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History Hitlers Germany 29 April 2015 Neil Gardner MA PGCE

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History Hitlers Germany 29 April 2015 Neil Gardner MA PGCE

  1. 1. TOTALITARIAN IDEOLOGY: NAZI GERMANY HISTORY AQA HIS1N N C GARDNER MA PGCE Nazi Germany
  2. 2. Nazi Germany
  3. 3. TOTALITARIAN IDEOLOGY 1 An official ideology, to which everyone is supposed to adhere, focussed on a final ‘perfect state of mankind’. 2 A single mass party, usually led by one man, organized in a hierarchical structure and either superior to or intertwined with the state bureaucracy. 3 Monopoly of Control: a technically conditioned near-complete monopoly of control by the party Nazi Germany
  4. 4. TOTALITARIAN IDEOLOGY 4 Monopoly over communications: a near-complete monopoly exercised over all means of effective mass communications. 5 Secret Police: a system of physical or psychological terroristic police control. 6 Economic control: central control and direction of the entire economy by the party Nazi Germany
  5. 5. Nazi Germany
  6. 6. INTERPRETATIONS OF NAZISM Similarities between Nazism and Fascism are profound. The symbols of the young Nazi Party were as unoriginal as its ideas. The swastika was already popular with other right-wing groups before it was adopted by the Nazis. The skull and crossbones, which would become infamous on the caps of the SS, had been used by the German cavalry. Even the stiff-armed Roman salute was taken from the greeting used by Mussolini’s Fascists. Nazi Germany
  7. 7. AN EXCEPTIONALLY VIOLENT MOVEMENT The period after the First World War was a violent time in defeated Weimar Germany but from the first the Nazi Party was an exceptionally violent movement. In 1921 ‘Storm Detachments’ were formed to protect Nazi meetings and to disrupt the gatherings of rival parties. Battles between Nazi Storm Troopers and the followers of other political parties would be a common feature of German political life until 1933. Nazi Germany
  8. 8. INTERPRETATIONS OF NAZISM National Socialism is sometimes, by some historians, included in the totalitarian model which includes the Marxist- Leninist system of rule, and by argument over the degree to which Hitler’s contribution to Nazism made it unique. At one extreme Hitler is viewed as a relatively insignificant individual who derived his substance largely from his role as titular leader of the Nazi Movement. At the other extreme, in complete contrast, National Socialism is regarded as ‘Hitlerism’, with Hitler making the essential contribution for the ideology, aims, objectives, and propaganda of Nazism. Nazi Germany
  9. 9. INTERPRETATIONS OF NAZISM A Middle Class Movement: Nazism has been interpreted by some historians, notably by Professor Ernst Nolte, as a predominantly middle-class movement. For the German Social Democrats and Communists, with their view of history as class struggle, it was logical to perceive Nazism as an incorporation of middle- class interests dressed up in fresh rhetoric. Nolte in a series of major works interpreted Nazism as a specifically bourgeois reaction to the spectre of Bolshevism. Nazi Germany
  10. 10. Nazi Germany
  11. 11. Nazi Germany
  12. 12. Nazi Germany
  13. 13. THE 25 POINT NAZI PARTY PROGRAMME The ideas and programme of the Nazi Party just after the end of the First World War included the following: 1 All Germans should be united into a Greater Germany. 2 The Treaties of Versailles should be overturned. 3 Germany should have land and territory (colonies) to feed its people and settle her surplus population. This land should be given to the German people because of their racial superiority. Nazi Germany
  14. 14. THE 25 POINT NAZI PARTY PROGRAMME 4 Only those of German blood may be members of the German nation. 5 No Jew may be a member of the German nation. 6 Only members of the German nation may vote. Nazi Germany
  15. 15. THE 25 POINT NAZI PARTY PROGRAMME 7 All non-German immigration must be stopped. 8 It must be the first duty of each citizen to work for the general good of the nation. 9 Education must ensure that all children understand the importance of the state and their role within the state. Nazi Germany
  16. 16. 10 No religious beliefs should be allowed that contradict German values. 11 All income unearned by work should be abolished. 12 Personal enrichment from war must be regarded as a crime against the nation. Therefore, all war profits should be confiscated. Nazi Germany
  17. 17. 13 The country requires a strong central government for the Reich. 14 The leader must be obeyed. 15 Parliamentary democracy has failed the German people. It is weak and leads to Communism. 16 Communism is evil. It places the working class before the nation. Nazi Germany
  18. 18. Nazi Germany
  19. 19. THE FUEHRERPRINZIP For the Leader to permit a rival institution, whether it be the party or the state bureaucracy, or the army, to maintain any kind of secure existence or independence in relation to him is to run a serious risk of overthrow. Hitler, in his ‘Tabletalk’, frequently laid stress on the superiority of the ‘Leader State’ (Fuehrerstaat) over any other. For Hitler, the Leader after his election or choice by acclamation, acquired the kind of supreme authority which could not in any circumstances be challenged on legal or other grounds because he then embodied the will of the people. Nazi Germany
  20. 20. NAZI IDEOLOGY: THE LEADER PRINCIPLE The three main dictators of the interwar period (1918 – 1939), Mussolini, Hitler, and Stalin were elevated by propaganda machinery on a scale unknown in modern times to a position not only of Leaders, but of Leaders who were alleged to be endowed with qualities which raised them far above the level of ordinary men. Bombast, fraud, hysteria, and mass hypnosis was employed to make gods out of sordid psychopaths and tricksters. Nazi Germany
  21. 21. Nazi Germany
  22. 22. Nazi Germany
  23. 23. Nazi Germany
  24. 24. Nazi Germany
  25. 25. Nazi Germany
  26. 26. Nazi Germany
  27. 27. Nazi Germany
  28. 28. Nazi Germany
  29. 29. Nazi Germany
  30. 30. Nazi Germany
  31. 31. Nazi Germany
  32. 32. Nazi Germany
  33. 33. Nazi Germany
  34. 34. ANTI-SEMITISM Hitler was clearly the main influence on Nazi ideology; his anti-Semitism dated from his experience in pre-war Vienna, intensified by his belief that Jews had undermined the war effort and Jewish politicians had signed the armistice and created the Weimar Republic. Nazi Germany
  35. 35. MEIN KAMPF In Mein Kampf, Hitler claimed that the killing of 12,000 to 15,000 Jews in Germany during World War One by means of poison gas might have saved the lives of hundreds of thousands of German soldiers. The belief that the Jews had been responsible for Germany’s defeat in World War One must have exerted a powerful influence upon Hitler when World War Two was approaching. Nazi Germany
  36. 36. NAZI ANTI-SEMITISM: RESULTING IN MASS MURDER The mass murder of six million Jews has placed an indelible stamp upon the twentieth century. Hitler’s Third Reich exploited all the advantages of modern technology to transport Jews from most parts of Europe to various killing sites, including specially constructed extermination camps. Nazi Germany
  37. 37. LEADING NAZI: HEINRICH HIMMLER, HEAD OF THE SS AND GESTAPO Himmler was an idealist of sorts since he romanticized and idealized the German race, the German soldier, and the German farmer. He developed fixations about those who he believed threatened his cherished causes – above all, about the Jews. Himmler also shared Hitler’s view that elimination of allegedly defective Germans would strengthen the future German race. Nazi Germany
  38. 38. THE IDEOLOGY OF HIMMLER AND OTHER NAZI’S: ANTI-COMMUNISM Himmler, like Hitler, was also a vehement anti-Communist but, also like Hitler, he regarded Bolshevism as a surface manifestation. For Himmler, Bolshevism was only a part of the Jewish conspiracy. The Soviet Union was thus condemned to extermination since it was viewed as a Jewish-Bolshevik conspiracy and Russians were also regarded as an inferior, sub-human race. Nazi Germany
  39. 39. ANTI-SEMITISM: INTERPRETATIONS One historical interpretation has argued that the Nazi regime employed different methods to persecute Jews, at times permitting party or private violence against Jews, but more often restraining it, while introducing one piece of legislation after another against Jews. These zigzag policies reflected Nazi hostility toward Jews, but they did not lead inevitably to the conclusion that Hitler had a preconceived plan to wipe out all the Jews of Europe. Nazi Germany
  40. 40. ANTI-SEMITISM: INTERPRETATIONS Another set of historians has argued that genocide evolved due to changing circumstances. In this interpretation, the Nazis turned the idea of a Jewish “reservation” in Poland, after the conquest of Poland in September 1939. In 1940 there was also a Nazi plan to ship millions of Jews to Madagascar, which, however, the continuation of the war against Britain precluded. Nazi Germany
  41. 41. ANTI-SEMITISM: FRUSTRATION AT THE RUSSIAN FRONT Professor Arno Mayer of Princeton University has argued that the Nazis turned against Jews out of frustration over the failure of the Blitzkrieg against the Soviet Union, and out of a desire for revenge, with the Wehrmacht generals playing at least as important a role as Hitler, Himmler, and the SS. Nazi Germany
  42. 42. ORIGINS OF THE FINAL SOLUTION Professor Meyer also argues that the Nazi fears of, and hostility toward, the Soviet Union were translated into the Final Solution because of the perceived link between Jews and communism. Genocide became, in this view, a by-product of the war in the East. Nazi Germany
  43. 43. GENOCIDE PLANNED DURING THE WAR Professor Brozat believes that Hitler shaped the climate and context of decision-making during the war but did not personally plan genocide and did not approve it until the end of 1941 or early 1942, after the killing was well under way. Nazi Germany
  44. 44. MOMMSEN: HITLER COULD NOT COPE WITH GENOCIDE CONSEQUENCES Professor Mommsen believes that Hitler could not cope with the measures implied by his own anti-Semitic rhetoric; he was a charismatic figurehead who left the hard decisions for others. Mommsen pointed out the absence of evidence that anyone in Hitler’s headquarters even discussed the extermination of the Jews. Nazi Germany
  45. 45. HIMMLER: THE KEY FIGURE OF GENOCIDE The most important figure behind the escalating persecution of the Jews, Mommsen stated, was Heinrich Himmler, whose ambition made him determined to outbid the other officials seeking a role in Jewish policy, and whose organization gave him means to carry out mass murder. Nazi Germany
  46. 46. Nazi Germany
  47. 47. Nazi Germany
  48. 48. THE FUEHRER MYTH A Cult of the Fuehrer developed and was consistent with Nazi ideology as part of the Fuehrerprinzip and the concept that Hitler was a man apart sent to save Germany, an idea that originated from Nietzsche’s ‘superman’. German history and the psychology of the German people required a ‘saviour’, rather than a politician elected to lead a democratic state. Nazi Germany
  49. 49. Nazi Germany
