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G+20 Corporate House Construction & Project Management.

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G+20 Corporate House Construction & Project Management.

  1. 1. A PROJECT REPORT G+20 Corporate house Construction & Project Management Submitted by: Maitrey Patel (110320106046) Aash Shah (110320106051) Neelay Khese (110320106113) Rehan Peerzada (110320106104) Jainil Patel (110320106036) Guided By PROF. Vaishakhi R. Shah Civil Engineering Department, LJIET, Ahmedabad A Thesis Submitted to GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING IN CIVIL ENGINEERING
  2. 2. GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY CERTIFICATE FOR COMPLETION OF ALL ACTIVITIES AT ONLINE PROJECT PORTAL B.E. SEMESTER VIII, ACADEMIC YEAR 2014-2015 Date of certificate generation : 21 May 2015 (12:40) Plagiarism Search Report Final Project Report Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) Business Model Canvas (Report) Business Model Canvas (Image) Submitted Four Periodic Progress Reports (PPR) Uploaded Uploaded Completed Uploaded Uploaded Completed This is to certify that, Jainil Bharatbhai Patel (Enrolment Number-110320106036) working on project entitled with Construction And Project Management Of G+20 Corporate House from Civil Engineering department of L. J. Institute Of Engineering And Technology, Ahmedabad had submitted following details at online project portal. Name of Student : Signature of Student : Jainil Bharatbhai Patel *Signature of Guide : Name of Guide : Ms. Vaishakhi Rajeshkumar Shah This is a computer generated copy and does not indicate that your data has been evaluated. This is the receipt that GTU has received a copy of the data that you have uploaded and submitted as your project work. Disclaimer : *Guide has to sign the certificate, Only if all above activities has been Completed / Uploaded.
  3. 3. GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY CERTIFICATE FOR COMPLETION OF ALL ACTIVITIES AT ONLINE PROJECT PORTAL B.E. SEMESTER VIII, ACADEMIC YEAR 2014-2015 Date of certificate generation : 21 May 2015 (12:45) Plagiarism Search Report Final Project Report Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) Business Model Canvas (Report) Business Model Canvas (Image) Submitted Four Periodic Progress Reports (PPR) Uploaded Uploaded Completed Uploaded Uploaded Completed This is to certify that, Aash Hitendra Shah (Enrolment Number-110320106051) working on project entitled with Construction And Project Management Of G+20 Corporate House from Civil Engineering department of L. J. Institute Of Engineering And Technology, Ahmedabad had submitted following details at online project portal. Name of Student : Signature of Student : Aash Hitendra Shah *Signature of Guide : Name of Guide : Ms. Vaishakhi Rajeshkumar Shah This is a computer generated copy and does not indicate that your data has been evaluated. This is the receipt that GTU has received a copy of the data that you have uploaded and submitted as your project work. Disclaimer : *Guide has to sign the certificate, Only if all above activities has been Completed / Uploaded.
  4. 4. GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY CERTIFICATE FOR COMPLETION OF ALL ACTIVITIES AT ONLINE PROJECT PORTAL B.E. SEMESTER VIII, ACADEMIC YEAR 2014-2015 Date of certificate generation : 21 May 2015 (12:42) Plagiarism Search Report Final Project Report Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) Business Model Canvas (Report) Business Model Canvas (Image) Submitted Four Periodic Progress Reports (PPR) Uploaded Uploaded Completed Uploaded Uploaded Completed This is to certify that, Maitrey Yogeshkumar Patel (Enrolment Number-110320106046) working on project entitled with Construction And Project Management Of G+20 Corporate House from Civil Engineering department of L. J. Institute Of Engineering And Technology, Ahmedabad had submitted following details at online project portal. Name of Student : Signature of Student : Maitrey Yogeshkumar Patel *Signature of Guide : Name of Guide : Ms. Vaishakhi Rajeshkumar Shah This is a computer generated copy and does not indicate that your data has been evaluated. This is the receipt that GTU has received a copy of the data that you have uploaded and submitted as your project work. Disclaimer : *Guide has to sign the certificate, Only if all above activities has been Completed / Uploaded.
  5. 5. GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY CERTIFICATE FOR COMPLETION OF ALL ACTIVITIES AT ONLINE PROJECT PORTAL B.E. SEMESTER VIII, ACADEMIC YEAR 2014-2015 Date of certificate generation : 21 May 2015 (13:07) Plagiarism Search Report Final Project Report Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) Business Model Canvas (Report) Business Model Canvas (Image) Submitted Four Periodic Progress Reports (PPR) Uploaded Uploaded Completed Uploaded Uploaded Completed This is to certify that, Neelay Rakesh Khese (Enrolment Number-110320106113) working on project entitled with Construction And Project Management Of G+20 Corporate House from Civil Engineering department of L. J. Institute Of Engineering And Technology, Ahmedabad had submitted following details at online project portal. Name of Student : Signature of Student : Neelay Rakesh Khese *Signature of Guide : Name of Guide : Ms. Vaishakhi Rajeshkumar Shah This is a computer generated copy and does not indicate that your data has been evaluated. This is the receipt that GTU has received a copy of the data that you have uploaded and submitted as your project work. Disclaimer : *Guide has to sign the certificate, Only if all above activities has been Completed / Uploaded.
  6. 6. GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY CERTIFICATE FOR COMPLETION OF ALL ACTIVITIES AT ONLINE PROJECT PORTAL B.E. SEMESTER VIII, ACADEMIC YEAR 2014-2015 Date of certificate generation : 21 May 2015 (12:19) Plagiarism Search Report Final Project Report Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) Business Model Canvas (Report) Business Model Canvas (Image) Submitted Four Periodic Progress Reports (PPR) Uploaded Uploaded Completed Uploaded Uploaded Completed This is to certify that, Rehan Javed Peerzada (Enrolment Number-110320106104) working on project entitled with Construction And Project Management Of G+20 Corporate House from Civil Engineering department of L. J. Institute Of Engineering And Technology, Ahmedabad had submitted following details at online project portal. Name of Student : Signature of Student : Rehan Javed Peerzada *Signature of Guide : Name of Guide : Ms. Vaishakhi Rajeshkumar Shah This is a computer generated copy and does not indicate that your data has been evaluated. This is the receipt that GTU has received a copy of the data that you have uploaded and submitted as your project work. Disclaimer : *Guide has to sign the certificate, Only if all above activities has been Completed / Uploaded.
