TELEVISON:SCOPE,IMPORTANCE,HISTORY AND PLANNING
contents• Introduction- what is television?• The story of television• Television programme production• Script Writing for television
INTRODUCTION• How do you feel while watching a cricket match on television? Isn’t it almost like being there in the stadium? It is quite different from reading about the match in the next day’s newspaper or hearing a radio commentary. What makes the cricket match on television more interesting?• This audio visual character of television makes it a magic medium which allows us to watch the world from our drawing rooms.• You might remember how exactly Sachin hit a sixer in a crucial match. For most of• us, “seeing is believing”. This powerful visual nature helps television to create vivid impressions in our minds which in turn leads to emotional involvement.
WHAT IS TELEVISION ?• A television is a widely used telecommunication medium f or transmitting and receiving moving images, either monochromatic ("black and white") or color, usually accompanied by sound.• The word television comes from Greek word meaning ‘seen from a far’• Television" may also ref er specif ically to a television set, television programming or
IMPORTANCE OF• TELEVISION ions Television is one of t he f ew invent t hat t r uly changed t he wor ld.• I t was t he key t o deliver ing images t o whole nat ions and indeed t he whole wor ld as t hey happened. I t was t he f ir st t echnology t hat allowed many people t o see and exper ience event s t hat wer e hundr eds or t housands of miles away.• Television is one of t he gr eat inf or mer s.• Television br ought ent er t ainment r ight int o t he home and it made ent er t ainment a passive act ivit y.• Television has changed home lif e dr amat ically. I n t he ear ly par t of t he 20t h cent ur y, t he home was
Once Upon a Time…• Believe it or not, there was once a time when no television existed.• What was life like without the TV?
Entertainment before Television • Before television most people used the family radio as their way of receiving communication from the world around them. • A family would gather around the radio and listen to different programs and news stories.
Television ‘s humble beginning• The term television was first used in 1900.• Inventors of the television from the 1890’s until the 1950’s thought of TV as an additional means for delivering information and entertainment.• Television was seen to simply be an extension of the telephone, radio, and theatre.
Who do you think was the inventor?• This may seem like a simple enough question, but it is far from so. The invention of the television has many contributors from all over the world.• In the next few slides we will discuss some of the major contributors to the television.
John L ogie B aird (August 13, 1888 – June 14, 1946) a Scottish engineer, is known as the inventor of the first working television system.In his first attempts to invent television, Baird experimented with the Nipkow disk and demonstrated that a semi-mechanical analogue television system was possible with the transmission of a static image of a ventriloquists dummy in London in February 1924
• Alt hough t he development of t elevision was t he r esult of wor k by many invent or s (including Bair d, Paul Got t lieb Nipkow and Bor is Rosing) Bair d is one of it s f or emost pioneer s. He is gener ally cr edit ed wit h being t he f ir st per son t o pr oduce a discer nible t elevision image, and went on t o pr oduce ot her advances in t he f ield
Timeline of the Television• In 1862 Abbe Giovanna Caselli invents his Pan telegraph and becomes the first person to transmit a still image over wires.• Then in 1906 Lee de Forest built a vacuum tube that worked in the first mechanical working television.• In 1940 Peter Goldmark invents the first color television with 343 lines of revolution.
Timeline of the Television• In 1948 cable television was introduced in Pennsylvania.• In 1981 NHK demonstrates the HDTV which had 1,125 lines of revolution.• In 1992 the first 21-inch full color plasma TV was introduced• In 2010 the first 3-D televisions were put on the market.
Major Changes of the Television.• Then finally in 1956 the first remote control was made for the TV that was made with wires. The only problem was that the wires would not work in sunlight.• Later the first HDTV was made for viewers to get a better and higher quality image.• And in 2010 the first 3D TVs were sold letting viewers watch their programs in 3D.
HISTORY OF• BROADCASTING 1936 - British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) of Britain began the• first television service of the world• 1939 - Television broadcasts began in US• 1950s - Other countries began television broadcasting on a wide scale• 1953 - The first successful programme in colour was transmitted by CBS• in USA
TELEVISION HISTORY IN INDIA 15TH SEPT 1959- TELEVISION BEGAN IN INDIA ON AN EXPERIMENTAL BASIS. There were only two one-hour programmes a week, each of one hour duration. All India Radio handled these initial broadcasts. By the 1970s, television centers were opened in other parts of the country also. In 1976, Doordarshan, which was All India Radio’s television arm until then became a separate department. 1975-1976, SATELLITE INSTRUCTIONALTELEVISION EXPERIMENT (SITE)
SITE(1975-1976) SITE was an important step taken by India to use television for development. It was conducted between August 1975 and July 1976. Under this programme, the Indian government used the American satellite ATS-6 to broadcast educational programmes to Indian villages. Six states were selected for this experiment and television sets were distributed in these states. The programmes were mainly produced by Doordarshan which was then a part of AIR. The telecasts happened twice a day, in the morning and evening. Other than agricultural information, health and family planning were the other important topics dealt with in these programmes. Entertainment was also included in these telecasts in the form of dance, music, drama, folk and rural art forms.