  50. 50. THE FUEHRER MYTH The worship of Hitler developed through everyday social rituals like the adoption of the Heil Hitler salute. Organisations like the SS and the Hitler Youth were personally bound to Hitler and the Army’s Oath of Loyalty also suggested Hitler was more than an ordinary politician. Nazi Germany
  51. 51. THE FUEHRER MYTH Oath of loyalty for Soldiers of the Armed Forces: 'I swear by God this sacred oath: I will render unconditional obedience to Adolf Hitler, the Führer of the German Reich and people, Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, and will be ready as a brave soldier to risk my life at any time for this oath.' Nazi Germany
  52. 52. Nazi Germany
  53. 53. THE FUEHRER MYTH The three main dictators of the interwar period (1918 – 1945), Mussolini, Hitler, and Stalin were elevated by propaganda machinery on a scale unknown in modern times to a position not only of Leaders, but of Leaders who were alleged to be endowed with qualities which raised them far above the level of ordinary men. Bombast, fraud, hysteria, and mass hypnosis was employed to make gods out of sordid psychopaths and tricksters. In their fall and defeat they were revealed as tyrants, often incompetent in everything except the art of keeping themselves in power. Nazi Germany
  54. 54. THE FUEHRER MYTH Both Fascism and National Socialism were essentially the products of the ambition and energy of one man – Fascist Italy of Benito Mussolini and Nazi Germany of Adolf Hitler – even if the one man could not have succeeded except in the circumstances which time and place offered in order to enable him to snatch at victory. Had Hitler been born, say, in an Essex village in 1889 instead of an Austrian village, he would no doubt have ended on the gallows or in a madhouse. Nazi Germany
  55. 55. THE FUEHRER MYTH Under totalitarianism, the Leader dominates the state. Hitler’s ideology never exalted the state: the state was always recognized as subordinate to the party, though both existed to do the will of the Volk. Since the Fuehrer was not only head of the party but also the mystical voice of the German Volk, it was comparatively easy for him, granted the conditions of latent German mass hysteria, to build himself up into the position of unique Leader, apart from and above both party and state. Nazi Germany
  56. 56. Nazi Germany
  57. 57. Nazi Germany
  58. 58. Nazi Germany
  59. 59. Nazi Germany
  60. 60. Nazi Germany
  61. 61. Nazi Germany
  62. 62. Nazi Germany
  63. 63. Nazi Germany
  64. 64. HITLER’S MASS SUPPORT WAS NOT ENOUGH Hitler’s mass support was alone insufficient to bring him to power. By the end of July 1932, two presidential elections, and a Reichstag election had brought Hitler his peak level of electoral support, before the ‘seizure of power’, of 37.3% of the vote. As the leader of by far the largest party in the Reichstag, with 230 seats, Hitler demanded the Chancellorship. At an audience in August 1932, Reich President von Hindenburg refused point blank to appoint him. The consequence was a deepening crisis of confidence within the Nazi Movement. Nazi Germany
  65. 65. NAZI HYPERNATIONALISM Strong nationalist feelings remained in Germany after the First World War – encouraged by the apparent injustice of the Treaty of Versailles (1919). Hitler was a staunch German nationalist who had left multi- racial Austria-Hungary and fought for Germany in the First World War. Nazi Germany
  66. 66. NAZISM AND THE WORKING-CLASS From the outset Hitler emphasized that the Nazi Party would not be a working-class party like the Social Democratic Party or the Communist Party. The Nazi Party was above all a German nationalist workers’ party, that is, a party that put the interests of German labour above those of the international labour community. Nazi Germany
  67. 67. NAZI POSTER PROMOTING GERMAN WORKERS Nazi Germany
  68. 68. NAZI SUPPORT FOR GERMAN WORKERS The Nazis would continually underscore the theme of putting German workers first to gain working-class support throughout the Weimar period (1919 – 1933). Nazi party leaders asserted that both the Social Democrats and the Communists had betrayed the German working-class and that the Communists in particular placed the interests of international bolshevism before the national interests of the German working-class. Nazi Germany
  69. 69. NAZI PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN POSTER, 1932 Nazi Germany
  70. 70. GERMAN LABOUR: A PILLAR OF THE NAZI PARTY German labour was a pillar of the Nazi Party from 1925 to 1933. The fortunes of German blue-collar labour alternated between growth and decline during the Weimar era (1919 – 1933). Workers briefly enjoyed social and economic gains after World War One. The Weimar constitution accorded German labour the right to organize, recognition of collective bargaining, state commitment to expanding social welfare, and constitutionally guaranteed parity between labour and capital in the formulation of economic policy. Nazi Germany
  71. 71. NAZI PROPAGANDA POSTER PROMOTING NATIONAL SOLIDARITY Nazi Germany
  72. 72. WALL STREET CRASH, OCTOBER 1929: GREAT DEPRESSION 1930S However, the effects on Germany’s working-class of the Great Depression were devastating. Starting in 1930, unemployment among blue-collar workers skyrocketed, while wages declined very sharply. In September 1929, just before the Wall Street Crash, 17% of organized metalworkers were either unemployed or working part-time. By autumn 1930 that figure jumped to nearly 45%. Nazi Germany
  73. 73. Nazi Germany
  74. 74. UNEMPLOYMENT QUEUE AT A BENEFIT OFFICE, HANOVER, 1930 Nazi Germany
  75. 75. THE NAZI RESPONSE TO THE GREAT DEPRESSION For the Nazis, the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NSDAP), the Great Depression created an opportunity to gain working-class votes and support. Unlike so many other Weimar political parties, the Nazis promised action to deal with mass unemployment. In October 1930, the Nazis called for the introduction of a one-year compulsory labour service to help overcome unemployment. Nazi Germany
  76. 76. NAZI POLICY TO DEAL WITH UNEMPLOYMENT The Nazis proposed a programme whereby the state would constitutionally guarantee employment opportunities. Their 1930 programme also called for the creation of a public works programme. To finance the works programme, the Nazis proposed the establishment of a state building and loan association. Nazi Germany
  77. 77. NAZI ECONOMIC RECOVERY POSTER Nazi Germany
  78. 78. THE NAZI IMMEDIATE ECONOMIC PROGRAMME The centrepiece of Nazi economic policy before 1933 was the Immediate Economic Programme. Through this programme the NSDAP showed itself to be the only major German party eager to assimilate the ideas of economic reformers such as Maynard Keynes. At the core of the NSDAP Immediate Economic Programme were recommendations to establish full employment. Nazi Germany
  79. 79. HITLER WITH A SHOVEL (BUILDING THE BUNKER WHERE HE SHOT HIMSELF LATER ON IN 1945) Nazi Germany
  80. 80. THE NSDAP IMMEDIATE ECONOMIC PROGRAMME The programme called for a massive state-funded public works project, to include housing and highway construction as well as the establishment of new agricultural settlements, soil improvement programmes, and land conservation. The programme recommended expenditures of 10 billion marks to employ nearly 2 million labourers. Nazi Germany
  81. 81. EVA BRAUN (HITLER’S BABE) Nazi Germany
  82. 82. NAZI PUBLIC WORKS PROGRAMMES The NSDAP electoral strategy in 1932 focused heavily on the major themes of public works, job creation, and autarkic development. Through an intensive development of Germany’s own economic resources, Germany would become self-sufficient and regain its own economic self-determination. Nazi Germany
  83. 83. RE-BUILDING THE GERMAN ECONOMY Nazi Germany
  84. 84. NO PREMONITION OF THE HOLOCAUST The average German who voted for or joined the NSDAP before 1933 did not envision the concentration camps, World War Two, or the destruction of Germany. Political opportunism led the Nazi Party to downplay its anti- Semitism, racism, xenophobia and hypernationalism before 1933. Nazi Germany
  85. 85. EVA BRAUN AGAIN (BECAUSE SHE LOOKS QUITE NICE) Nazi Germany
  86. 86. NAZI POLICY AFTER 1933 Once in power the Nazis quickly abandoned their pre-1933 political strategy and pursued their hidden agenda of territorial expansion and racial persecution. It is highly unlikely that the millions of self-interested German citizens voting for or joining the Nazi Party in 1932 could have realized at the time that their decision would culminate in first dictatorship, then a world war, and finally the Holocaust. Nazi Germany
  87. 87. POCKETBOOK VOTING The Nazis between 1930 and 1933 attracted a huge, broadly based constituency of German voters principally by appealing to people’s material interests i.e. voted with their pocketbooks. Many Germans calculated that of the competing Weimar political parties, the Nazis offered them the best prospects for a better life. Nazi Germany
  88. 88. Nazi Germany
  89. 89. GERMANY’S ECONOMIC PROBLEMS AND THE RISE OF THE NAZIS The economic depression starting in 1929 was a crucial factor in creating the climate in which the Nazis could gain support on a national level. Before the Wall Street Crash the NSDAP were a minor party who had won just 12 seats in May 1928; in 1930 they won 107 seats becoming the second largest party in Germany. Nazi Germany
  90. 90. Nazi Germany
  91. 91. IMPACT OF THE WALL STREET CRASH OF OCTOBER 1929 The impact of the Wall Street Crash of October 1929 led to political problems, with coalition governments unable to agree on how to deal with the situation. The collapse of coalition governments showed the weaknesses of Weimar and gave Hitler and the Nazis the opportunity to promise strong government and economic solutions. Nazi Germany
  92. 92. HITLER’S APPOINTMENT AS CHANCELLOR, 30TH JANUARY 1933 Hitler’s appointment as chancellor of Germany on 30th January 1933 was neither illegal nor surprising. In a system of proportional representation such as that of Weimar, when no party gained an electoral majority, it was customary for the leader of the largest party to become chancellor. Hitler did not sneak into power in January 1933; Hitler was appointed chancellor because he was the head of the Nazi Party, the single largest political party in Germany. Nazi Germany
  93. 93. HITLER IS APPOINTED CHANCELLOR BY PRESIDENT VON HINDENBURG, 30TH JANUARY 1933 Nazi Germany
  94. 94. Nazi Germany
  95. 95. INCENTIVES TO JOIN THE NAZI PARTY For the unemployed, largely young and working-class, the offer of employment, shelter, and food made joining the NSDAP’s organizations very enticing. Incentives to join the NSDAP came as well from the pre- existing social networks in which people lived, prayed, socialized, and worked together. Nazi Germany
  96. 96. INCENTIVES TO JOIN THE NAZI PARTY Social networks such as family, friendship circles, and civic, occupational, and religious affiliations contributed significantly to individuals’ decisions to join the NSDAP. Even before Hitler’s appointment as chancellor in January 1933 the NSDAP had jobs to offer. Between 1925 and 1933 the NSDAP had developed a government-in-waiting, comprising numerous specialized branches and departments. Nazi Germany
  97. 97. NAZI PARTY MEMBERS Nazi Germany