  7. 7. CERTIFICATE This is to certify that project work embodied in this thesis entitled “G+20 Corporate house Construction & Project Management” has been carried out by Maitrey Patel (110320106046), Aash Shah (110320106051), Neelay Khese (110320106113), Rehan Peerzada (110320106104), Jainil Patel (110320106036) at L J Institute of Engineering & Technology Ahmedabad for partial fulfillment of Bachelor of Engineering Degree in Civil Engineering to be awarded by Gujarat Technological University for the term Jan-2015 to May-2015. This project work has been carried out under my supervision and is to the satisfaction of department. Date: 19 May, 2015 Place: Ahmedabad Internal Guide: Prof. Ms. Vaishakhi Shah Civil Engineering Department, LJIET, Ahmedabad HOD: Zuned Shaikh Head of the Department, Civil Engineering Department, LJIET, Ahmedabad External Sign:
  8. 8. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am very thankful to LARSEN & TOUBRO CONSTRUCTION ECC division for having given me the opportunity to undertake my summer training at their ADANI CORPORATE HOUSE PROJECT. I would also like to thank Debabrata Charkraborty Sir. I would like to convey thanks to Mr. Vishal Pandya Sir, Asst. construction manager L & T construction who debriefed us about the planning. I would like to convey my heartfelt thanks to all the staff of the project site office for their cheerful cooperation and for all their help and guidance throughout my stay at the project site. Lastly, I would like to thank my university LJIET for providing me such a great opportunity.
  9. 9. www. plagiarism -detect .com Date: 21.5.2015 Words: 4508 Plagiarised sources: 24 Plagiarised: 3% http://www.aquariusengineers.biz/products-stationary-boom-placer.html plagiarised from source: 1% the cumbersome process of laying the1. This can ensure faster pours in less manpower2. provided with a sophisticated remote control3. Hence, the movements of the boom can be controlled4. Suitable safety devices are provided to ensure accident free5. http://profit.ndtv.com/stock/larsen-&-toubro-ltd_lt/reports plagiarised from source: 1% firm F L Smidth & Co in connection with the1. of cement companies that later grouped into the Associated Cement2. Together, Holck-Larsen and Toubro founded the partnership firm of L&T in3. which was converted into a limited company on February4. http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/engines-equipment/tower-crane.htm plagiarised from source: 1% They're pretty hard to miss -- they often rise hundreds1. feet into the air, and can reach out just as2. The construction crew uses the tower crane to lift steel3. concrete, large tools like acetylene torches and generators4. http://womanoperator.org/capital_building.htm plagiarised from source: 1% They're pretty hard to miss -- they often rise hundreds1. feet into the air, and can reach out just as2. The construction crew uses the tower crane to lift steel3. concrete, large tools like acetylene torches and generators4. http://www.china-crane.net/ plagiarised from source: 1% They're pretty hard to miss -- they often rise hundreds1. feet into the air, and can reach out just as2. The construction crew uses the tower crane to lift steel3. concrete, large tools like acetylene torches and generators4. http://www.bsl-machinery.com/how-tower-cranes-work/ plagiarised from source: 1% They're pretty hard to miss -- they often rise hundreds1. feet into the air, and can reach out just as2. The construction crew uses the tower crane to lift steel3. concrete, large tools like acetylene torches and generators4. http://www.stichtingnextmove.nl/big-cranes.htm
  10. 10. plagiarised from source: >1% They're pretty hard to miss -- they often rise hundreds1. feet into the air, and can reach out just as2. http://www.iloveindia.com/economy-of-india/top-50-companies/larsen-and-toubro.html plagiarised from source: >1% firm F L Smidth & Co in connection with the1. of cement companies that later grouped into the Associated Cement2. http://www.slideshare.net/paliwalumed/summer-internship-report-lt plagiarised from source: >1% Together, Holck-Larsen and Toubro founded the partnership firm of L&T in1. which was converted into a limited company on February2. http://www.slideshare.net/AmmanAthif/tower-crane-42180127 plagiarised from source: >1% feet into the air, and can reach out just as1. concrete, large tools like acetylene torches and generators2. http://www.deckrane.com/info/towercrn.pdf plagiarised from source: >1% feet into the air, and can reach out just as1. concrete, large tools like acetylene torches and generators2. http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in:8080/jspui/bitstream/10603/4683/10/10_chapter 4.pdf plagiarised from source: >1% which was converted into a limited company on February1. http://www.slideshare.net/bhasker4u/larsenandtoubro plagiarised from source: >1% L&T shall foster a culture of caring trust and continuous learning1. http://www.automationengineeringinfo.com/marine/cranes/ plagiarised from source: >1% They're pretty hard to miss -- they often rise hundreds1. http://www.slideshare.net/subhra2jyoti/organizational-structure-amp-leadership-style-in-ms-larsen-amp-toubro- mumbai plagiarised from source: >1% L&T shall foster a culture of caring trust and continuous learning1. http://www.slideshare.net/victorxls/l-t-training-project plagiarised from source: >1% L&T shall foster a culture of caring trust and continuous learning1. http://scholar.valpo.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1022&context=jvbl plagiarised from source: >1% L&T shall foster a culture of caring trust and continuous learning1. http://civilengineer.webinfolist.com/equip/equipment-links.htm plagiarised from source: >1% The construction crew uses the tower crane to lift steel1.
  11. 11. http://www.machineryzone.com/used/1/cranes.html plagiarised from source: >1% The construction crew uses the tower crane to lift steel1. https://howardinturners.wordpress.com/2013/11/21/468/ plagiarised from source: >1% The construction crew uses the tower crane to lift steel1. https://www.facebook.com/pages/All-Access-Rigging/147428015387759 plagiarised from source: >1% concrete, large tools like acetylene torches and generators1. https://www.facebook.com/docscrane plagiarised from source: >1% concrete, large tools like acetylene torches and generators1. http://aquarius-engineers-pvt-ltd.b2b.sulekha.com/products plagiarised from source: >1% the cumbersome process of laying the1. http://utpedia.utp.edu.my/926/ plagiarised from source: >1% feet into the air, and can reach out just as1.