A major milestone in the history of Indian television was the coverage of the Ninth Asian Games in 1982. Doordarshan provided national coverage for the first time through the satellite INSAT 1A. Also, for the first time, the transmission was in colour. By 1983, government sanctioned a huge expansion of Doordarshan. Thus towards the end of 80s around 75 per cent of the population could be covered by the transmitters. Many of the programmes of Doordarshan like Hum Log, Buniyaad and Nukkad were immensely popular. 1997- Establishment of PRASAR BHARATI: The Prasar Bharati Corporation was esablished to serve as the public service broadcaster of the country which would achieve its objectives through AIR and DD 1990s :ADVENT OF PRIVATE TELEVISION CHANNELS IN INDIA
Emergence of Private TV channels Today, we have many channels other than Doordarshan. Private television channels like Zee, Star, Aaj Tak, CNN have come into the Indian television scene quite recently. In the earlier days, Doordarshan had a monopoly as it was the only channel available to the Indian television audience. This changed in the 1990s with the arrival of private channels. The coverage of the Gulf War by the American news channel, Cable News Network (CNN) propelled the arrival of satellite television in India. Satellite dishes were used to catch the CNN signals and cable operators took to satellite broadcasting immediately.
Hong Kong based STAR (Satellite Television Asian Region) entered into an agreement withan Indian company and Zee TV was born. It became the first privately owned Hindi satellitechannel of India. The agreement between STAR and Zee did not last long.The Supreme Court ruling of 1995 which stated that the airwaves are not the monopoly ofthe Indian government boosted their growth. Several regional channels also came into beingduring this period. Sun TV (Tamil), Asianet (Malayalam) and Eenadu TV were a few of them.Apart from the regional channels, a host of international channels like CNN, BBC andDiscovery are also available to the Indian television audience. With different categories ofchannels like 24 hour news channels, religious channels, cartoon channels and moviechannels, there is something for everyone to watch.
Have you ever thought what goes behind any television programme production?Or, have you ever noticed the names of the people involved in production process that appear on television after the programme ends? Lets learn
TELEVISON PROGRAMME PRODUCTION• There are three stages of programme production1. Pre production: This stage includes everything you do before entering the studio or reaching the shooting location. It involves idea generation, research, scripting, discussions with all the crew members and talents (actors), arranging equipment, video / audio tapes, properties, costumes, sets designing or location hunting and booking of editing shifts.2. Production: This is the stage when you are on the studio floor or on location and are ready to shoot or are actually shooting.3. Post production: This is the third stage of programme production.. e It includes cutting the recorded visuals into appropriate length, arranging the visuals in a proper sequence, use of desired effects for the visuals or text / captions, commentary recording, music/song recording, and final assembly of the entire programme
KEy PROfESSIONALS INTELEVISION PRODUCTION Producer Director Script writer Actors Cameraperson Sound recordist Art director
Script Writing for televisionTelevision needs more good writers. Somebody’s gotta tell the little people that live in that box what to say and when to say it, and that, my friends, is where you come in!
BEfORE wRITING ThE SCRIPT ONEShOULD hAVE ThE fOLLOwING ThINGS INhIS MIND :(1)Types of audience:- The writer should have in his mind, beforewriting the script, the type of audience he is going to feed, whetherhomogeneous or heterogeneous group.(2)Objectives: -The objectives of the script should be more specific.These should not be in general terms.(3)Content: - The content should be based on the objectives. It is theduty of the script writer to collect the data according to the subjectmatter, arrange them logically and in an interesting manner and finallywith the help of audio-visual aids to present the topic in the way whichwill receive appreciation of the audience.
(4) Resources: - this is a creative process. What are the resources to be adopted to match the content and objectives are to be decided by the writer.(5) Limitations:-the writer is handicapped in relation to the limitations of the studio facilities, the finances, studio timing etc.(6) Image perception: -The TV is the combination of both picture and sound. If a picture will do what is the necessity of using words? The programme becomes boring and monotonous if the script writer forgets that it is a visual medium.(7) Script: - the language of the script should be as such which can easily be understood and can be related by the audience. They will find pleasure in the programme.
Important StepS In DevelopIng a televISIon1. programme :- Select a subject matter field which is need based from rural audience point of view.2. Choose an appropriate topic from the subject matter.3. Determine the main points to be made in the programme.4. Get an overall picture of programme in your mind.5. Divide the programme into important steps and arrange them in logical order.6. Consult resource persons and materials to make the telecast more accurate.
7. List out all the visual, equipment and other materials used in the production of a farm telecast.8. Determine the participants such as farmer, home makers, specialists, folk artists and other.9. Make an outline of the programme.10.Divide a sheet of paper into two columns. In the left column write the things you want to show, in the right column put the things you want to say or talk about. Label the left column “VIDEO” and the right column “AUDIO11.Write the opening and closing shots, action and talk that will take to do each important step of the programme.
12.Correct the out line as per the suggestions of programme producers and provide a copy to the producer and to the participants. This should be done at least on week before the programme is to be telecast13.Keep ready all the visual. Specimens and participants before going for recording.14.Prepare the audio and visual to each sequence according to time segment.15.Rehearse the programme at home, office or some other convenient place. Add or substrate material to fit the script into the desired time.
poIntS to be remembereD whIle televISIon programme IS beIng recorDeD or beIng telecaSt:-• Arrive at shooting place well in advance.• Acquaint the participants with the TV equipment and get, and introduce them to the programme producer.• Set up your equipments and rehearse the programme without camera. If time permits and facilities are available rehearse the programme with camera.• Make any last minutes changes that are necessary and relax until the programme is to be telecast.• While the programme is being telecast concentrate on the subject
• Try to get an informal approach to the programme.• If something un expected happens or make a mistake or drop something, don’t let it bother you. Recognize the mistake and continue your programme as planned.• Shows visuals samples, specimen. This makes programme more interesting.• Pronunciations should be clear and audible. Avoid difficult words in communication.• Don’t have apologetic opening. Open with an appealing tone with authentic information.• Let your voice have vitality, vigour, energy and enthusiasm• Maintain time segment.