  98. 98. THE REAL MESSAGE OF NAZISM Nazism in effect was Hitlerism. And from Hitler himself in Mein Kampf we obtain the real message of Nazism – the conquest of Russia, the extermination of the Slavs and the colonization of the East. This Eastern policy was essential to Nazism; all other positive aims – the conquest of France or Britain – were subsidiary and incidental to it. Nazi Germany
  99. 99. NAZISM: THE CONQUEST OF RUSSIA The offence of France was its traditional policy of Eastern alliances, which had enabled it, for three centuries, to intervene in Germany. The offence of Britain was its refusal to be content with a maritime supremacy and its insistent tradition of preventing the domination of Europe by a single Continental power. Nazi Germany
  100. 100. THE REAL MESSAGE OF NAZISM But the offence of Russia was the existence of Russia. As Russia’s crime was its existence, so its judgement was extermination. The war against Russia was to be a war of extermination, a crusade, a ‘war of ideologies’, in which all conventions were ignored. Nazi Germany
  101. 101. BARBAROSSA: THE GERMAN INVASION OF RUSSIA, JUNE 22ND 1941 Nazi Germany
  102. 102. GERMAN TANKS INVADING THE SOVIET UNION, JUNE 22ND 1941 Nazi Germany
  103. 103. Nazi Germany
  104. 104. ANTI-RUSSIAN NATURE OF NAZISM Nazi racial ideology promoted the supremacy of Germans to Slavs; ‘living space’ meant the conquest of their territory; the rule of the German ‘master race’ meant the enslavement of their surviving population. The SS, the elite corps and self-described ‘political soldiers’ of the Nazi Party, were the most fanatical, most mystical missionaries of the anti-Russian crusade. Nazi Germany
  105. 105. HITLER INSPECTING SS SOLDIERS Nazi Germany
  106. 106. HITLER AND CIRCUMSTANCES An English historian, H.C. Allen, wrote: “Men are constantly engaged in an, on the whole highly successful, effort to adjust their ideas to circumstances and also in an effort, very much less successful, to adjust circumstances to their ideas.” Hitler achieved the latter. He adjusted circumstances to his ideas. For example, the circumstances of the Versailles Treaty restrictions he adjusted to his ideas of Germany’s renewal and re-armament. Nazi Germany
  107. 107. MUNICH AGREEMENT, SEPTEMBER 1938: PRIME MINISTER NEVILLE CHAMBERLAIN WITH HITLER Nazi Germany
  108. 108. HITLER AS A REVOLUTIONARY Hitler himself said that he was a revolutionary. He said that he was to be the leader of a national revolution. So he saw himself throughout his entire political career. Hitler was convinced of his destiny in the history of Germany as the fulfiller of a national revolution. He was not a reactionary. Nazi Germany
  109. 109. HITLER AND MUSSOLINI, MUNICH CONFERENCE, SEPTEMBER 1938 Nazi Germany
  110. 110. HITLER’S ENEMIES LIST Hitler viewed the conservative bourgeoisie as his enemies as well as Communists, Social Democrats, Jews and Slavs. The bourgeois civilisation of the nineteenth century was something which Hitler helped to destroy. Certainly Europe ceased to be the centre of world politics after the Second World War. Nazi Germany
  111. 111. PRIME MINISTER NEVILLE CHAMBERLAIN WITH THE PEACE AGREEMENT SIGNED BY HITLER AND HIMSELF, CROYDON AIRPORT, 1938 Nazi Germany
  112. 112. A PEOPLE’S PARTY The Nazi Party was a people’s party. Unlike all other political parties in Weimar Germany, the NSDAP were a true people’s party, since they gained votes and membership from all elements of German society. The NSDAP were neither a typically lower-middle class nor a predominantly Protestant or decisively capitalist-supported party. Nazi Germany
  113. 113. BENITO MUSSOLINI (ITALY’S FASCIST DICTATOR) AND HITLER, 1930S Nazi Germany
  114. 114. HITLER AS A REVOLUTIONARY True to himself as a revolutionary, Hitler’s main sympathies and loyalties were directed towards the German workers. He loathed the bourgeoisie and their values. As the effects of the Depression hit Germany, the Nazis shifted their focus increasingly to the merits of autarkic economic development and job creation, thus demonstrating their support for German workers. Nazi Germany
  115. 115. CHARLIE CHAPLIN AS HYNKEL (THE GREAT DICTATOR, 1940) Nazi Germany
  116. 116. NAZI POLICY: AUTARKY The NSDAP put the interests of German industry ahead of those of foreign industry. To this end, NSDAP officials denounced Weimar governments and those in big business who had allowed foreign labourers into Germany to take jobs from German workers. For example, the Nazis blasted Weimar governments for admitting more than 200,000 foreign workers into Germany between 1929 and 1930. Nazi Germany
  117. 117. HYNDEL PLAYING WITH HIS GLOBE (CHARLIE CHAPLIN IN THE GREAT DICTATOR, 1940) Nazi Germany
  118. 118. THE NAZI PARTY AS A VIABLE CHOICE FOR MANY GERMAN WORKERS The NSDAP became a viable choice for many German workers because of the party’s ability to generate a set of innovative ideas to redress the economic problems confronting workers during the Depression. Job creation served as the theme of a series of speeches that Hitler delivered during 1931 and 1932 to groups of traders and artisans. Nazi Germany
  119. 119. HEINRICH HIMMLER, HEAD OF THE SS AND GESTAPO, THE MOST FEARED MAN IN GERMAN-OCCUPIED EUROPE Nazi Germany
  120. 120. Nazi Germany
  121. 121. THE DEPRESSION AND THE RISE OF HITLER It is inconceivable that Hitler could ever have come to power had not the Weimar republic been subjected to the unprecedented strain of a world economic crisis. Given Germany’s non-democratic past history, the establishment of a dictatorship to protect the economic interests and social privilege of the middle classes, was the most likely outcome of the Depression. Nazi Germany
  122. 122. Nazi Germany
  123. 123. TENSION BETWEEN A MILITARY TAKEOVER AND THE PARLIAMENTARY ROAD TO GOVERNMENT Hitler’s powers of leadership were subjected to their most severe test in the early 1930s. Once the Nazis became a major factor in German politics, tensions arose between those party leaders and members who wanted a military takeover and those who supported parliamentary methods to achieve power. The SA, the Nazi party’s stormtroopers (paramilitary force) led by Ernst Roehm, had grown to 500,000 men by December 1932 and took part in bloody street brawls with Communists and Social Democrats. Nazi Germany
  124. 124. Nazi Germany
  125. 125. NAZI REVOLUTION VIA THE BALLOT BOX As the middle classes turned towards voting for the Nazis, Hitler had every reason to suppose he could bring about the ‘National Revolution’ via the ballot box. Accordingly, he had to exert all his political skill to hold the exuberant SA men in check. However, despite impressive electoral successes, power still eluded the Nazis. Nazi Germany
  126. 126. ERNST ROEHM, LEADER OF THE SA STORMTROOPERS Nazi Germany
  127. 127. SHIFT IN THE BALANCE OF POLITICAL POWER 1930 - 1933 Hitler was saved from political defeat by a fundamental shift in the balance of political power in Germany between 1930 and 1933. Under the impact of the ‘general crisis of capitalism’ parliamentary democracy was paralysed and superseded by an authoritarian-style presidential government. Nazi Germany
  128. 128. THE LEAGUE OF GERMAN MAIDENS Nazi Germany
  129. 129. PRESIDENT HINDENBURG’S EMERGENCY POWERS From spring 1930 German chancellors relied on President Hindenburg’s emergency powers, supported by the ultimate sanction of military force, to pass essential legislation. General Kurt von Schleicher, last chancellor of the Weimar Republic 1932 – 33, needed Hitler’s support in order to disguise the military force on which his government rested. Nazi Germany
  130. 130. NAÏVE BELIEF IN BEING ABLE TO ‘CONTROL HITLER’ Naively General Schleicher and Franz von Papen (chancellor in 1932) believed that they could buy support from the Nazis without giving Hitler real power. For his part, Hitler was working assiduously to ingratiate himself with the king-makers in accordance with his long- standing conviction that the ‘National Revolution’ would only succeed with the support of the forces of law and order. Nazi Germany
  131. 131. HITLER COURTS INDUSTRIALISTS For most of summer 1931, Hitler visited influential industrialists trying to persuade them that he would not allow the radical wing of his party to exert influence once he was in power. Only in this highly favourable atmosphere is Hitler’s coming to power in January 1933 intelligible. Nazi Germany
  132. 132. THE HITLER YOUTH Nazi Germany
  133. 133. FEAR CAUSED BY THE DEPRESSION The economic depression was vital in creating the climate in which the Nazis could gain support on a national level. The fear and disorder caused by the depression brought Hitler to the chancellery of Germany. Nazi Germany
  134. 134. HITLER AS GERMANY’S CHANCELLOR Nazi Germany
  135. 135. CRUCIALLY INDUSTRIALISTS SUPPORTED HITLER Without a significant shift in the attitude of many industrialists and great landowners towards National Socialism at the end of 1932, Hitler’s appointment as chancellor in January 1933 would scarcely have been possible. Only when these circles threw their weight behind Papen’s efforts to draw Hitler into the government, did the situation change decisively in his favour. Nazi Germany
  136. 136. Nazi Germany
  137. 137. WHAT THE NAZIS OFFERED What the Nazis offered the industrialists was not only assured markets at home but the prospect of high profit margins. Through the destruction of parliamentary democracy and the suppression of the trade union movement, the Nazis would make it possible to reduce drastically the social contributions which had added to production costs in the 1920s and to hold wages down to the depressed level of the crisis. Nazi Germany
  138. 138. Nazi Germany
  139. 139. CAPITALIST SUPPORT With the Nazi vote falling, the most powerful industrialists in terms of political influence, redoubled their efforts to rally the whole of industry round a Hitler chancellorship. For Hitler it was most fortuitous for him that German industry was moving towards the conclusion that National Socialism was the only viable economic alternative precisely at the time when Hitler’s followers were becoming restive. Nazi Germany
  140. 140. Nazi Germany
  141. 141. HITLER APPOINTED CHANCELLOR On 28th January 1933, General von Schleicher resigned as chancellor having failed to obtain a Reichstag majority or persuade President von Hindenburg to give him dictatorial powers. On 3oth January 1933, Hitler was appointed chancellor. He had the full support of President von Hindenburg. Legislation passed in the following months was not submitted to the Reichstag but promulgated as decrees by using the president’s emergency powers. Nazi Germany
  142. 142. Nazi Germany
  143. 143. JOSEPH GOEBBELS, NAZI PROPAGANDA MINISTER Nazi Germany
  144. 144. NAZI PROPAGANDA UNDER GOEBBELS Propaganda in all totalitarian dictatorships habitually depict the dictator as the saviour of his people from some danger real, or more usually imaginary, and as the man of action who decides what is best for his country with clarity of mind and singleness of purpose. Nazi Germany
  145. 145. GOEBBELS’S MINISTRY OF PROPAGANDA The Goebbels ministry of propaganda took good care to promote the image of a united, efficient and monolithic state. Goebbels did this so successfully that Germans and foreigners alike believed that the Nazi state was a good deal more efficient and powerful than it really was. Nazi Germany