  12. 12. INDEX 1. INTRODUCTION………..............................................................................1 1.1 KEYWORD……………………………………………………………..1 1.2 WHAT IS PROJECT..............................................................................1 1.3 ABOUT THE ORGANISATION…………………………………….....6 2. LITARETURE REVIEW…………………………………………………...27 2.1 PLANNING……………………………………………………………..27 2.2 COST CONTROL……………………………………………………….27 2.3 SCHEDULE CONTROL………………………………………………..27 2.4 QUALITY CONTROL………………………………………………….28 3. METHODOLOGY………………………………………………………......29 4. STRUCTURE DESIGN……………………………………………………..30 5. CONSTRUCTION…………………………………………………………..33 5.1 SITE DETAIL…………………………………………………………...33 5.2 INOVATION IN PROJECT……………………………………………..37 5.3 EXAVATION……………………………………………………………38 5.4 FORMWORK……………………………………………………………42 5.5 RAINFORCEMENT……………………………………………………..46
  13. 13. 5.6 BAR BENDING SCHEDULING……………………………………….47 5.7 QUANTITY OF RAINFORCEMENT………………………………….49 6. PROBLEM & SOLUTION …………………………………………………52 7. MANAGEMENT………………………………………………………........54 6.1 MANAGEMENT OF EQUIPMENT……………………………………55 6.2 MANAGEMENT OF LABOUR………………………………………...60 6.3 MANAGEMENT OF MATERIAL……………………………………...61 8. CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………65 9. REFERENCE………………………………………………………………...66 APPENDIX 1- PERIODIC PROGTESS REPORT APPENDIX 2- PATENT DRAFTING EXERCISE APPENDIX 3- BUSINESS MODEL CANVAS
  14. 14. CHAPTER – 1 INTRODUCTION
  15. 15. Team ID: 22722 INTRODUCTION LJIET CIVIL 1 Introduction Over the years and more importantly in the recent past projects have been used as a delivery mechanism to do business and accomplish objectives. No wonder it has become one of the fastest growing professions in the world. Although the understanding of what constitutes a project and what doesn’t continues to be a topic of debate. This paper attempts to provide literature search on what is a project, its classification, characteristics, its life cycle, phases, tools etc. 1.1 Keywords: Projects, Project Management Every one of us is a manager of projects! From a house wife to a production employee to financial analyst, from banker to physician, from engineer to administrator, from teacher to student, we all work on various tasks with deadlines. Regardless of our occupation, discipline, or location in an organization, we all work on tasks that are unique and involve people who do not usually work together. The project may have a simple objective that does not require many people or a great deal of money, or it may be quite complex, calling for diverse skills and many resources. But the bottom line is that every one of us manages projects! 1.2 What is a Project? While there are several definitions of projects in the literature, one of the best has been offered by Tuman (1983), who states: “A project is an organization of people dedicated to a specific purpose or objective. Projects generally involve large, expensive, unique, or high risk undertakings which have to be completed by a certain date, for a certain amount of money, with some expected level of performance. At a minimum, all projects need to have well defined objectives and sufficient resources to carry out all the required tasks.” In lines of the definition provided by Pinto & Slevin (1988), and accepted for the purpose of this research, a project can be defined as possessing the following characteristics: (1) A defined beginning and end (specified time to completion) (2) A specific, preordained goal or set of goals (performance expectations) (3) A series of complex or interrelated activities (4) A limited budget Diallo & Thuillier (2003) reviewed the project management literature outlined a set of evaluation dimensions which appear regularly although not with the same occurrence: (1) Respect to the three traditional constraints (2) Satisfaction of the client (3) Satisfaction of the objectives as outlined in the logical framework
  16. 16. Team ID: 22722 INTRODUCTION LJIET CIVIL 2 (4) Project impacts (5) Institutional or organizational capacity built in the organization by the project (6) Financial returns (in the case of productive projects) or the economic or social benefits (in the case of public sector projects), and (7) Project innovative features (outputs, management or design) In the words of Turner (1999), “a project is an endeavour in which human, financial and material resources are organized in a novel way to undertake a unique scope of work, of given specification, within constraints of cost and time, so as to achieve beneficial change defined by quantitative and qualitative objectives.” As defined in A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMI, PMBOK® Guide, 2000), a project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service. Temporary means that every project has a definite beginning and a definite end. Unique means that the product or service is different in some distinguishing way from all other projects or services. 1. Characteristics of a Project Typically, most projects share most if not all of the five characteristics listed below. (1) A start and a finish (2) A time frame for completion (3) An involvement of several people on an ad-hoc basis (4) A limited set of resources (5) A sequencing of activities and phases 2. Classification of Projects within Categories and Sub-Categories (1) Project size (2) Project complexity (3) External or internal customer (4) Degree of customer involvement in the project (5) Levels of risk in projects (6) Major and minor projects within a category According to Gareis and Huemann (2000) the Project-oriented Company (POC) is an organisation which defines “Management by Projects” as an organisational strategy, applies temporary organisations for the performance of complex processes, manages a project portfolio of different project types, has specific permanent organisations to provide integrative functions, applies a “New Management Paradigm”, has an explicit project management culture, and perceives itself as being project-oriented. Thus POCs do have specific processes, such as assignments of projects and programmes, project management, programme management, quality management of projects
  17. 17. Team ID: 22722 INTRODUCTION LJIET CIVIL 3 and programmes, project portfolio co-ordination, networking between projects, personnel management in the POC and organisational design of the POC. 3. Project Life Cycle As maintained by PRINCE2 (2002): “A sequence of phases through which a project must pass. There are a variety of definitions that generally reflect different industry practices… The generally accepted sequence is: pre-feasibility validation of concepts); feasibility (detailed investigation of viability) design; contract (procurement); implementation; commissioning; handover and operation. Project life cycle generally defines: (1) The tasks to be accomplished in each phase or sub- phase (2) The team responsible of each of the phases defined As advocated Archibald & Voropaev (2003), there is a general agreement that the four broad, generic project phases are (common alternative terms are shown in parentheses): (1) Concept (initiation, identification, selection.) (2) Definition (feasibility, development, demonstration, design prototype, quantification.) (3) Execution (implementation, realization, production and deployment, design/construct/ commission, installation and test.) (4) Closeout (termination, including post-completion evaluation.) The number of phases in a project life cycle depends on a variety of factors like nature of industry, type of output, size of project etc. Kerzner (2003) has developed a theoretical sequence of phases that may be identified with most of the projects as is outlined below: (1) Conceptual (2) Planning (3) Testing (4) Implementation or Execution (5) Closure It is generally better in planning projects to analyze successive increments or distinct phases of activity; in this way the return to each relatively small increment can be judged separately. Like products follow a product life cycle, projects follow a project life cycle that has certain phases of development.
  18. 18. Team ID: 22722 INTRODUCTION LJIET CIVIL 4 Dividing a big project in manageable chunks makes the complex task of managing projects easier, these chunks in a sequential form can be termed as project phases which can further be divided into sub-phases and a collection of these phases makes what is called as a project life cycle. Each project phase is marked by completion of one or more deliverables. Although many project life cycles have similar phase names with somewhat similar deliverables required, few are identical. Most have four or five phases, but some have nine or more. Sub-projects within projects may also have distinct project life cycles. Importantly, these phases are not always consecutive in nature but are more simultaneous. Though researchers have suggested certain representative project life cycles, for example, the waterfall model and Muench et. al’s (1994) spiral model for the software development life-cycle, Morris’s (1994) construction project life cycle and Murphy’s (1989) representative life cycle for a pharmaceutical project. As per Kulkarni et al. (2004), the projects, especially the ones having a longer lifecycle, could be categorised into many phases depending on the functions. For convenience and simplicity points of view, the three commonly known phases is utilised, namely: (1) Procurement phase: From inception to the financial closure and beginning of works (tendering; dealing with governments, lenders, insurers, pressure groups, experts) (2) Execution phase: Project execution (site installation till routine processes are reached, significant completion) (3) Operation and handover phase: From significant completion till the end of defect liability period and handover As said by Flaatten, McCubbrey, O’Riordan and Burgess (1992), ‘project execution’ (also known as ‘project implementation’ phase) is the phase where project manager is responsible for allocating work to the various team members, making sure that the team resources are used where most needed, and ensuring that the workload is balanced. As intermediate deliverables are completed, they are reviewed for verification (that they are correct and abide by project standards) and validation (that they conform to previous work). Wideman (1987) describes; each of these phases are unique in terms of: (1) People allotted to them (2) The budget available for carrying out these phases (3) Specific time available to finish each of the phases. 8. Characteristics of a project life cycle Risk and uncertainty is highest at the beginning stages of a project and reduces thereafter as the project continues.
