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Ancient Rome Notes Master Fall 2007

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Ancient Rome Notes Master Fall 2007

  1. 1. Ancient Rome ...the dream of an empire History of Western Civilization/Fall 2007
  2. 2. The Italian Peninsula… ideal location
  3. 3. The first Romans and Italians <ul><li>… were farmers and nomadic herdsmen </li></ul><ul><li>… were highly developed technically (bronze, horses, wheeled carts) </li></ul><ul><li>… included different ethnic groups </li></ul>
  4. 4. Etruscans <ul><li>Moved in between 800 and 700 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>Probably came originally from the Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>Stretched from the Arno River (North) to the Tiber River (central) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Mix and match <ul><li>Etruscans had contact with the natives (like Latins ); provided religion, language, ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Etruscans formed city-states , not unlike the Greeks </li></ul>
  6. 6. Italian Peninsula at the dawn of Rome…
  7. 7. Rome…according to legend <ul><li>Rome was created by Remus and Romulus </li></ul>
  8. 8. Rome…according to history <ul><li>Tribal culture and social order dominates Rome until about 750 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>The likely village of Rome developed into a town/city </li></ul><ul><li>Drew aggressively on Etruscan culture/urban expectations </li></ul>
  9. 9. Early Roman Government <ul><li>Governed by a monarchy , who was absolute </li></ul><ul><li>Monarch’s power was described as imperium ; which is best described as similar to the power a father has over a household </li></ul>
  10. 10. Speaking of fathers… <ul><li>Roman monarchy is patrilineal (passed down to sons) </li></ul><ul><li>In the Roman family, father is all powerful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can kill children, or sell them into slavery, if they talked to the fam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Couldn’t kill wife, but was allowed to divorce (rare) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Father was the family priest </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Monarchy followed the father model…absolute power, but had to acknowledge the people, the welfare and tradition </li></ul>
  12. 12. Early Government Structure… The King (Absolute) Senate (Council of Elders, “clan confederacy”) Assembly (All male citizens [both parents Roman])
  13. 13. <ul><li>System means that a form of democracy existed early in Rome </li></ul>
  14. 14. Roman Growth <ul><li>City inspired growth, and the accumulation of wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Most wealth is concentrated among the rich </li></ul><ul><li>Develops a system of HAVES and HAVE-NOTS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patricians: the wealthy; controlled trade, the military and government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plebians: the rest; the farmers, laborers and crafts people </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Roman Expansion <ul><li>Fear or invasion pushes Roman control outward; Rome forces its power through the peninsula </li></ul><ul><li>Romans weren’t greedy for land and territory, just paranoid </li></ul>
  16. 16. Relics of expansion: roads
  17. 19. Transition <ul><li>Eventually, the native (?) Romans tired of Etruscan influence </li></ul><ul><li>Drove them from power in 509 BCE </li></ul>
  18. 20. The Roman Republic Era
  19. 21. Generalities about the Republic Era <ul><li>State of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… constant warfare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… constant expansion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… solidification of law codes </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22. New Government Forms 2 Consuls (Patricians; Rulers of Rome; elected for a 1 year term) evolved to… Preconsuls (Extended terms during military campaigns) Plus… Quaestors (Financial Officers) Praetor (Jusifical Military Official) Censor (Tax officiers)
  21. 23. Poverty creates reform… <ul><li>Peblians and patricians fight for power </li></ul><ul><li>Peblians actually threaten a separatist government </li></ul>
  22. 24. The Law of Twelve Tables <ul><li>Formalizes Roman law and organizes the constitution </li></ul>
  23. 25. <ul><li>New laws emerge: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patricians and plebians allowed to intermarry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually gained the right to be elected counsul and to the Senate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plebian assembly eventually considered binding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crisis averted? Woo hoo! </li></ul>
  24. 26. The Republic adds territory… <ul><li>Tarquin? Check </li></ul><ul><li>Etruscans? Check </li></ul><ul><li>Guals? Whoops; burns Rome to the ground  </li></ul><ul><li>Samnites? Check </li></ul><ul><li>Greek city-states in the South? Check </li></ul><ul><li>By 290BCE, Rome controls the Italian Pennisula </li></ul>
  25. 27. The Roman Way… <ul><li>How to keep everyone happy? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Owned territories send taxes and troops to Rome, but… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They get liberal rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roads are built to the cities (  trade) </li></ul></ul>

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