  146. 146. Nazi Germany
  147. 147. CULT OF THE FUEHRER A Cult of the Fuehrer developed and was consistent with Nazi ideology as part of the Fuehrerprinzip and the concept that Hitler was a man apart sent to save Germany, an idea that originated from Nietzsche’s ‘superman’. German history and the psychology of the German people required a ‘saviour’, rather than a politician elected to lead a democratic state. Nazi Germany
  148. 148. EVERYDAY SOCIAL RITUALS IN THE THIRD REICH The worship of Hitler developed through everyday social rituals like the adoption of the Heil Hitler salute. Organisations like the SS and the Hitler Youth were personally bound to Hitler and the Army’s Oath of Loyalty also suggested Hitler was more than an ordinary politician. Nazi Germany
  149. 149. WAFFEN SS ON PARADE (THE ARMED WING OF THE NAZI PARTY) Nazi Germany
  150. 150. A WAFFEN SS GENERAL WEARING THE DEATH’S HEAD INSIGNIA Nazi Germany
  151. 151. HITLER YOUTH Nazi Germany
  152. 152. A LEAGUE OF GERMAN GIRLS MEMBER Nazi Germany
  153. 153. HITLER’S LOATHING OF THE BOURGEOISIE Bourgeois morality would have no place in the Nazi ‘new order’. Slavs would be forcibly removed from their farms and turned into agricultural labourers deprived of education and condemned to toil for their German masters after the conquest of Russia. Wholesale transportation of populations from the German- occupied lands of Europe might be employed to remove undesirable elements such as the Czechs. Nazi Germany
  154. 154. STERILIZATION OF JEWS, CZECHS, SLAVS AND OTHER ‘UNDESIRABLES’ Nazi ideas to be applied to the Jews, Slavs and other ‘undesirables’ in the occupied nations and inside Germany itself included sterilization. In addition after the conquest of Poland in September 1939 Himmler, head of the SS and Gestapo, on Hitler’s direct orders, murdered tens of thousands of prominent Polish citizens in a calculated bid to rob the Poles of their natural leaders. Nazi Germany
  155. 155. LEBENSBORN (“SOURCE OF LIFE”) Lebensborn (“source of life”) was a programme created by Heinrich Himmler. It was designed to boost the German population by encouraging citizens, especially SS members, to have more children. SS officers came under pressure to have sexual intercourse in order to reproduce four children, inside or outside marriage. Nazi Germany
  156. 156. CHRISTENING OF A LEBENSBORN CHILD Nazi Germany
  157. 157. LEBENSBORN CHILDREN: CHILDREN OF ‘GOOD ARYAN RACIAL STOCK’ KIDNAPPED IN THE EASTERN OCCUPIED COUNTRIES AFTER 1939 Nazi Germany
  158. 158. AN SS OFFICER INTERVIEWING ARYAN WOMEN ASSIGNED FOR BREEDING FOR THE REICH Nazi Germany
  159. 159. YOUNG GERMAN WOMEN WITH THEIR LEBENSBORN CHILDREN Nazi Germany
  160. 160. LEBENSBORN: THE BREEDING OF THE ‘MASTER RACE’ Ten maternity homes were set up across Germany where 8,000 to 12,000 Lebensborn children were born. Some stayed with their mothers, but many were adopted by families of SS officers. About 60% were born to unmarried mothers, the rest to wives of SS men. Nazi Germany
  161. 161. LEBENSBORN (“SOURCE OF LIFE”) As the Third Reich expanded , Lebensborn homes were set up across Europe. In Norway some 10,000 babies were born, most fathered by SS officers to Norwegian mothers. Children with “Aryan” characteristics were kidnapped from their homes in German-occupied territories by the SS. Nazi Germany
  162. 162. LEBENSBORN CHILDREN IN NORWAY Nazi Germany
  163. 163. HITLER MOCKED GERMAN MULTI-PARTY DEMOCRACY Between 1929 and 1933 millions of Germans turned their back on their previous party allegiances and decided to support Adolf Hitler and the Nazis. They did this knowing that Hitler intended to destroy the German democratic system. Hitler himself mocked German multi-party democracy and the 30 or so parties that were standing against the Nazis. Nazi Germany
  164. 164. THE ECONOMIC DEPRESSION The most important precondition for Hitler’s rise in popularity between 1929 and 1933 was the apparent failure of democracy in the face of the economic depression. In March 1930 the coalition of the Social Democrats and the Liberal People’s Party that had previously governed Germany collapsed when they couldn’t agree how best the crisis should be handled. Nazi Germany
  165. 165. SOUP HANDED TO UNEMPLOYED GERMANS Nazi Germany
  166. 166. ‘A STRONG MAN’ NEEDED TO SOLVE GERMANY’S ECONOMIC DEPRESSION There was a sense in Germany from 1929 onwards that a ‘strong man’ was needed to unite the country and overcome the economic depression and high unemployment. It was the belief that the difficult economic situation needed to be controlled through ‘solidarity.’ Therefore some Communists and other Germans started to believe that the ‘solidarity of socialism’ across national boundaries was impossible. Nazi Germany
  167. 167. Nazi Germany
  168. 168. NATIONAL SELF-INTEREST In the economic depression, many Germans started to think that as individual countries were now pursuing their own national self-interest, it was better to vote for the Nazis to protect Germany’s own self-interest. In addition the Nazis were viewed as having great credibility since they were former soldiers and also workers. Nazi Germany
  169. 169. A CATCH-ALL PARTY The Nazi party gained members and support from all sections of German society including from bricklayers, factory owners and aristocrats. National community: The Nazis said: “We have to share with each other.” i.e. they promoted the idea of Germany as a national community. Nazi Germany
  170. 170. Nazi Germany
  171. 171. AGAINST ‘MULTI- CULTURALISM’ The Nazi party between 1929 and 1933 also stood against multi-culturalism. They stood against ‘racial mingling’. By January 1930, just four months after the Wall Street Crash, there were more than three million Germans unemployed. In this atmosphere of crisis, many Germans willingly heard Hitler’s message of ‘solidarity’ and national unity. Nazi Germany
  172. 172. SEPTEMBER 1930 BREAKTHROUGH The economic crisis and the Nazi message of national unity led to the Nazi’s remarkable breakthrough in the general election of September 1930. Their share of the vote leapt from 2.6% to 18.3% and they became the second largest party in the Reichstag. The Nazis did not put forward a detailed programme of policies however. Instead the German electorate seemed to be voting for an emotional idea (national solidarity) embodied in the charismatic person of Adolf Hitler. Nazi Germany
  173. 173. Nazi Germany
  174. 174. NAZI SUCCESS IN THE SEPTEMBER 1930 ELECTION A combination of dynamic leadership, Hitler’s gifts as an orator and their skill at propaganda, led to the electoral success in the September 1930 with the Nazis winning 107 seats in the Reichstag. The open-air rallies of the annual Nazi Party Congress which was attended by nearly 200,000 people. The Nazis also paid careful attention to their clearly identifiable areas of electoral support. Nazi Germany
  175. 175. Nazi Germany
  176. 176. RURAL SUPPORT FOR THE NAZIS The Nazis were strong in the rural areas of Protestant north Germany, such as Schleswig-Holstein, and in the east, around Posen, Pomerania and East Prussia. They were also strong in rural towns all across Germany. They were popular with the lower middles classes, the elderly and students, but their most devoted followers were farmers and farm workers. Nazi Germany
  177. 177. Nazi Germany
  178. 178. AQA EXAM QUESTION, JUNE 2011 Q) How far was Hitler’s rise to power from 1928 to January 1933 due to the support he received from the German elites? (24 marks) Answers: Include in your answers the following: 1 the backing of Hugenburg, Chairman of the DNVP (the German Nationalist People’s Party), through his media empire, which gave the NSDAP exposure before the 1930 election when they made a breakthrough. Nazi Germany
  179. 179. AQA EXAM ANSWERS, JUNE 2011 The DNVP (German Nationalist People’s Party) was an assembly of pre-World War One conservative remnants, including the German Conservative party, the Free Conservative party, the anti-Semitic movement, the Christian Social movement, the Pan-German Association and some pre-war right-leaning National Liberals. Nazi Germany
  180. 180. AQA EXAM ANSWER, JUNE 2011 Hugenburg backed the Nazis from 1929. Radio stations and print media owned by Hugenburg were put at the disposal of the Nazis. Von Papen, the chancellor of Germany, lifted the ban on the SA Nazi Storm Troopers in the summer of 1932 which allowed the NSDAP to intimidate opponents and become the largest party in the July 1932 election. Von Papen also intrigued with Hugenburg’s son to have Hitler made chancellor in the belief he could be controlled. Nazi Germany
  181. 181. Nazi Germany
  182. 182. AQA EXAM ANSWER, JUNE 2011 Both the army and influential businessmen and financiers, for example Schacht , head of the central state bank, the Reichsbank, informed President von Hindenburg that he should appoint Hitler; both feared the rise of communism and the army were attracted by Hitler’s commitment to rearmament. Nazi Germany
  183. 183. AQA EXAM ANSWER, JUNE 2011 Hindenburg actually prevented Hitler’s rise to power before January 1933 as he was reluctant to appoint a known enemy of democracy who was also an Austrian ex-lance corporal. Hindenburg referred to Hitler as a ‘Bohemian corporal’. Nazi Germany
  184. 184. PRESIDENT VON HINDENBURG AND HITLER RIDE IN AN OPEN CAR FOLLOWING HITLER’S APPOINTMENT AS CHANCELLOR Nazi Germany
  185. 185. AQA EXAM ANSWER, JUNE 2011 Fear of communism: the upper and middle classes feared the rise in support of socialism/communism. The KPD (German Communist party) had won 100 seats by November 1932, partly due to the depth of the economic depression. So the upper and middle classes turned to the Nazis who promised to crush communism. Nazi Germany
  186. 186. KPD ELECTION POSTER, 1932 Nazi Germany
  187. 187. AQA EXAM ANSWER, JUNE 2011 Hitler positioned himself as the political messiah who would guide Germans out of the chaos of the depression. In that context he emphasised themes of national renewal. Hitler talked of removing a democratic system that had, he claimed, failed Germany; and the ‘righting’ of the ‘wrongs’ of the Versailles Treaty. Nazi Germany
  188. 188. HITLER SPEAKING IN A SOMEWHAT QUITE MOOD (JUST BEFORE THE USUAL RANT) Nazi Germany
  189. 189. NOVEMBER 1932 ELECTION: NAZI VOTE DECLINED In the November 1932 election, the Nazis polled two million votes less than in the July 1932 election and their overall share dropped by 4% to 33%. Yet despite the fall in the Nazi vote, the fundamental difficulty faced by chancellor Von Papen still remained – lack of popular support. Nazi Germany
  190. 190. CHARLIE CHAPLIN, THE GREAT DICTATOR, FILM 1940 Nazi Germany
  191. 191. NAZI USE OF MEETINGS The Nazis differed from other parties by holding meetings before, during and between elections, often selecting particular regions for saturation coverage. These meetings were a means of reinforcing solidarity among isolated activists. Their electoral machinery was permanently mobilised. Nazi Germany
  192. 192. HITLER AS A TWENTIETH CENTURY MACHIAVELLI Savonarola, the 15th century Florentine statesman, described a prince as a tyrant who terrifies his subjects. Spying balefully on the world from his strongly fortified palace, as sensitive to approaching prey or predators as a spider delicately balanced at the centre of a web, he dominates the life of all around him. Thus a description of both Hitler and Stalin. Nazi Germany