  19. 19. Team ID: 22722 INTRODUCTION LJIET CIVIL 5 The ability of the stakeholders to influence the final characteristics of the project’s product and the final cost of the project is highest at the start and gets progressively lower as the project continues. Also the cost of correcting an error increases as the project goes along. Gantt charts Developed by Harry Gantt in 1916, these charts give a timeline for each activity. They are used for planning, scheduling and then recording progress against these schedules. PERT/CPM (Critical Path Method) Both methods show precedence relationships explicitly. Although the two methods were developed independently during the fifties, they are surprisingly similar. Both methods, PERT and CPM, use a graphic representation of a project that it is called "Project Network" or "CPM diagram", and it is used to portray graphically the interrelationships of the elements of a project and to show the order in which the activities must be performed.
  20. 20. Team ID: 22722 INTRODUCTION LJIET CIVIL 6 1.3 ABOUT THE ORGANIZATION: Larsen & Toubro Limited is the biggest legacy of two Danish Engineers, who built a world-class organization that is professionally managed and a leader in India's engineering and construction industry. It was the business of cement that brought the young Henning Holck-Larsen and S.K. Toubro into India. They arrived on Indian shores as representatives of the Danish engineering firm F L Smidth & Co in connection with the merger of cement companies that later grouped into the Associated Cement Companies. Together, Holck-Larsen and Toubro founded the partnership firm of L&T in 1938, which was converted into a limited company on February 7, 1946. Today, this has metamorphosed into one of India's biggest success stories. The company has grown from humble origins to a large conglomerate spanning engineering and construction. Larsen & Toubro Construction is India’s largest construction organization. Many of the country's prized landmarks - its exquisite buildings, tallest structures, largest industrial projects, longest flyover, and highest viaducts - have been built by it. Leading-edge capabilities cover every discipline of construction: civil, mechanical, electrical and instrumentation. L&T Construction has the resources to execute projects of large magnitude and technological complexity in any part of the world. The business of L&T Construction is organized in six business sectors which will primarily be responsible for Technology Development, Business Development, International Tendering and work as Investment Centres. Head quarter in Chennai, India. In India, 7 Regional Offices and over 250 project sites. In overseas it has offices in Gulf and other overseas locations. L&T Construction’s cutting edge capabilities cover every discipline of construction – civil, mechanical, and electrical and instrumentation engineering and services extend to large industrial and infrastructure projects from concept to commissioning. L&T Construction has played a prominent role in India’s industrial and infrastructure development by executing several projects across length and breadth of the country and abroad. For ease of operations and better project management, in-depth technology and business development as well as to focus attention on domestic and international project execution, entire operation of L&T Construction is structured into four Independent Companies. • Hydrocarbon IC • Buildings & Factories IC • Infrastructure IC • Metallurgical & Material Handling IC • Power Transmission & Distribution • Heavy Engineering
  21. 21. Team ID: 22722 INTRODUCTION LJIET CIVIL 7 • Shipbuilding • Power • Electrical & Automation • Machinery & Industrial Product
  22. 22. Team ID: 22722 INTRODUCTION LJIET CIVIL 8 BUILDING & FACTORIES: The Buildings & Factories Independent Company is equipped with the domain knowledge, requisite expertise and wide-ranging experience to undertake Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) of all types of building and factory structures. • Commercial Buildings & Airports • Residential Buildings & Factories RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS & FACTORIES: L&T undertakes turnkey construction of a wide range of residential buildings and factory structures. Projects are executed using the cutting edge technology, sophisticated construction equipment and project management tools for quality, safety and speed. • Residential Building • Factories FACTORIES: L&T offers design and turnkey construction of heavy and light factories, cement & plants including Defence Projects using the latest construction technology, with a focus on Quality, Safety and Speed. The spectrum covers: • Heavy & Light Factories (HLF) –Automobile & Ancillary Factories, Glass plants, Food processing Factories, Pharmaceutical plants, Warehouses & Logistics Parks, Workshop Complexes, Solar thin film manufacturing units, etc. • Cement & Plants (C&P) – Cement Plants, Sugar Plants, Distillery Plants, and Food Grain storage structures, Pulp & Paper Mills, Textile Mills etc. • Defence – Construction of Manufacturing Facilities and Warehouse Facilities for Defence. Company Vision L&T Shall be a professionally- managed Indian Multinational, committed to total Customer satisfaction and enhancing shareholder value. L&T-ites shall be an innovative, entrepreneurial and empowered team constantly creating value and attending global benchmarks.
  23. 23. Team ID: 22722 INTRODUCTION LJIET CIVIL 9 L&T shall foster a culture of caring, trust and continuous learning while meeting expectation of employees, stakeholders and society. Some famous successful projects by L&T Construction:-  New gateway to Mumbai, Terminal 2  The Grand Hyatt International
  24. 24. Team ID: 22722 INTRODUCTION LJIET CIVIL 10 QUALITY POLICY At L&T, Environment, Health & Safety (EHS) is given the highest priority. The EHS policy enunciated by the Corporate Management lays emphasis on Environment, Health and Safety through a structured approach and well defined practices. Systems and procedures have been established for implementing the requisites at all stages of construction and they are accredited to the International standards of ISO 9001:2008, ISO 14001:2004 and OHSAS 18001:2007.
  25. 25. Team ID: 22722 INTRODUCTION LJIET CIVIL 11 L&T Quality Policy: Larsen & Toubro Limited – Buildings and factories Independent Company (B&F IC) is committed to achieve and sustain business excellence through value driven professional approach and total customer satisfaction. B&F IC shall strive to maintain leadership in its area of business by:  Designing and building projects to specified standards within stipulated time schedules.  Being continuous learning organization, benchmark with best industry practices to deliver superior value to the customers.  Providing innovative and cost effective solutions in engineering & construction with latest technology.  Effective implementation of Quality Management System as per ISO 9001 towards total quality and continual improvement of all processes  Developing Leaders, who set high expectations, achieve business excellence through entrepreneurship and team work.  Ensuring greater employee morale and motivation by involving, developing and empowering people through training and up- gradation of their competencies.  Building long term relationships with customers and strategic business partners based on shared objectives towards enhanced value creation. Quality Management System: 1. Quality Assurance 2. Quality Control
  26. 26. Team ID: 22722 INTRODUCTION LJIET CIVIL 12 Quality Assurance: All the activities concerned with attainment of quality. Contents of Quality Assurance:- 1. Site Inspections 2. Method Statements  Work Procedure  Inspection Test Plan  Checklist  Risk Assessment 3. Inspection Test Plan 4. Audits  Internal Audit  Opening Meet  NCR(Non Conformity Report)  Observation  Closing meet  External Audit 5. Trainings  Staff  Workers 6. CONQUAS( Construction Quality Assessment System) 7. Reports/MIS  Monthly Quality Report  Weekly Quality Report 8. Quality Plan  Project Quality Plan  Quality Assurance Plan 9. Inspection  For Material (Material Inspection Report)  For Work (Work Inspection Report)
  27. 27. Team ID: 22722 INTRODUCTION LJIET CIVIL 13 Quality Control:-  The operational Techniques and activities which together sustain the product, service or quality to specific requirement. 1. Laboratory  Bulk Material testing as per inspection test plan  Cube compression test  Trial Mix as per data  Acceptability test 2. Batching Plant  Production of Concrete  Concrete Temperature  Slump Test  Sampling and Testing of concrete (As per IS 456) Project Quality Plan 1. Work Methods 2. Inspection Test Plan 3. Frequency 4. Acceptance criteria. Quality Objectives of L&T: 1. Customer Value  Product rating of structures finishes & MEP  Customer Feedback  Pre commissioning obligations 2. Process  Plan vs. Actual  Project Milestone  Financial performances  Cost prudence
  28. 28. Team ID: 22722 INTRODUCTION LJIET CIVIL 14  Safety records 3. Improvement  Safety performance  Cycle time  Cost of poor quality  Wastage reductions  Product quality rating 4. Leadership  Development of future leaders 5. Motivations 6. Partnerships.
