More Related Content



  1. INTRODUCTION • Pavement in construction is an outdoor floor or superficial surface covering. Paving materials include asphalt, concrete, stone such as flagstone, cobblestone, and setts, artificial stone, bricks, tiles, and sometimes wood. In landscape architecture pavements are part of the hardscape and are used on sidewalks, road surfaces, patios, courtyards, etc. • Pavement laid in patterns such as mosaics were commonly used by the Romans. • Interlocking concrete pavers • Interlocking Concrete Paver Driveway • An interlocking concrete paver is a type of paver.This special type of paver, also known as a segmental paver, has emerged over the last couple of decades in the United States as a very popular alternative to brick, clay or concrete. • Stone Pavers • A Stone Paver is another type of paver.This type of pavers are used widely in building and landscaping as they are highly prized for their beauty, strength and durability. Stone pavers are made of many materials including;Travertine, Limestone, Bluestone, Basalt, Sandstone and Granite. Concrete paver blocks laid in a circular pattern Concrete paver blocks in a rectangular pattern
  2. The advantages of rigid Pavements For vehicular use are generally divided into two main categories - (i) Rigid pavements have a high compressive strength, which tends to distribute the load over a relatively wide area of soil.There are several advantages of properly constructed rigid pavements - » Low maintenance costs » Long life with extreme durability » High value as a base for future resurfacing with asphalt » Load distribution over a wide area, decreasing base and sub grade requirements » Ability to be placed directly on poor soils » No damage from oils and greases. » Strong edges The disadvantages of rigid pavements include - » High initial costs » Joints required for contraction and expansion » Generally rough riding quality » High repair costs (ii) Flexible pavements consist of a series of layers, with the highest quality materials at or near the surface.The strength of a flexible pavement is a result of building up thick layers and thereby distributing the load over the sub grade; the surface material does not assume the structural strengths as with rigid pavements.
  3. The advantages of flexible pavements include - » Adaptability to stage construction » Availability of low-cost types that can be easily built » Ability to be easily opened and patched » Easy to repair frost heave and settlement » Resistance to the formation of ice glaze The disadvantages include - » Higher maintenance costs » Shorter life span under heavy use » Damage by oils and certain chemicals » Weak edges that may require curbs or edge devices (i) Curbs can be used of concrete is probably the most common material used for both barrier and mountable curbs. Concrete curbs are durable and relatively easy to construct. (ii) Asphalt is frequently used for curbing, especially where curved parking is lands must be constructed.They are economical and easy to construct. (iii) Granite curbs are not as frequently used as asphalt or concrete unless granite is quarried in the area. Granite curbs are far more durable than concrete.
  4. Concrete paver block manufacturing process: 1.The rubber molds are washed with Sulphuric acid in washing ponds with varying concentration of acid to remove the cement, concrete and color pigments stick to the inner rubber surface 2. Colorant mix is prepared in a pot using cement, sand particles, color pigment of choice and minimum water. Few millimeter layer of colorant mix is spread on each rubber mold and leveled manually. If required, dry cement is added on the surface. 3. Rest of the rubber mold now filled with concrete mix and passed through the vibrating table to release any entrapped air to increase its strength. 4. Rubber mold is leveled properly to ensure that it is completely filled with the concrete mix. 5. Rubber molds are finally kept for curing for about 8 – 12 hours.After curing, the concrete paver blocks are carefully released from the rubber molds and kept in open space for further drying, if required. 6. Lacquer coat is applied on the top surface of concrete paver blocks to give them aesthetically good finish and shine. 7. Continue applying a thin coat of release agent mixture for total 6 times and keep producing concrete paver blocks for another 4 to 6 times. 8. Every time, observe the finish of concrete paver block and its corners for any damage sign. 9. In case the quality of concrete paver block is fine, continue producing concrete paver blocks, until it is found to be non-satisfactory in terms of proper release..
  5. 10. Optimize the cycle of release agent mixture application along with concrete paver block production over a period of time and fix it. 11. Give acid wash to empty rubber molds before and after each of the concrete paver block production cycle. Preparation and Application of Release Emulsion: 1. Prepare 2 % aquesous mixture of supplied Dow Corning® 2418 Release Emulsion (approx. 20 ml supplied product to be mixed in 1 liter of clean water). 2.Apply a thin coat of aqueous mixture to the inner surface of the rubber mold including its wall and all corners using a cotton swab or cloth. 3. Rubber mold should be acid washed before applying first coat of release agent mixture. 4. Use this mold for concrete paver block production for two times. 5. Observe the finish of concrete paver block and its corners for any damage sign. 6.Apply a thin coat of release agent mixture again and use this rubber mold for concrete paver block production for three times. 7.Again, observe the finish of concrete paver block and its corners for any damage sign.
  6. MANUFACTURERS OF PAVER BLOCKS : • Vipurva Pavers & Tiles • Gubbi Paver Block &Tiles & Sculpture • India Paving • Creative pavers • Tobermore (UK) • Blockwale • Barleystone (Ireland ) • Bradstone • Brett paving • Marshals • Lake land concrete (UK)
  7. The following steps will each be discussed in detail: 1.Planning and Layout 2 .Calculating Amount of Pavers Needed 3.Excavation 4. Base Material 5. Edge Restraints 6. Sand Bedding 7. Laying Pavers 8. Sand Joints 9. Sealing 10. Maintenance
  8. APPLICATION: Educational These concrete paving bricks are suitable to be used for paving school areas, paving university areas, and paving college areas including walkways, courtyard, parking areas and driveways. Parking Areas This paving is suitable to be used for parking area paving, driveway paving, courtyard paving. Public Spaces This brick paving is suitable for paving public spaces, paving parking areas, driveway paving. Residential This paving is suitable for paving driveways, paving courtyards, paving walkways and parking areas. Roads andTraffic Circles This concrete paving is suitable for paving roads, paving parking areas, paving driveways, paving traffic circles. Driveways This concrete brick paving is suitable for driveway paving, parking area paving, paving walkways and paving courtyards.
  9. Roman stone pavement inHerculaneum Cobblestone pavement in Italy Sett pavement in Paris Permeable pavement