  193. 193. Nazi Germany
  194. 194. SAVONAROLA’S PRINCE Entertaining the ambassadors of foreign powers at his own table in the Berghof, he makes decisions that affect the well-being of all his subjects without consulting anyone except his favourites. All threats to his sole authority he resists with absolute ferocity. Savonarola’s prince is solitary, vicious, and grindingly cruel to those who stand in his way. As Hitler was. Nazi Germany
  195. 195. HITLER AND HIS GIRLFRIEND AT THE BERGHOF Nazi Germany
  196. 196. THE ‘NATIONAL SOCIALIST REVOLUTION’ The Nazis claimed that their creation of a dictatorship in 1933 – 34 was a ‘National Socialist Revolution’. On the face of it, the Nazi Revolution was not really a revolution at all. The French Revolution of 1789 and the Russian Revolution of 1917 swept away the existing order by force and replaced it with something that the revolutionaries regarded as entirely new. Nazi Germany
  197. 197. Nazi Germany
  198. 198. THE ‘NATIONAL SOCIALIST REVOLUTION’ The Nazis used both the rhetoric of revolution and also claimed that they had come to power legally and in accordance with the existing political constitution. They took few concrete steps to abolish the central institutions of the Weimar Republic or to replace them with something else – the eventual abolition of the Presidential office in 1934 was a rarity in this respect. Nazi Germany
  199. 199. “THE REICH WILL NEVER BE DESTROYED IF YOU ARE UNITED AND LOYAL” Nazi Germany
  200. 200. DIRECT HISTORICAL LINE FROM THE FRENCH REVOLUTION TO NAZISM Some historians have argued that a direct historical line can be drawn to Nazism from the French Revolution of 1789, the Jacobin ‘Reign of Terror’ in 1793 – 94, and the implicit idea of a popular dictatorship in Rousseau’s theory of the ‘General Will’, decided initially by the people but brooking no opposition once resolved upon. Nazi Germany
  201. 201. LINK BETWEEN THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAZISM The French Revolution was indeed remarkable for its rehearsal of many of the major ideologies of the following two centuries, from communism and anarchism to liberalism and conservatism. But National Socialism was not among them. The Nazis, indeed, thought of themselves as undoing all the work of the French Revolution and rolling back the clock to the early Middle Ages. Nazi Germany
  202. 202. Nazi Germany
  203. 203. NAZI IDEOLOGY WAS RACIAL The Nazi concept of the people was racial rather than civic. All the ideologies to which the French Revolution had given birth were to be destroyed. The Nazi Revolution was to be the world-historical negation of its French predecessor, not its historical fulfilment. Nazi Germany
  204. 204. Nazi Germany
  205. 205. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAZISM The French revolutionaries of 1789 possessed a clear set of doctrines on the basis of which they would introduce the sovereignty of the people through representative institutions. The Bolshevik revolutionaries of October 1917 aimed to overthrow the bourgeoisie and the traditional elites and usher in the rule of the proletariat. Nazi Germany
  206. 206. Nazi Germany
  207. 207. THE NAZIS WERE ANTI- ENLIGHTENMENT The Nazis had no explicit plan to reorder society, no fully worked-out model of the society that they wanted to revolutionize. Hitler seems to have regarded the conquest of power as the essence of the Nazi Revolution. For him the Revolution was a changeover of personnel in positions of power and authority. Nazi Germany
  208. 208. Nazi Germany
  209. 209. HITLER’S AIMS Hitler’s aims were set out in Mein Kampf in 1924 but also in conversations with an aide in 1932 – 34 and in official German records in 1941 – 42 when the Third Reich was apparently winning the Second World War; and finally in February 1945 when Hitler first acknowledged the final defeat of Germany. Nazi Germany
  210. 210. MEIN KAMPF, 1924 In his book, Mein Kampf, Hitler declares himself to be a student of history convinced by his studies that a new age of history is now about to begin. He also declares clearly what kind of age this will be. The age of small, maritime powers ruling the world through sea-communications, seapower and the wealth built up by overseas colonisation, he says, is now closing. Nazi Germany
  211. 211. 1890, HAD AN ENORMOUS INFLUENCE UPON POLICYMAKERS IN ALL THE GREAT POWERS Nazi Germany
  212. 212. HITLER’S VIEW Instead of distant overseas colonies, which have become useless, power will now depend on great land-masses such as modern techniques can now at last mobilize. Moreover, thanks to those same techniques, whatever power succeeds in mobilizing such land-masses can base upon them a lasting empire. Nazi Germany
  213. 213. Nazi Germany
  214. 214. GERMANY AND RUSSIA The only question for Hitler is which power can mobilize the modern techniques first? i.e. Germany or Russia? Hitler had faith in Germany; he believed that Germany could do it. Not Weimar Germany of course, defeated, demoralised, disarmed. Nazi Germany
  215. 215. Nazi Germany
  216. 216. HITLER’S FAITH IN GERMANY And even monarchist Germany could not do it; could not gain a great land-mass and build a lasting empire. The monarchy was too weak; it had had its chance under Kaiser Wilhelm II and failed. Moreover, it was too conservative. The monarchists only aimed for restoration, the restoration of the frontiers of 1914, the colonies of 1914. Nazi Germany
  217. 217. Nazi Germany
  218. 218. MEIN KAMPF, 1924 But the frontiers of 1914, say Hitler in Mein Kampf, are anachronistic in the new age, and so are the colonies: such an ambition is, to him, meaningless and contemptible. “Monarchies serve to keep empires; only revolutions can conquer them,” Hitler said. And so, in 1923 – 24, Hitler advocated a revolution, a historic revolution, comparable with the Russian revolution. Nazi Germany
  219. 219. Nazi Germany
  220. 220. HITLER VIEWED HIMSELF AS THE MAKER OF THE NAZI REVOLUTION Hitler made it perfectly clear that he was himself the leader and maker of such a revolution in geo-politics. He was, he said, one of those world-phenomena which occur only at rare intervals in time, at once philosophers able to understand and practical politicians able to exploit the turning-points of world history. If only he could obtain power, Hitler wrote in 1924, he would create, out of German nationalism, now red and raw with defeat, a revolutionary force which would resume the historic mission of Germany and conquer. Nazi Germany
  221. 221. HITLER’S STATED AIMS IN MEIN KAMPF Hitler in Mein Kampf clearly stated that the historic mission of Germany was not to conquer distant overseas colonies, which was the failed policy of Imperial Germany, but to conquer the vast land-spaces of the East by defeating Bolshevik Russia. The distinguished English historian, Sir Robert Ensor, read Mein Kampf and after 1933 he consistently maintained that Hitler would make war. Nazi Germany
  222. 222. ENSOR’S CORRECT PREDICTION OF HITLER’S INTENTIONS Sir Robert Ensor, distinguished English historian, author of ‘England 1870 – 1914’, a volume in the Oxford History of England, declared roundly in 1936 that Hitler would annex Austria in the spring of 1938 and either cause a European war or a European surrender to avoid war over Czechoslovakia in the autumn of 1938. When Ensor’s predictions were verified and he was asked to give his reasons he stated: “I had the advantage – still too rare in England – of having read Mein Kampf in the German.” Nazi Germany
  223. 223. ANSCHLUSS WITH AUSTRIA, MARCH 1938: POPULAR WITH THE AUSTRIAN PEOPLE Nazi Germany
  224. 224. HITLER’S AIMS, 1932 - 34 Statesmen in the Western Powers, Britain and France, did not take Mein Kampf seriously. Obviously this had enormous influence upon the course of world history. For example, the British Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain, seriously believed he could make a peace deal with Hitler and avoid a world war. Hence at Munich in September 1938, Chamberlain undertook negotiations with Hitler which dismembered Czechoslovakia, the only democracy in Central Europe. Nazi Germany
  225. 225. CHAMBERLAIN AND HITLER, MUNICH AGREEMENT, SEPTEMBER 1938 Nazi Germany
  226. 226. HITLER’S AIMS EXPRESSED IN MEIN KAMPF, 1924 Hitler’s thoughts expressed in Mein Kampf (1924) were still heavily influenced by Baltic German thinkers and writers who considered the Soviet Union as the product of an essentially Jewish revolutionary intelligentsia (symbolised by Leon Trotsky) which, deprived of the Baltic German stock which had provided so many leading figures in Tsarist Russia, was bound to fall and to disintegrate under its own weight. Nazi Germany
  227. 227. Nazi Germany
  228. 228. THE REALITY OF THE 1930S However, by the time Hitler was appointed chancellor in 1933, the views expressed in Mein Kampf did not correspond with reality. The Soviet Union as a consolidated power was a fact of the international system. The leading question therefore is why Hitler involved Germany in the murderous struggle of the Second World War and in particular in war with the Soviet Union. Nazi Germany
  229. 229. RED ARMY PARADE, MOSCOW 1941 Nazi Germany
  230. 230. RED ARMY PARADE, MOSCOW 1930S Nazi Germany
  231. 231. Nazi Germany
  232. 232. AQA EXAM QUESTION, JUNE 2012: EXPLAIN WHY THE NAZIS WERE INTOLERANT OF DIVERSITY (12 MARKS) Nazi ideology demonstrated a belief in a superior Aryan race, anyone who was not part of this race, such as Jews, or did not work for the good of the national community (the Fatherland), such as Gypsies, were not welcome in Nazi Germany. Anti-Semitism was clearly influenced by Hitler; his anti- Semitism dated from his experience in pre-war Vienna, intensified by his belief that Jews had undermined the war effort and Jewish politicians had signed the armistice and created the Weimar Republic. Nazi Germany
  233. 233. AQA EXAM QUESTION, JUNE 2012: EXPLAIN WHY THE NAZIS WERE INTOLERANT OF DIVERSITY (12 MARKS) The Nazis believed that democracy was weak and had led to the problems of Weimar Germany. Only a dictator and a one party state could strengthen Germany and restore her to the greatness experienced under Kaiser Wilhelm II. Alternative ideologies like communism and socialism were evil because men were not equal and the nation state, not the international movement, was what mattered. Nazi Germany
  234. 234. NAZI PROPAGANDA: THE ARYAN IDEAL Nazi Germany
  235. 235. Nazi Germany
  236. 236. Nazi Germany
  237. 237. HITLER AS MASS MURDERER Hitler attempted to establish an empire by wars of conquest; a Nazi empire, the “Thousand Year Reich.” But unlike other conquerors in history such as Alexander the Great and Napoleon, he committed deliberate mass murder and thus he is the greatest criminal in world history. Hitler had countless harmless people put death, for no military or political purpose. Instead his barbaric anti- Semitic policies led to the death of millions and he was quite simply a mass murderer. Nazi Germany