  29. 29. Team ID: 22722 INTRODUCTION LJIET CIVIL 15 ENVIRONMENT, HEALTH & SAFETY (EHS) POLICY
  30. 30. Team ID: 22722 INTRODUCTION LJIET CIVIL 17 VISION & MISSION VISION L&T shall be professionally managed Indian multinational committed to total customer satisfaction and enhancing shareholder value. L&T shall be an innovative entrepreneurial and empowered team constantly creating value and attaining global benchmarks. L&T shall foster a culture of caring trust and continuous learning while meeting expectations of employees, stakeholders and society. MISSION To achieve excellence in the field of Engineering, Procurement and Construction through world class practice and standards in quality, Safety and Project Management.
  31. 31. Team ID: 22722 INTRODUCTION LJIET CIVIL 18 ABOUT PROJECT Adani Corporate House Structural layout
  32. 32. Team ID: 22722 INTRODUCTION LJIET CIVIL 19 Side view
  33. 33. Team ID: 22722 INTRODUCTION LJIET CIVIL 20 Site Address: Adani Corporate House, Adani Shantigram Township, SG Highway, Ahmedabad The corporate office forms a part of Ahmadabad’s well-known Shantigram Township spread over 600 acres, where state-of-the-art commercial complexes complement luxurious residences. The idea was to build a tower that would be publicly recognized and distinctively read as a symbol of the bold standards of Adani Group. The overall scheme is divided in two phases in which phase I consists of High rise tower housing group companies and low rise structure balancing it with amenities that cater to the staff. Subsequently, the key design has been evolved over defined axis which orients the building to face main access road thus exploiting its frontage and giving it a distinct identity. Meeting the client’s key requirement, the building has been planned with distinct circulation paths and separate entrance for executives and general staff. The staff entrance and public functions are situated at the low rise having state of the art auditorium and cafeteria above. Grand central atrium is created at the ground level of both high and low rise volumes which radiates transparency and openness inside the structure. The tower is designed keeping in mind the clients desire to use maximum natural light and have large office spaces that can be grouped easily. Small footprint on the plot has enabled large landscape spaces to be integrated with the building enhancing the surroundings and adding a sense of openness to the overall scheme.
  34. 34. Team ID: 22722 INTRODUCTION LJIET CIVIL 21
  35. 35. Team ID: 22722 INTRODUCTION LJIET CIVIL 22 Project Brief Client ADANI Enterprises Limited. Architects ARCHGROUP International Architects Pvt. Ltd, Mumbai. Structural Sterling Engineering Consultancy services Pvt. Ltd, Consultant Mumbai MEP Consultants AECOM, UAE. Location Shantigram, Ahmedabad. Plot Area 11 Acres (Approx.) Build Up Area 1.52 Million Sq ft Project Duration 24 months Total cost (Approx.) 210 crores It will include a common substructure which has 3 floors as basement, 6 storey and 16 storey (with terrace) superstructure. The maximum height of the building after completion of the project will be 82 meters, including the helipad. The area is divided into wings and zones according to the direction and structural designing. Wings are named as East, West, South and North, while zoning is done as Zone I-VIII. The workforce is of around 650 people. The site has an office, a worker colony, canteens, steel yard, formwork yard, P&M office, and batching plant. The execution of project is planned into 8 zones: ZONE 1 ZONE 2 & 3 ZONE 4, 5 & 6 ZONE 7 & 8
  36. 36. Team ID: 22722 INTRODUCTION LJIET CIVIL 23
  37. 37. Team ID: 22722 INTRODUCTION LJIET CIVIL 24
  38. 38. Team ID: 22722 INTRODUCTION LJIET CIVIL 25
  39. 39. Team ID: 22722 INTRODUCTION LJIET CIVIL 26
  40. 40. Team ID: 22722 INTRODUCTION LJIET CIVIL 1
  41. 41. CHAPTER – 2 LITARETURE REVIEW
  42. 42. Team ID: 22722 Literature Review LJIET CIVIL 27 Literature Review 2.1 Planning Planning techniques for construction projects include a work breakdown structure; Program Evaluation and Review Technique, or PERT, charts; and Gantt charts. A work breakdown structure reduces complexity by breaking down the work to be done into individual tasks that are the responsibility of a particular employee. PERT charts put the tasks into sequence to establish what has to be completed before other tasks can start. Gantt charts are horizontal bar charts, with each bar representing the duration of a project; these give an overview of how the project has to proceed. Applying these techniques to construction projects allows you to reserve the required resources and assign responsibilities to ensure the smooth functioning of project management. 2.2 Cost Control Construction project management requires cost control. Your planning activities have helped you identify the tasks that have to be completed and assign corresponding work. Cost control starts with distributing the total cost to the tasks and establishing reporting procedures to track costs as your company incurs them. You can achieve close cost control with signature rules for purchase orders and payments. If you have to sign all purchase orders, you will know what costs the project is generating. If your signature is required for payments, you have control over booking costs to the project. 2.3 Schedule Control Controlling the schedule for construction projects is critical because tasks are mutually interdependent and delays can increase costs. Your planning has established the overall schedule and specifies when particular tasks must be completed. A good schedule control technique is to establish milestones that are easily observed and verified. Another technique is to use outside events like permits to check on progress. If you have scheduled a milestone like the raising of the building structure, you can go to the site on that day to verify whether the project team has met the milestone. If you know that the project requires a building permit at a certain date, you can check whether the permit has been issued.
