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Intermediacy of publications
Lovro Šubelj1, Ludo Waltman2, Vincent Traag2, and Nees Jan van Eck2
1Faculty of Computer and Information Science, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
2Centre for Science and Technology Studies, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands
17th International Conference on Scientometrics & Informetrics
Rome, Italy, September 4, 2019
Introduction
• Citation networks offer insights into the
development of science
• Historiography: tracing the development of
a scientific field
• What publications have been important in
that development?
• We propose a new measure called
intermediacy
1
Existing approaches
• Main path analysis
– Relies on traversal counts of citation links
– Selects citation path(s) that have a high sum of traversal counts
– Rewards relatively long paths
– Conceptually unclear, not always clear results
• Shortest or longest paths
– Shortest paths typically do not include most important publications
– Longest paths typically include many irrelevant publications
2
Main idea of intermediacy
• Given a citation network with a source (s) and a target (t)
publication
• Intermediacy relies on citation links to identify important
intermediate publications
• Important intermediate publications should be well
connected
• The more important the role of a publication in connecting
source s to target t, the higher the intermediacy of that
publication
3
Illustration
• Only some citations are active
• Each citation is active with probability p
• Is there a path (of active citations)
through a publication?
4
Formal notation
• Each citation is active with probability p
• Intermediacy is the probability publication u lies on a
path from s to t
• Intermediacy of publication u from s to t is
Pr(Xij) is the probability there is a path from i to j
5
𝜙 𝑢 = Pr 𝑋𝑠𝑡
𝑢
= Pr 𝑋𝑠𝑢 Pr 𝑋 𝑢𝑡
How does intermediacy behave?
For p0 shortest paths are most
important
For p1 number of independent
paths are most important
6
Properties of intermediacy
• Path addition and contraction
increase intermediacy
• Intuition: path from source to
target becomes “easier”
7
Comparison with alternative approaches
• Alternative approaches violate path contraction property
8
Exact algorithm
• Decomposition algorithm by edge contraction and removal
• Runs in exponential time (NP hard)
9
Approximate algorithm
• Simple Monte Carlo simulation algorithm by sampling
• Runs in linear time using probabilistic depth-first search
10
Use case: community detection in scientometrics
Source: Klavans & Boyack (2017), Which type of citation analysis generates the most accurate taxonomy of scientific
and technical Knowledge?, JASIST, 68(4), 984-998.
Target: Newman & Girvan (2004), Finding and evaluating community structure in networks, Phys. Rev. E, 69(2),
026113.
11
Standard global main path (Pajek)
12
Conclusions
• Intermediacy as a new measure of importance of publications
• Conceptually clear and provable behavior in extreme cases
• Favors short paths and many independent paths
• Shows promising results in case studies
• Future work:
– Implementation in tool
– Applicability to other types of networks
13
Thank you for your attention!
14
Questions?
Lovro Šubelj
University of Ljubljana
lovro.subelj@fri.uni-lj.si
http://lovro.lpt.fri.uni-lj.si
Vincent Traag
Leiden University
v.a.traag@cwts.leidenuniv.nl
www.traag.net
Ludo Waltman
Leiden University
waltmanlr@cwts.leidenuniv.n
www.ludowaltman.nl
Nees Jan van Eck
Leiden University
ecknjpvan@cwts.leidenuniv.n
www.neesjanvaneck.nl
15
Paper available on arXiv: arxiv.org/abs/1812.08259
Code available on GitHub: github.com/lovre/intermediacy

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Intermediacy of publications

  • 1. Intermediacy of publications Lovro Šubelj1, Ludo Waltman2, Vincent Traag2, and Nees Jan van Eck2 1Faculty of Computer and Information Science, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia 2Centre for Science and Technology Studies, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands 17th International Conference on Scientometrics & Informetrics Rome, Italy, September 4, 2019
  • 2. Introduction • Citation networks offer insights into the development of science • Historiography: tracing the development of a scientific field • What publications have been important in that development? • We propose a new measure called intermediacy 1
  • 3. Existing approaches • Main path analysis – Relies on traversal counts of citation links – Selects citation path(s) that have a high sum of traversal counts – Rewards relatively long paths – Conceptually unclear, not always clear results • Shortest or longest paths – Shortest paths typically do not include most important publications – Longest paths typically include many irrelevant publications 2
  • 4. Main idea of intermediacy • Given a citation network with a source (s) and a target (t) publication • Intermediacy relies on citation links to identify important intermediate publications • Important intermediate publications should be well connected • The more important the role of a publication in connecting source s to target t, the higher the intermediacy of that publication 3
  • 5. Illustration • Only some citations are active • Each citation is active with probability p • Is there a path (of active citations) through a publication? 4
  • 6. Formal notation • Each citation is active with probability p • Intermediacy is the probability publication u lies on a path from s to t • Intermediacy of publication u from s to t is Pr(Xij) is the probability there is a path from i to j 5 𝜙 𝑢 = Pr 𝑋𝑠𝑡 𝑢 = Pr 𝑋𝑠𝑢 Pr 𝑋 𝑢𝑡
  • 7. How does intermediacy behave? For p0 shortest paths are most important For p1 number of independent paths are most important 6
  • 8. Properties of intermediacy • Path addition and contraction increase intermediacy • Intuition: path from source to target becomes “easier” 7
  • 9. Comparison with alternative approaches • Alternative approaches violate path contraction property 8
  • 10. Exact algorithm • Decomposition algorithm by edge contraction and removal • Runs in exponential time (NP hard) 9
  • 11. Approximate algorithm • Simple Monte Carlo simulation algorithm by sampling • Runs in linear time using probabilistic depth-first search 10
  • 12. Use case: community detection in scientometrics Source: Klavans & Boyack (2017), Which type of citation analysis generates the most accurate taxonomy of scientific and technical Knowledge?, JASIST, 68(4), 984-998. Target: Newman & Girvan (2004), Finding and evaluating community structure in networks, Phys. Rev. E, 69(2), 026113. 11
  • 13. Standard global main path (Pajek) 12
  • 14. Conclusions • Intermediacy as a new measure of importance of publications • Conceptually clear and provable behavior in extreme cases • Favors short paths and many independent paths • Shows promising results in case studies • Future work: – Implementation in tool – Applicability to other types of networks 13
  • 15. Thank you for your attention! 14
  • 16. Questions? Lovro Šubelj University of Ljubljana lovro.subelj@fri.uni-lj.si http://lovro.lpt.fri.uni-lj.si Vincent Traag Leiden University v.a.traag@cwts.leidenuniv.nl www.traag.net Ludo Waltman Leiden University waltmanlr@cwts.leidenuniv.n www.ludowaltman.nl Nees Jan van Eck Leiden University ecknjpvan@cwts.leidenuniv.n www.neesjanvaneck.nl 15 Paper available on arXiv: arxiv.org/abs/1812.08259 Code available on GitHub: github.com/lovre/intermediacy