  238. 238. HITLER’S MASS MURDERS Hitler’s mass murders were committed during the Second World War but not as acts of war. The mass murders were committed due to his own personal hatred of Jews. The mass murders impeded the conduct of the war because thousands of able-bodied SS men were diverted from the front to carry out genocide. The mass murders of Hitler made it impossible for the Allied Powers to negotiate any peace deal with the Third Reich and from January 1942 the Western Allies proclaimed their war aim as the unconditional surrender of Germany. Nazi Germany
  239. 239. JEWISH PEOPLE ARRIVING AT A GERMAN EXTERMINATION CAMP Nazi Germany
  240. 240. HITLER’S AIM: GERMAN HEGEMONY OVER EUROPE Hitler hoped to achieve Germany’s hegemony in Europe and direct rule in Russia. His aim was a German-dominated power structure with the new colony of Russia at its base and with the other European countries as satellites. Instead what actually happened was the hegemony of the United States in Western Europe and of the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe. After 1945 Germany was divided between the two superpower blocs and not re-united until 1990. Nazi Germany
  241. 241. INITIAL ACHIEVEMENTS OF HITLER 1933 - 39 Hitler’s achievements from 1933 to 1939 confused and disarmed his opponents within Germany – Social Democrats, trade unionists, liberal Germans. Hitler’s party became an organisation superior to any other German party and rallied mass votes behind it from 1928 to 1933. It outstripped its main opponent, the Social Democratic Party and it had a dynamism which the Social Democrats lacked. The Nazi Party obeyed only one dominating will, it was full of fighting spirit and was a powerful steam-engine in German politics from 1928 onwards. Nazi Germany
  242. 242. NAZI PARTY (NSDAP) SEATS IN THE REICHSTAG 1928 TO 1933 – TOTAL SEATS IN REICHSTAG = 440 SEATS May 1928 – 12 seats Sept 1930 – 107 seats July 1932 – 230 seats Nov 1932 – 196 seats March 1933 – 288 seats Nazi Germany
  243. 243. Nazi Germany
  244. 244. Nazi Germany
  245. 245. Nazi Germany
  246. 246. NAZI PARTY RALLY, FRANKFURT, 1932 Nazi Germany
  247. 247. Nazi Germany
  248. 248. Nazi Germany
  249. 249. Nazi Germany
  250. 250. Nazi Germany
  251. 251. Nazi Germany
  252. 252. Nazi Germany
  253. 253. Nazi Germany
  254. 254. Nazi Germany
  255. 255. Nazi Germany
  256. 256. CONSOLIDATION OF POWER FROM 1933 The Reichstag was burnt down on 27 February 1933. The Nazi leadership and their German National coalition partners were convinced of the Communist authorship of the fire and the Dutch Communist Marinus van der Lubbe was accused of starting the fire and executed. The Nazi leadership truly believed that with the Reichstag fire, an armed Communist uprising was imminent; it was more than propaganda when they undertook to save Germany from ‘Marxism’, it was an integral part of the Nazi political creed. Nazi Germany
  257. 257. NAZI WISHFUL THINKING After the Reichstag fire the Nazi cult of the leader obliged Germans to regard Hitler’s political activity as the self- assured conduct of a man who fully mastered the situation and was clearly conscious of his aims. Goring, Hitler’s right-hand man, represented himself as the saviour of state authority from the Communist threat. Hitler felt himself to be the champion of Europe against the ‘Asiatic plague’ of Bolshevism. In each case both Goring and Hitler were the playthings of their wishful thinking. Nazi Germany
  258. 258. THE REICHSTAG ON FIRE, FEBRUARY 1933 Nazi Germany
  259. 259. THE CONSOLIDATION OF POWER: THE NIGHT OF THE LONG KNIVES, 30TH JUNE 1934 The Army remained the only institution which had the power to remove Hitler from office. The Army was not a Nazified institution and still retained some independence from Hitler. The ambitions of the Nazi storm-troopers, the SA, and of their leader, Ernst Rohm were regarded as a serious threat by the army leaders. In the summer of 1934 SA units began stopping army convoys and confiscating weapons and supplies. Blomberg, the Defence Minister, with President von Hindenburg’s support, threatened to declare marital law and give the army power to deal with the SA. Nazi Germany
  260. 260. ERNST ROHM, LEADER OF THE NAZI SA STORM- TROOPERS Nazi Germany
  261. 261. HITLER’S SHOWDOWN WITH THE SA, JUNE 1934 Rohm and his SA para-militaries, with their internal and military political aspirations for replacing the army, were endangering the ‘arrangement’ of 1933 whereby Hitler had been constitutionally appointed chancellor in return for upholding institutions of the state such as the army. A ruthless purge of the SA, known as the ‘Night of the Long Knives’ was launched on 30th June 1934 when the SS, acting on Hitler’s orders, executed the leadership of the SA. Nazi Germany
  262. 262. THE BODY OF ROHM AFTER THE NIGHT OF THE LONG KNIVES, 30TH JUNE 1934 Nazi Germany
  263. 263. Nazi Germany
  264. 264. MANY LEADING CONSERVATIVES WERE ALSO EXECUTED Hitler took the opportunity of the Night of the Long Knives to execute conservative opponents including General von Schleicher, the former chancellor in December 1932 to January 1933. Hitler by his action of executing the SA leadership had shown himself to be a loyal partner of the alliance with the army which afterwards accepted him as Hindenburg’s successor and took an oath of personal loyalty in August 1934. Nazi Germany
  265. 265. OATH OF LOYALTY TO ADOLF HITLER TAKEN BY THE GERMAN ARMED FORCES, AUGUST 1934 Oath of loyalty for Soldiers of the Armed Forces: 'I swear by God this sacred oath: I will render unconditional obedience to Adolf Hitler, the Führer of the German Reich and people, Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, and will be ready as a brave soldier to risk my life at any time for this oath.'Nazi Germany
  266. 266. OATH OF LOYALTY TO ADOLF HITLER, 1934 Nazi Germany
  267. 267. Nazi Germany
  268. 268. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HITLER MYTH, 1933 - 39 Every effort was made by Goebbels, during the decisive early months of the Nazi regime, to promote the image of Hitler as ‘people’s chancellor’ and the saviour of the nation. Since the Hitler myth was a product of propaganda, Goebbels had to deploy all his skills and resources to achieve his objectives. Key events, such as the opening of the Reichstag after the March 1933 election, were carefully stage-managed to create pure political theatre with Hitler as the central character. Nazi Germany
  269. 269. Nazi Germany
  270. 270. Nazi Germany
  271. 271. THE RADIO GAVE US BOTH HITLER AND THE BEACH BOYS Technology can be used to promote both good and evil. Radio and cinema newsreels, the new technology of the early twentieth century, was used by Goebbels to promote the Hitler myth, as well as the press and posters. Celebrations for Hitler’s birthday on 20th April, when flags, bunting and photographs of the Fuehrer were displayed in towns and villages across Germany, were orchestrated to project an impression of universal public acclaim for Hitler. Nazi Germany
  272. 272. GERMANY NEEDED A ‘SAVIOUR’ Looking at German history, the defeat of Germany in the First World War, the hyperinflation of 1923, the economic depression of 1929 – 33, and the lack of a democratic culture, the psychology of the German people was waiting for a ‘saviour’ to restore Germany as a great power. The only experience in Germany of a functioning democracy was the Weimar Republic of 1919 – 33 which had failed to deal with the economic depression, had produced weak coalition governments, and had not restored Germany as a great power. Nazi Germany
  273. 273. Nazi Germany
  274. 274. SUPPORT OF THE GERMAN PEOPLE FOR HITLER, NUREMBERG RALLY, 1938 Nazi Germany
  275. 275. Nazi Germany
  276. 276. THE COLLAPSE OF THE WEIMAR REPUBLIC The most important cause of Weimar’s failure was that too many Germans did not regard it as a legitimate regime. There was a brief interlude between the armistice and the publication of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles of June 1919 when a large majority of the German population was willing to give the new order a chance. This ‘dreamland’ episode ended abruptly when it became clear that the adoption of democracy had not saved Germany from a harsh peace settlement. Nazi Germany
  277. 277. MAJORITY WERE OPPOSED TO THE WEIMAR REPUBLIC After the terms of Versailles became known, the majority of the population opposed the Weimar Republic. Towards the end of the Weimar years (1929 – 33) there was a virtual consensus that the specific political arrangements of the Weimar constitution had become unworkable. By 1932 a majority supported a totalitarian replacement of Weimar rather than the rule of law and democracy. Nazi Germany
  278. 278. THE COLLAPSE OF SUPPORT FOR DEMOCRACY By 1930, after the economic depression had begun, Germany could no longer be controlled by the existing elites and pro-democracy political parties. Hitler appeared to be the only personality in the political spectrum outside the left who could command large masses. By summer 1932 everything seemed to revolve round the question how he and his mass following could be used to make government viable again without handing him total and irrevocable power. Nazi Germany
  279. 279. Nazi Germany
  280. 280. ANTI-SEMITISM PART OF WEIMAR’S POLITICS During the last years of Weimar, anti-Semitism was also part of the political package within the Republic’s politics. Weimar Germany had a numerically small and highly assimilated Jewish community, overwhelmingly urban and middle-class. The German-Jewish relationship was not without tensions and the liberal expectation that the problem would simply disappear was mistaken. Many ‘national’ Germans, even apart from rabid anti-Semites, thought there was a ‘Jewish question’. Anti-Semitism did not, however, play a major role in turning Nazism from a sect into a mass movement after 1929. Nazi Germany
  281. 281. Nazi Germany
  282. 282. THE ARMY WAS SHIELDED FROM PRYING POLITICAL EYES For the German army after Versailles, the limitation of its size to 100,000 soldiers, turned it into a segregated professional army with an officer corps drawn almost entirely from the traditional military caste. The defence ministers of the Weimar Republic saw it as their task to shield the army from prying political eyes. Nazi Germany
  283. 283. REPARATIONS Another heavy burden imposed on the Weimar Republic was the reparations question. By keeping the wounds of defeat and national humiliation open it made it virtually impossible to end the virulent nationalist agitation against the republic at any time during its existence. A lethal cocktail of anti-democratic, anti-liberal, anti- modernist sentiment contained ingredients which had been present in Germany long before 1918, but was rendered more poisonous by the repeated reminders of national humiliation. Nazi Germany
  284. 284. Nazi Germany
  285. 285. REPARATIONS: A PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEM The reparations problem kept the psychological consequences of Versailles alive. In many German minds their economic sufferings became directly linked with the foreign oppression imposed upon the nation. Yet Versailles was a compromise between French and Anglo-Saxon aims and left Germany’s strategic potential for the future intact. If anything Versailles enhanced Germany’s potential because of the situation in Eastern Europe, partly created by the Treaty in June 1919. Nazi Germany
  286. 286. Nazi Germany