  43. 43. Team ID: 22722 Literature Review LJIET CIVIL 28 2.4 Quality Control An important function for construction projects is to control the quality of the materials and the work because it affect the value of the structure you are building. Quality control has three parts. You have to identify the level of quality you want, ensure that the purchase orders specify the quality and examine the finished product to make sure you received what you ordered. When you assign responsibility for a task in the planning stage, you also have to assign responsibility for the quality and for the required documentation. For each item, the documentation has to include the specified level of quality, the corresponding order and the resulting test or inspection report.
  44. 44. CHAPTER – 3 METHODOLOGY
  45. 45. Team ID: 22722 METHODOLOGY LJIET CIVIL 29
  46. 46. CHAPTER – 4 STRUCTURE DESIGN
  47. 47. Team ID: 22722 STRUCTURE DESIGN LJIET CIVIL 30
  48. 48. Team ID: 22722 STRUCTURE DESIGN LJIET CIVIL 31
  49. 49. Team ID: 22722 STRUCTURE DESIGN LJIET CIVIL 32
  50. 50. CHAPTER – 5 CONSTRUCTION
  51. 51. Team ID: 22722 CONSTRUCTION LJIET CIVIL 33 5.1 SITE DETAILS The following components could be easily identified on the site: Labor colony This part of site provides shelter and various other facilities like canteen to the workers working on the site. Approximate area 8500 sq m. Cement batching and mixing plant This part of the site facilitates storing of materials, testing and making of concrete on site. Freshly prepared concrete is taken on site with the help of transit mixers having capacity of 6 cu.m. each. Plant type: Conveyor Type concrete batching plant Aggregates used in making concrete: Coarse Aggregate of 10 mm and 20 mm sizes Sand sourced from Prantij and Mahudi (Zone II and III) Plant Capacity: 30 cu m/hr Strength of concrete used on site: M-40 for RCC Structures
  52. 52. Team ID: 22722 CONSTRUCTION LJIET CIVIL 34 M-15 for PCC  Site office The office has following major parts:  Planning Dept.  Accounts Dept.  Office of the Project Manager  Conference Room  Waiting Area Office for the Engineers
  53. 53. Team ID: 22722 CONSTRUCTION LJIET CIVIL 35  Reinforcement yard: This part of the site is responsible for unloading, storing and processing of steel reinforcement used on the site. The reinforcements, being procured, confirm to the Indian Standard 1786:2008 and are thermo- mechanically treated.  Formwork yard: Formwork yard contains all the materials required to construct a tower, support and barricades. It may have low duty towers, heavy duty towers, CT Props, Hydraulic jacks, plywood, H-beams(Doka and Aluminum), Steel section.
  54. 54. Team ID: 22722 CONSTRUCTION LJIET CIVIL 36
  55. 55. Team ID: 22722 CONSTRUCTION LJIET CIVIL 37 5.2 INOVATION IN PROJECT: Usage Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) Blocks for Masonry Work. Property Dimensions * mm Length (L) 600 Height (H) 200 Width (D)* 75 100 125 150 200 225 Tolerance +/- 3 Application Ideal for Masonry work for High Rise, Commercial, Institutional and Industrial Buildings. Special Features  BRIXOLite AAC blocks are green building product manufactured using 70 % of recycled material.  BRIXOLite is 65 % less in weight than conventional clay bricks. It saves approximately 15 % to 20% of the steel requirement in reinforcement. Its excellent size/weight ratio allows faster construction work.  Its uniform and bigger size of AAC blocks enable speedy construction.  High compressive strength makes BRIXOLite AAC blocks solid, therefore it is recommended for load bearing walls, also causing minimum breakage.  Dimensional accuracy result, BRIXOLite is extremely easy to install, saves mortar and plaster consumption.  It can be available in different sizes according to project’s requirement.  The porous structure of BRIXOLite AAC blocks provides a high acoustic insulation.  BRIXOLite AAC blocks have very low thermal conductivity and therefore a high thermal energy efficiency is achieved. It reduce the inside temperature which results in cost savings for heating and cooling.  One of the important property AAC blocks of extremely higher fire resistance which gives product rating at least 4 hours and more.
  56. 56. Team ID: 22722 CONSTRUCTION LJIET CIVIL 38 5.3 EXCAVATION AND FOOTINGS My project at the site was in the area of excavation, reinforcement, shuttering and concreting of foundations of various kinds, in Zone VIII. EXCAVATION Equipment used - Track hoe Loader, Dumper, Calibrated Auto-Level, Vertical Staff, Total Station, Steel rods. Process Flow -  Firstly, the grade slab level is found (50.055m)
  57. 57. Team ID: 22722 CONSTRUCTION LJIET CIVIL 39 Auto-level is set up on the field, back sight reading is taken from a benchmark and Height of instrument is established. The difference between the height of the instrument and the bottom level of the footing is found, and the relevant reading is seen on the vertical staff while excavation is being done. After proper excavation, points for the concreting of the PCC level below the footing are marked. Level at Basement 3 : 50.055 (-11.50) F1 type footing: Total height = 350 mm + 475 mm + 725 mm + 150 mm = 1700 mm Bottom RL of the footing = 50.055 - 1.7 = 48.355m
  58. 58. Team ID: 22722 CONSTRUCTION LJIET CIVIL 40 After 1 month (zone-8)
  59. 59. Team ID: 22722 CONSTR UCTION LJIET CIVIL 41 F2 type footing: Total height = 350 + 500 + 775 + 150 mm = 1775 mm Bottom RL of footing = 50.055 -1.775 = 48.280m Retaining wall: Total height = 350 + 150 + 800 = 1300 mm Bottom RL of footing = 50.055 -1.300 = 48.755m Below picture shown is the key plan of the zone 1 & 8 foundation. (Level B3)
  60. 60. Team ID: 22722 CONSTRUCTION LJIET CIVIL 42 5.4 FORMWORK Various kinds of formworks are used at the site. One of the most important aspects is the load carrying capacity of the tower systems and the height of the towers. Also, to support the slab and column, formwork is used. It is of major influence to make sure that the column, slab, beam, wall or footing stays in its place while concreting and does not run out of shape after initial setting time. H Beam: Doka H-16, H-20, H24, Doka H-20 eco 2.45 m and Alu H-20 Plywood and H-beams are generally used to support a structural unit when concreting is to be
