• Pavement in construction is an outdoor floor or superficial
surface covering. Paving materials include asphalt, concrete, stone
such as flagstone, cobblestone, and setts, artificial
stone, bricks, tiles, and sometimes wood. In landscape
architecture pavements are part of the hardscape and are used
on sidewalks, road surfaces, patios, courtyards, etc.
• Pavement laid in patterns such as mosaics were commonly used
by the Romans.
• Interlocking concrete pavers
• Interlocking Concrete Paver Driveway
• An interlocking concrete paver is a type of paver.This special
type of paver, also known as a segmental paver, has emerged
over the last couple of decades in the United States as a very
popular alternative to brick, clay or concrete.
• Stone Pavers
• A Stone Paver is another type of paver.This type of pavers are
used widely in building and landscaping as they are highly prized
for their beauty, strength and durability. Stone pavers are made of
including;Travertine, Limestone, Bluestone, Basalt, Sandstone
blocks laid in a
Concrete paver blocks
in a rectangular pattern
The advantages of rigid Pavements
For vehicular use are generally divided into two main categories -
(i) Rigid pavements have a high compressive strength, which tends to distribute the load over
a relatively wide area of soil.There are several advantages of properly constructed rigid
» Low maintenance costs
» Long life with extreme durability
» High value as a base for future resurfacing with asphalt
» Load distribution over a wide area, decreasing base and sub grade requirements
» Ability to be placed directly on poor soils
» No damage from oils and greases.
» Strong edges
The disadvantages of rigid pavements include -
» High initial costs
» Joints required for contraction and expansion
» Generally rough riding quality
» High repair costs
(ii) Flexible pavements consist of a series of layers, with the highest quality materials at or
near the surface.The strength of a flexible pavement is a result of building up thick layers and
thereby distributing the load over the sub grade; the surface material does not assume the
structural strengths as with rigid pavements.
The advantages of flexible pavements include -
» Adaptability to stage construction
» Availability of low-cost types that can be easily built
» Ability to be easily opened and patched
» Easy to repair frost heave and settlement
» Resistance to the formation of ice glaze
The disadvantages include -
» Higher maintenance costs
» Shorter life span under heavy use
» Damage by oils and certain chemicals
» Weak edges that may require curbs or edge devices
(i) Curbs can be used of concrete is probably the most common material used for both
barrier and mountable curbs. Concrete curbs are durable and relatively easy to construct.
(ii) Asphalt is frequently used for curbing, especially where curved parking is lands must be
constructed.They are economical and easy to construct.
(iii) Granite curbs are not as frequently used as asphalt or concrete unless granite is
quarried in the area. Granite curbs are far more durable than concrete.
Concrete paver block manufacturing process:
1.The rubber molds are washed with Sulphuric acid in washing ponds with varying
concentration of acid to remove the cement, concrete and color pigments stick to the
inner rubber surface
2. Colorant mix is prepared in a pot using cement, sand particles, color pigment of choice
and minimum water. Few millimeter layer of colorant mix is spread on each rubber mold
and leveled manually. If required, dry cement is added on the surface.
3. Rest of the rubber mold now filled with concrete mix and passed through the vibrating
table to release any entrapped air to increase its strength.
4. Rubber mold is leveled properly to ensure that it is completely filled with the concrete
5. Rubber molds are finally kept for curing for about 8 – 12 hours.After curing, the
concrete paver blocks are carefully released from the rubber molds and kept in open
space for further drying, if required.
6. Lacquer coat is applied on the top surface of concrete paver blocks to give them
aesthetically good finish and shine.
7. Continue applying a thin coat of release agent mixture for total 6 times and keep
producing concrete paver blocks for another 4 to 6 times.
8. Every time, observe the finish of concrete paver block and its corners for any damage
9. In case the quality of concrete paver block is fine, continue producing concrete paver
blocks, until it is found to be non-satisfactory in terms of proper release..
10. Optimize the cycle of release agent mixture application along with concrete paver
block production over a period of time and fix it.
11. Give acid wash to empty rubber molds before and after each of the concrete paver
block production cycle.
Preparation and Application of Release Emulsion:
1. Prepare 2 % aquesous mixture of supplied Dow Corning® 2418 Release Emulsion
(approx. 20 ml supplied product to be mixed in 1 liter of clean water).
2.Apply a thin coat of aqueous mixture to the inner surface of the rubber mold
including its wall and all corners using a cotton swab or cloth.
3. Rubber mold should be acid washed before applying first coat of release agent
4. Use this mold for concrete paver block production for two times.
5. Observe the finish of concrete paver block and its corners for any damage sign.
6.Apply a thin coat of release agent mixture again and use this rubber mold for concrete
paver block production for three times.
7.Again, observe the finish of concrete paver block and its corners for any damage sign.
The following steps will each be discussed in detail:
1.Planning and Layout
2 .Calculating Amount of Pavers Needed
4. Base Material
5. Edge Restraints
6. Sand Bedding
7. Laying Pavers
8. Sand Joints
These concrete paving bricks are suitable to be used for paving school areas, paving
university areas, and paving college areas including walkways, courtyard, parking areas and
This paving is suitable to be used for parking area paving, driveway paving, courtyard
This brick paving is suitable for paving public spaces, paving parking areas, driveway paving.
This paving is suitable for paving driveways, paving courtyards, paving walkways and
Roads andTraffic Circles
This concrete paving is suitable for paving roads, paving parking areas, paving driveways,
paving traffic circles.
This concrete brick paving is suitable for driveway paving, parking area paving, paving
walkways and paving courtyards.