  287. 287. THE SOVIET UNION: THE PARIAH STATE The Soviet Union was excluded from international affairs since it was an ideological pariah as a Communist state. Thus Russia (the Soviet Union) could no longer play a role in the Concert of Powers in Europe that it had done in the nineteenth century. The states of Eastern Europe would turn to Germany if forced to choose between Moscow and Berlin. Nazi Germany
  288. 288. Nazi Germany
  289. 289. REVISING THE OUTCOME OF VERSAILLES With the Soviet Union and the United States excluded from European affairs, the Germans, psychologically wounded by defeat in 1918 and its consequences, could yet pin their hopes on revising the outcome. The main difference was between those on the right who from the beginning saw revision of Versailles in terms of outright defiance and those in the centre and on the left who saw gradualism, fulfilment and negotiated change as the only realistic means of revision. Nazi Germany
  290. 290. Nazi Germany
  291. 291. DIVISIONS IN THE LEFT: WEAK OPPOSITION TO THE NAZIS The sharp divisions of the left throughout the Weimar Republic (1919 – 33) resulted in a weak opposition to the Nazis. The German Communist Party (KPD) was under the control of Moscow and thus of the needs of Soviet foreign policy. It wasted its potential for opposition to the Nazis with futile, self-destructive attacks on the Social Democrats (SPD). Blind Marxist determinism led the KPD into the belief that the destruction of democracy would inevitably bring about the triumph of communism. Nazi Germany
  292. 292. Nazi Germany
  293. 293. STRENGTH AND SUCCESS OF WEIMAR’S OPPONENTS The anti-republican, anti-democratic, anti-parliamentary, anti-Semitic, anti-liberal stream was very broad and diverse in Germany after 1918. Artisans, shopkeepers, white-collar employees, peasants, land-owners, house-owners, heavy industry, fashioned themselves ideologies that were loosely related to each other and to anti-republicanism. Nazi Germany
  294. 294. STILL FROM ‘THE BOOK THIEF’, NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER BY MARKUS ZUSAK Nazi Germany
  295. 295. THE DESIRE TO WORSHIP A SINGLE LEADER After the failures of the Weimar democracy, the majority of the German people had a desire to worship a single leader, to become a strong, united nation and to restore Germany’s great power status. In the conscious mind of the German people, Hitler appeared to be sacrosanct (revered). As the Fuehrer (leader of the nation), the Head of State, and the Commander-in- Chief of the Armed Forces, Hitler exercised enormous influence over the masses, using his personal magnetism to do so. Nazi Germany
  296. 296. Nazi Germany
  297. 297. THE PRESENTATION OF HITLER TO THE GERMAN PEOPLE Hitler was presented as tough, uncompromising and ruthless in fighting and defeating the nation’s enemies, both internal and external. He was also presented as hard-working, toiling unstintingly for his people while others slept. Hitler was presented as a political genius who had mastered the problems faced by Germany in 1933 and was responsible for Germany’s ‘national awakening’, in which order had been restored, the economy revived and Germany had thrown off the humiliating shackles of the Treaty of Versailles. Nazi Germany
  298. 298. Nazi Germany
  299. 299. THE PORTRAYAL OF THE HITLER MYTH Hitler was portrayed by Goebbels as dynamic, energetic and forceful, in contrast with the ‘weak’ politicians of the Weimar Republic (1919 – 33). He was portrayed as living a simple life and sacrificing personal happiness to devote himself to his people. He was invariably shown as being alone and removed from the Nazi Party. Hitler was also promoted as the ‘guardian of traditional morality and popular justice’. In reality he was to become a mass murderer. Nazi Germany
  300. 300. Nazi Germany
  301. 301. HITLER PORTRAYED AS A ‘MAN OF PEACE’ Goebbels promoted Hitler as a ‘man of peace’ and a statesman of true genius. In reality Hitler led Germany into the most destructive war in history and to total defeat, with his country in ruins and divided in two by the superpower blocs, the United States and the Soviet Union. Hardly a ‘statesman of true genius’! Nazi Germany
  302. 302. RAISES THE RED FLAG OVER HITLER’S REICHSTAG FOLLOWING GERMANY’S TOTAL DEFEAT IN MAY 1945 Nazi Germany
  303. 303. THE REALITY OF HITLER’S GERMANY Hitler, as Fuehrer, was surrounded by officials who competed with each other to gain his attention and implement his wishes. Hitler supplied the vision, his ministers and officials interpreted this and turned it into detailed policies. He was actually very little involved in decision-making, still less in administrative matters. Nazi Germany
  304. 304. MAY 1941 – MAY 1945, AND HITLER’S PRIVATE SECRETARY. ONE OF THE MOST POWERFUL MEN IN HITLER’S REICH. Nazi Germany
  305. 305. THE REALITY: HITLER’S DAILY ROUTINE Far from working hard, Hitler stayed up late watching films and would usually not get up until mid-day. His days were spent in eating, walking in the grounds of his mountain retreat, the Berghof in Bavaria, and delivering long, rambling speeches to his subordinates. He disliked reading official documents and rarely got involved in detailed discussions on policy. His officials often had great difficulty in getting him to make decisions. Nazi Germany
  306. 306. HITLER AT THE BERGHOF, BAVARIA, HIS MOUNTAIN RETREAT Nazi Germany
  307. 307. HITLERISM: HITLER’S HISTORICAL-POLITICAL IDEOLOGY For Hitler the only actors in the historical process are nations or races, not classes or religions. History for Hitler ‘is the description of the course of a nation’s struggle for its life’. ‘Anything that happens in world history is merely the manifestation of the self-preservation of the races.’ The state is ‘in principle only a means to an end, and sees its end in the preservation of the racial existence of the people’. Nazi Germany
  308. 308. WINSTON CHURCHILL, PRIME MINISTER OF THE UNITED KINGDOM 1940 – 45; 1951 – 55: THE SAVIOUR OF HIS COUNTRY AND THE CONQUEROR OF HITLER Nazi Germany
  309. 309. NAZI IDEOLOGY: A SUMMARY In their rise to power, Hitler and the Nazis put forward a wide ranging but loose collection of ideas which, when assembled, might be described as an ideology. Nazi policy was first put forward in their Twenty-Five Point Programme of 1920, a programme which was still officially the statement of their aims in 1933. Hitler’s ideas were not original; he borrowed from nationalistic and racist writings of the 19th and early 20th centuries that could be found in cheap pamphlets sold on the streets of German cities. Nazi Germany
  310. 310. THE VICTORIOUS RED ARMY OF THE SOVIET UNION, BERLIN, MAY 1945 Nazi Germany
  311. 311. NAZI IDEOLOGY: INCOHERENT, INCONSISTENT Hitler’s ideas were not coherent or consistent; he modified his policy statements according to the audience he was addressing. Hitler refused to be bound by the Nazi 1920 programme and abandoned radical economic ideas in order to win the support of the conservative-minded business community. Much of Hitler’s speeches and writings were based on irrational prejudices rather than on the ‘scientific basis’ which he claimed for his ideas and statements. Nazi Germany
  312. 312. PRIME MINISTER WINSTON CHURCHILL SITS ON HITLER’S CHAIR DURING A VISIT TO BERLIN, MAY 1945 Nazi Germany
  313. 313. IDEOLOGY: A DEFINITION Ideology is defined as a system of ideas that an economic or political theory is based on. A system is an organised scheme or method. In this sense the Nazis did not possess a coherent system of political ideas, unlike communism. Nevertheless part of the Nazis’ appeal was based on their constant repetition of a number of simplistic ideas which found a receptive audience among many sections of German society. Nazi Germany
  314. 314. THE DIARY OF ANNE FRANK: ELOQUENT TESTAMENT TO THE HUMAN SPIRIT Nazi Germany
  315. 315. SOCIAL DARWINISM Hitler believed in Social Darwinism, the notion that life is in essence a ruthless struggle for existence, in which only the fittest would prevail. In the brash, aggressive and militaristic atmosphere of Imperial Germany (1871 – 1918), a young, insecure and ambitious state adopted the ideas of Social Darwinism. Hitler held on to these ideas inherited from Imperial Germany. Pity was out of place in his worldview. Nazi Germany
  316. 316. Nazi Germany
  317. 317. SOCIAL DARWINISM To feel concern for concentration camp inmates, the old and the sick being put to sleep in euthanasia centres, subject peoples suffering under the heels of the oppressor, or enemy soldiers dying on the battlefield was sheer sentimentalism, the corrupting legacy of a Christian- humanitarian past. The Nazi was expected to be hard and ruthless in obeying the dictates of the higher law of nature for the sake of his own people. Nazi Germany
  318. 318. Nazi Germany
  319. 319. SOCIAL DARWINISM In the crude and bloody world of the Social Darwinists organized violence was essential feature of political action. “War”, Hitler remarked in 1944, “is therefore the unalterable law of the whole of life – the prerequisite for the natural selection of the strong and the precedent for the elimination of the weak.” The acceptance of Social Darwinism was the explanation of the deep gulf separating western statesmen and Nazi leaders on the subject of war. Nazi Germany
  320. 320. Nazi Germany
  321. 321. SOCIAL DARWINISM: WAR For western statesmen, war was an admission of failure, and the supreme tragedy to be avoided at all costs even at the price of what to many seemed a shameful surrender at Munich. For Hitler war was ‘the father of all things’, an ennobling experience to be treasured by those privileged to take part in it. Nazi Germany
  322. 322. CHAMBERLAIN WISHED TO AVOID: ANOTHER WORLD WAR, ESPECIALLY THE HORRORS OF THE TRENCHES Nazi Germany
  323. 323. INFLUENCES UPON HITLER Alien races as a biological threat to German racial purity Hitler was greatly influenced by ‘The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century’ by Houston Stewart Chamberlain (1900) which became the bible of German racialism. Chamberlain was a Germanophile and an ardent Wagner enthusiast, and believed passionately in the redemptive power of the Aryan race. Nazi Germany
  324. 324. Nazi Germany
  325. 325. CHAMBERLAIN IDENTIFIED THE ARYAN RACE WITH THE GERMAN NATION Chamberlain identified the Aryan race with the German nation, mixing Social Darwinism, chauvinism and anti- Semitism into a poisonous brew. The history of mankind, as portrayed by Chamberlain, was in essence a dramatic struggle of Wagnerian proportions between two pure races – the German and the Jewish. The German race embodied all that was superior in the Greco-Roman heritage, the Jews were the deadly enemy of mankind bent on world domination. Nazi Germany
  326. 326. RICHARD WAGNER (1813 – 83) Nazi Germany
  327. 327. HITLER IDOLIZED CHAMBERLAIN Chamberlain made a confident prediction that the Germans, being the superior race, would be victorious over all their enemies. Hitler idolized Chamberlain. He studied ‘The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century’ and was deeply moved on meeting the master, who was Wagner’s son-in-law, in Bayreuth in September 1923. One of the factors which possibly helped transform the nationalist politician into the future Fuehrer was the old man’s declaration a week later that in Hitler he recognized Germany’s saviour. Nazi Germany