  61. 61. Team ID: 22722 CONSTRUCTION LJIET CIVIL 43 done. Plywood and H-beams combined with CT Props and hydraulic jacks are used to support a slab before and after construction. Steel sections are used to support the plywood and to provide appropriate formwork for construction of structural members. A number of fundamental principles apply to all formwork. Consideration must be given to:  Acceptable tolerances permitted;  Use of appropriate materials;  Standards of workmanship;  Construction for ease of erection and stripping.  Care and maintenance of the formwork, so that the maximum number of r e‐uses can be achieved. Formwork is a temporary construction; however care must be taken to prevent damage to perman ent work. Three general principles govern formwork design and construction:  Quality accuracy of the concrete shape and the final finished surface quality.  Safetystrength of the formwork structure. Personal safety of people, both carpenters and the public.  Economy the structural frame is usually the most significant cost component, a dominant and critica l factor in the time of construction. Formwork System Columns – L&T Column formwork Wall – L&T Wall formwork Floor Slabs (<4.5m height) – L&T Table formwork Floor Slabs (>4.5m height) – L&T Heavy Duty tower formwork
  62. 62. Team ID: 22722 CONSTRUCTION LJIET CIVIL 44 Basically in our site these are the types of the formwork are given below 1. L&T COLUMN/WALL FORMWORK SYSTEM 2. L&T TABLE FORMWORK SYSTEM 3. LOADING PLATFORM FOR TABLE FORM LIFTING 4. L&T HEAVY DUTY TOWER SYSTEM 5. L&T FLEX FORMWORK SYSTEM (FOR LOBBY SLABS& OTHER AREAS
  63. 63. Team ID: 22722 CONSTRUCTION LJIET CIVIL 45 Scaffold Max load Per Max concentrated load Class Platform per Bay Per Platform per Bay (Should be over transom) Light 225kg 100kg Medium 450kg 150kg Heavy 675kg 200kg Height of Steel Aluminium Scaffold Up to 15m 4 3 Up to 30m 3 2 Up to 45m 2 1
  64. 64. Team ID: 22722 CONSTRUCTION LJIET CIVIL 46 5.5 REINFORCEMENT 8 mm diameter steel reinforcement is used in making stirrups for columns. They are also used in making bent up section like steel chairs, used for supporting two different layers of reinforcement in a flat slab.(unit weight 0.39 kg/m) 10 mm diameter steel reinforcement is used in making stirrups for columns. They are also used as extra bars in reinforcing flat slab.(unit weight 0.67 kg/m) 12 mm diameter steel reinforcement is used in making stirrups for some columns. They are used in making various bent up sections like drop panel section, sections for
  65. 65. Team ID: 22722 CONSTRUCTION LJIET CIVIL 47 retaining wall etc. (unit weight 0.89 kg/m) 16 mm diameter steel reinforcement is used in making sections for staircases. These are also used as additional reinforcement for strengthening the column capital. These are also used in vertical reinforcement (unit weight 1.58 kg/m) 20 mm diameter steel reinforcement is used in making sections for staircases, beams etc. These are also used in vertical reinforcement i.e. for columns. (Unit weight 2.47 kg/m) 25 mm diameter steel reinforcement is used in making sections for staircases, beams etc. These are also used in reinforcing columns. (Unit weight 3.85 kg/m) 32 mm diameter steel reinforcement is majorly used in reinforcing columns and beams.(Unitweight 6.32 kg/m) 36 mm diameter steel reinforcement is majorly used in columns. (unit weight 8.00 kg/m) Raft reinforcement consists of following things:-  Bottom X-direction all through  Bottom X – direction additional reinforcement  Bottom Y- direction all through  Bottom Y – direction additional reinforcement  Bottom X- direction all through (2nd & 3rd layer) 5.6 Bar Bending Schedule (BBS) Most important thing in any reinforcement is the bar bending schedule of the foundation. In bar bending schedule the vertical & horizontal reinforcement are given with the calculations and in our case in BBS the step wise footing schedule is given like 1st step horizontal & vertical then 2nd step likewise. It is the most important thing in any reinforcement or concreting. Bar bending schedule (or schedule of bars) is a list of reinforcement bars, a given RCC work item, and is presented in a tabular form for easy visual reference. This table
  66. 66. Team ID: 22722 CONSTRUCTION LJIET CIVIL 48 summarizes all the needed particulars of bars – diameter, shape of bending, length of each bent and straight portions, angles of bending, total length of each bar, and number of each type of bar. This information is a great help in preparing an estimate of quantities.
  67. 67. Team ID: 22722 CONSTRUCTION LJIET CIVIL 49 Bar bending schedule is a list of reinforcement bars, a given work item, and is presented in a tabular form for easy visual reference. This table summarizes the details about the bar which consists of the following things:  Diameter  Shape of Bending  Length of each bent and straight portions  Angles of bending  Total length of each bar  Number of each type of bar  Cutting length of each bar  Weight of steel. In general it is being used to understanding how to find out the quantities of bars in columns as well as shear walls. The steel yard houses the machinery to work with steel bars. These steel bars are used in the RCC structures. The machines cut and bend the steel bars according to BBS (Bar Bending Schedule) 5.7 Quantity of reinforcement: F1 type of footing: Footing bottom reinforcement T16@125 c/c distance (3700-2x75)/125 + 1 = 29 bars along L, similarly 29 bars along B => 58 nos. of bars. Footing Top centre, Top side and Top both way Top centre T8@250 c/c distance (1800-2x75)/250 + 1 = 7 bars along 4 sides => 28 nos. of bars. Top side T8@250 c/c distance [{(3700-1800)/2}-75-2x8]/250 + 1 = 5 bars along 4 sides => 20 nos. of bars. Top both way T8@250 c/c distance (1800-2x75)/250 + 1 = 8 bars along B, similarly along L => 16 nos. of bars.
  68. 68. Team ID: 22722 CONSTRUCTION LJIET CIVIL 50 Footing face bar Step-1 and Step-2 2-T10 Vertical reinforcements in column: 20-T25 Master stirrups in non-confining zone: T8@200 c/c distance - 5 nos. Secondary stirrups in non-confining zone: T8@100 c/c distance - 20 nos. Master stirrups in confining zone: T8@200 c/c distance - 9 nos. Secondary stirrups in confining zone: T8@100 c/c distance - 36 nos.
  69. 69. Team ID: 22722 CONSTRUCTION LJIET CIVIL 51 Similarly for F2 type of footing: Footing bottom both way: T16@125 c/c distance = 31 nos. along L and 31 nos. along B Footing top centre step 1: T8@250 c/c distance = 6 nos. on each side => 24 nos. Footing top side step 1: T8@250 c/c distance = 5 nos. on each side => 20 nos. Footing top bar both way step 2: T8@250 c/c distance = 8 nos. along B and 8 nos. along L => 16 nos. Vertical reinforcement for column: 4-T32 and 16-T25 For proper reinforcement work, first the reinforcements are marked with chalk according to c/c distance and then tied up.
