organisms in terrestrial ecosystems have evolved many
methods of transportng gametes in environments where
fluid flow is much less effectve as a transport medium.