  328. 328. Nazi Germany
  329. 329. THE HITLER YOUTH The Hitler Youth was created in 1926 and in its early years was relatively unsuccessful. When the Nazis came to power in 1933, all other youth organisations, except those linked to the Catholic Church, were either banned or taken over by the Hitler Youth. Only then did the Nazis’ own youth movement begin to flourish. In 1936, a Law for the Incorporation of German Youth gave the Hitler Youth the status of an official education movement, equal in status to schools and the home. Nazi Germany
  330. 330. HITLER YOUTH Nazi Germany
  331. 331. THE HITLER YOUTH By 1936 also, the Hitler Youth had been granted a monopoly over all sports facilities and competitions for children under the age of 14. Membership of the Hitler Youth was made compulsory in 1939. In the Hitler Youth, there was a constant diet of political indoctrination and physical activity. Boys from the age of ten were taught the motto ‘Live Faithfully, Fight Bravely and Die Laughing’. The emphasis in youth activities was on competition, struggle, heroism and leadership, as boys were prepared for their future role as warriors. Nazi Germany
  332. 332. HITLER YOUTH Nazi Germany
  333. 333. THE HITLER YOUTH Hitler Youth members had to swear a personal oath of allegiance to the Fuehrer. There was a set syllabus of political indoctrination which all members had to follow and a heavy emphasis on military drill. Boys were taught to sing Nazi songs and encouraged to read Nazi political pamphlets. They were taken on hikes and on camping trips. Ritual, ceremonies and the singing of songs reinforced their induction into Nazi ideology. Nazi Germany
  334. 334. THE HITLER YOUTH Nazi Germany
  335. 335. THE LEAGUE OF GERMAN GIRLS The League of German Girls was the female equivalent of the Hitler Youth. Its motto – ‘Be Faithful, Be Pure, Be German’ – was part of a process of preparing girls for their future role as housewives and mothers. Membership became compulsory in 1939. The girls were taught they had a duty to be healthy since their bodies belonged to the nation. They needed to be fit for their future role as child-bearers. Nazi Germany
  336. 336. HITLER WITH SOME LEAGUE OF GERMAN GIRLS Nazi Germany
  337. 337. THE LEAGUE OF GERMAN GIRLS Girls were instructed in matters of hygiene, cleanliness and healthy eating. Formation dancing and group gymnastics served the dual purpose of raising fitness and developing comradeship. At weekly ‘home evenings’, girls were taught handicrafts, sewing and cooking. In the Faith and Beauty groups, young women were instructed in baby care and social skills such as ballroom dancing. Nazi Germany
  338. 338. LEAGUE OF GERMAN GIRLS Nazi Germany
  339. 339. RULES OF THE LEAGUE OF GERMAN GIRLS Your body belongs to your nation, to which you owe your existence and for which you are responsible. Always keep yourself clean, tend and exercise your body. Light, air and water can help you in this. Look after your teeth. Strong and healthy teeth are a source of pride. Eat plenty of raw fruit, uncooked greens and vegetables, first washing them thoroughly in clean water. Nazi Germany
  340. 340. LEAGUE OF GERMAN GIRLS (IN COLOUR) Nazi Germany
  341. 341. RULES OF THE LEAGUE OF GERMAN GIRLS Drink fruit juice. Leave coffee to the coffee addicts. Shun alcohol and nicotine; they are poisons which impair your development and capacity for work. Take physical exercise. It will make you healthy and hardy. Sleep at least nine hours every night. Practise first aid for use in accidents. It can help you save your comrades’ lives. All your activities are governed by the slogan: ‘Your duty is to be healthy’. Nazi Germany
  342. 342. LEAGUE OF GERMAN GIRLS Nazi Germany
  343. 343. LEAGUE OF GERMAN GIRLS Many girls found their experiences in the League of German Girls liberating. They could escape from the constraints of home and develop a sense of comradeship. Although strictly run on the leadership principle, the League of German Girls was relatively classless, bringing together on an equal footing girls from a wide range of backgrounds. The League was part of the strategy for capturing the minds of German youth and moulding them for the purposes of the Third Reich. Nazi Germany
  344. 344. LEAGUE OF GERMAN GIRLS PRACTICE GYM Nazi Germany
  345. 345. LEAGUE OF GERMAN GIRLS: RACIAL AWARENESS ‘Only the best German soldier is suitable for you, for it is your responsibility to keep the blood of the nation pure. German girl, your honour lies in being faithful to the blood of your race.’ Nazi Germany
  346. 346. Nazi Germany
  347. 347. NAZI IDEOLOGY: ANTI- SEMITISM The starting point of Hitler’s anti-Semitic beliefs was the bland assumption that the state was the distinguishing mark of any people, an indispensable organization existing to provide work for all and representing the coercive power without which a people could not assert the right to live. Jews, according to Hitler, were unable to establish states because they did not look upon work as a social obligation and a duty performed for the good of the group as Aryans did. Nazi Germany
  348. 348. NAZI ANTI-SEMITIC POSTER Nazi Germany
  349. 349. HITLER’S ANTI-SEMITISM The Jews were not just simple parasites to be rooted out of Germany ‘one way or another’, but beings scheming and plotting behind the scenes to conquer the whole world. From its new headquarters in Moscow World Jewry was now making a calculated bid to conquer Germany as the next step towards world domination. So once again the fatherland was in the front line, where Hitler loved to be, facing an implacable foe bent on enslaving the people. Nazi Germany
  350. 350. Nazi Germany
  351. 351. JEWS ‘CORRUPTING THE GERMAN PEOPLE’ Jews were corrupting the German people by spreading pernicious doctrines of ‘internationalism’, ‘pacifism’ and ‘democracy’. The odd notion that war was an unmitigated evil was a Jewish device to weaken the will of honest Germans to solve their problems – as virile peoples ought to – by force. As for the nonsensical democratic belief that all men were equal, this conflicted with the basic Nazi principle that ‘the best elements’ should govern while the majority obeyed them. Nazi Germany
  352. 352. Nazi Germany
  353. 353. Nazi Germany
  354. 354. PSYCHOLOGICAL PROFILE OF ADOLF HITLER Whether or not Hitler’s father was brutal in his relationship with his wife, Hitler believed this to be the case which, psychologically, is what counts. The death of Hitler’s mother in 1907 was a traumatic experience for the eighteen-year old youth. It is significant that pictures of his mother (but not of the father) were to be seen in Berlin, Munich and at the Berghof. A sense of guilt arising out of subconscious desire for incestuous relations with his mother combined with a fear of a ‘castrating father’ left Hitler with a basic feeling of inadequacy and insecurity (with strong sexual undertones) which he never overcame. Nazi Germany
  355. 355. Nazi Germany
  356. 356. PSYCHOLOGICAL PROFILE OF ADOLF HITLER Some psychiatrists maintain that Hitler was indeed a sexual pervert and this would have greatly intensified the feelings of inadequacy. So, too, would the absence of a testicle, revealed by the Soviet autopsy on Hitler’s remains found in Berlin in 1945. On entering politics in 1919 – 20 Hitler made strenuous efforts to repudiate all that was weak and effeminate in his own personality and to identify with a new and virile superego – the ruthless and self-confident leader of men. Nazi Germany
  357. 357. Nazi Germany
  358. 358. PSYCHOLOGICAL PROFILE OF HITLER Patients with deep-seated feelings of inadequacy tend to project onto those around them the resentment they feel towards a parent or parents whom they hold responsible for their plight. Applied to Hitler, this means that the violent and bitter attacks he launched on all who stood in his way might be explained in terms of a deep sense of guilt about his own sexual inadequacy and of a desire to avenge the wrongs done to his mother by his father. Nazi Germany
  359. 359. HITLER WITH HIS HALF-NIECE GELI RAUBAL. SHE COMMITTED SUICIDE IN 1931 AGED 23. Nazi Germany
  360. 360. TO RECREATE THE MOTHER- CHILD SYMBIOSIS Hitler’s political career might be seen as an attempt to recreate the mother-child symbiosis which he never outgrew. In the all-embracing community of the army and the Nazi Party Hitler could insulate himself against reality in a protective maternal cocoon where his infantile sense of omnipotence and invincibility could flourish. Nazi Germany
  361. 361. Nazi Germany
  362. 362. GERMAN LONGING FOR HARMONY AND UNITY Perhaps Hitler’s constant avowals that National Socialist Germany was a people’s community speaking with one voice was basically a response to the longing of a deeply- divided people for harmony and unity? Families in difficulties often choose an individual whom they blame, quite illogically, for all that has gone wrong in the family situation. Might it not be that when Hitler singled out the Jews as scapegoats for all the ills troubling Germany he was simply projecting onto them the guilt complex felt by most Germans? Nazi Germany
  363. 363. THE WIFE OF JOSEPH GOEBBELS Nazi Germany
  364. 364. GERMAN COLLECTIVE LONGING FOR DEPENDENCY ON A LEADER When Hitler transposed to Germany the love he felt for his mother it might be argued that he was at the same time satisfying the collective longing of the German people for dependency on a leader. Hitler offered the German people work, security and order, he restored their sense of dignity and he reaffirmed the authoritarian pattern of their family life. Nazi Germany
  365. 365. DEFINITIONS: NSDAP (THE NAZI PARTY The Nazi party (NSDAP) was founded by Anton Drexler in Munich in 1919. Hitler became chairman of the NSDAP in 1921. Between early 1922 and the failed coup attempt of November 1923 party membership rose from about 6,000 to around 55,000. The party was banned after the 1923 failed attempt at a coup (the Beer Hall Putsch) and was relaunched in 1925. Nazi Germany
  366. 366. CATHOLIC CENTRE PARTY The party was founded in 1870 to defend Catholic interests in the new German Empire (1871 – 1918), which was dominated by Protestants. Its electoral support was remarkably stable between 1918 and 1933, and it was consistently represented in Weimar governments. The votes of the Catholic lower middle class and large numbers of Catholic workers were crucial to this consistent performance. The Centre was a committed pro-republican party until the depression when it shifted back to the right. It was dissolved in July 1933, but re-emerged after the war as the Christian Democratic Union. Nazi Germany
  367. 367. SPD (SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY) Formed in 1875, the SPD was persecuted under the chancellorship of Bismarck, but re-emerged to become the largest single party in the Reichstag by the outbreak of the First World War. The party drew its support from the industrial working class and sections of the lower middle class, but lost support to the Communists during the depression. The SPD was resolute in its support of the Weimar Republic, and was banned by the Nazis in 1933. Nazi Germany
  368. 368. Nazi Germany

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