  70. 70. CHAPTER – 6 PROBLEM & SOLUTION
  71. 71. Team ID: 22722 PROBLEM & SOLUTION LJIET CIVIL 52 Problems Observed The problems we observed in our site were,  TIME DELAY:- The construction is behind schedule by 4 months. The causes of these delays are as follow: A) Change in design B) Avaibility of materials C) Weather conditions. A. CHANGE IN DESIGN DURING ON GOING CONSTRUCTION:- Sometimes, while the construction is ongoing. The structural designers come up with a better design of some parts of the construction such as the quality of material, size of columns. The change in design may also be necessary if some design was miscalculated by the structural designer. The change in design is not an overnight modification. The change in design has to be calculated properly and the specifications regarding the change have to be properly noted. Plus any work which is related to the changed specification have to be planned again as well. This change; while good and beneficial to the construction; comes at a price of time. SOLUTIONS: Accuracy in design detail and proper planning which includes forecasting any future predicaments. B. DUE TO AVAIBILITY OF MATERIALS:- DESCRIPTION: In our construction site certain innovative materials are used such as aerated light weight concrete materials which is only available in surat. Avaibility of these blocks depends on manufacturer and sometimes their avaibilities is affected due to various reasons and due to this the construction delayed. SOLUTION: Now to avoid this issue proper storage on site should be protected and block should be preordered more than the required quantity. C. DUE TO WEATHER CONDITIONS:-
  72. 72. Team ID: 22722 PROBLEM & SOLUTION LJIET CIVIL 53 Weather conditions in Ahmedabad are getting unpredictable day by day such as recent heavy hail-storm was experienced for the first time. The heat is summer is breaking all records as well. This condition make the productivity of the workers futile which delays the construction. SOLUTION: Now such extreme conditions are unavoidable, however management should be prepared for such plights so that the damage and delay is minimum. These extreme conditions should be tackled by providing proper damage control solutions. 2. FINANCES INVOLVED IN LIQUIDATED DAMAGES. Such huge construction involves involves in getting loans from banks and various sources. But if there is delay the construction then it directly affects the condition of loans. If there is delay in the construction then there is the increase in the interest amount which affects the finances of the project. And if there is major increase in interest amount then it may stop the construction also. SOLUTION To overcome this problem we must take care that the construction is completed in time. Else the delay time should not be more which increases the liquidate damage. Liquidated damages section in the contract should be revieved pre-construction, so that the damages occurred and consequences are not drastic.
  73. 73. CHAPTER – 7 MANAGEMENT
  74. 74. Team ID: 22722 MANAGEMENT LJIET CIVIL 54 Management  Good project management in construction must vigorously pursue the efficient utilization of labour, material and equipment. Improvement of labour productivity should be a major and continual concern of those who are responsible for cost control of constructed facilities. Material handling, which includes procurement, inventory, shop fabrication and field servicing, requires special attention for cost reduction. The use of new equipment and innovative methods has made possible wholesale changes in construction technologies in recent decades. Organizations which do not recognize the impact of various innovations and have not adapted to changing environments have justifiably been forced out of the mainstream of construction activities.  Observing the trends in construction technology presents a very mixed and ambiguous picture. On the one hand, many of the techniques and materials used for construction are essentially unchanged since the introduction of mechanization in the early part of the twentieth century. For example, a history of the Panama Canal construction from 1904 to 1914 argues that:  The work could not have done any faster or more efficiently in our day, despite all technological and mechanical advances in the time since, the reason being that no present system could possibly carry the spoil away any faster or more efficiently than the system employed. No motor trucks were used in the digging of the canal; everything ran on rails. And because of the mud and rain, no other method would have worked half so well.  In contrast to this view of one large project, one may also point to the continual change and improvements occurring in traditional materials and techniques. Bricklaying provides a good example of such changes:  Bricklaying...is said not to have changed in thousands of years; perhaps in the literal placing of brick on brick it has not. But masonry technology has changed a great deal. Motorized wheelbarrows and mortar mixers, sophisticated scaffolding systems, and forklift trucks now assist the bricklayer. New epoxy mortars give stronger adhesion between bricks. Mortar additives and cold-weather protection eliminate winter shutdowns.  Add to this list of existing innovations the possibility of robotic bricklaying; automated prototypes for masonry construction already exist. Technical change is certainly occurring in construction, although it may occur at a slower rate than in other sectors of the economy.
  75. 75. Team ID: 22722 MANAGEMENT LJIET CIVIL 55 VARIOUS TYPE OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT:- - Management of Equipment - Management of Labour - Management of Material 6.1 Management of Equipment:-  The selection of the appropriate type and size of construction equipment often affects the required amount of time and effort and thus the job-site productivity of a project. It is therefore important for site managers and construction planners to be familiar with the characteristics of the major types of equipment most commonly used in construction.  Type of Equipment And No. of Equipment – 1. TOWER CRANE : Total Tower cranes used in construction: 2 Capacity at 65m Boom Length: 1.9T Total Height of Mast: 94 m
  76. 76. Team ID: 22722 MANAGEMENT LJIET CIVIL 56 2. BACTHING PLANT Total Number of Batching Plant used: 1 Model Type: CP30 Make: Sching Stetter Capacity of Batching Plant: 30 cum/Hr 3. TRANSIT MIXER:- Total number of transit mixer used: 2 Capacity: 6 Cum
  77. 77. Team ID: 22722 MANAGEMENT LJIET CIVIL 57 4. HEAVY CRAWLER CRANE:- ONE used for Structural Steel erection. Capacity: 250 MT 5. GANTRY CRANE:- Total number of gantry crane used: 1 Capacity: 20 T
  78. 78. Team ID: 22722 MANAGEMENT LJIET CIVIL 58 6. CRAWLER CRANE:- Total units used: 2 for Structural steel fabrication and erection. Capacity: 80T 7. WEIGH BRIDGE:- Total units used: 1 Capacity: 60T
  79. 79. Team ID: 22722 MANAGEMENT LJIET CIVIL 59 8. PICK & CARRY CRANE:- Total units used : 1 Capacity: 15T 9. BACK HOE LOADER:- Total units used: 2 Capacity: 0.7 Cum 6.2Management of Labour:-  Labour Characteristics Performance analysis is a common tool for assessing worker quality and contribution. Factors that might be evaluated include:  Quality of Work - calibre of work produced or accomplished.  Quantity of Work - volume of acceptable work
  80. 80. Team ID: 22722 MANAGEMENT LJIET CIVIL 60  Job Knowledge - demonstrated knowledge of requirements, methods, techniques and skills involved in doing the job and in applying these to increase productivity.  Related Work Knowledge - knowledge of effects of work upon other areas and knowledge of related areas which have influence on assigned work.  Judgment - soundness of conclusions, decisions and actions.  Initiative - ability to take effective action without being told.  Resource Utilization - ability to delineate project needs and locate, plan and effectively use all resources available.  Dependability - reliability in assuming and carrying out commitments and obligations.  Analytical Ability - effectiveness in thinking through a problem and reaching sound conclusions.  Communicative Ability - effectiveness in using oral and written communications and in keeping subordinates, associates, superiors and others adequately informed.  Interpersonal Skills - effectiveness in relating in an appropriate and productive manner to others.  Ability to Work under Pressure - ability to meet tight deadlines and adapt to changes.  Security Sensitivity - ability to handle confidential information appropriately and to exercise care in safeguarding sensitive information.  Safety Consciousness - has knowledge of good safety practices and demonstrates awareness of own personal safety and the safety of others.  Profit and Cost Sensitivity - ability to seek out, generate and implement profit-making ideas.  Planning Effectiveness - ability to anticipate needs, forecast conditions, set goals and standards, plan and schedule work and measure results.  Leadership - ability to develop in others the willingness and desire to work towards common objectives.  Delegating - effectiveness in delegating work appropriately.  Development People - ability to select, train and appraise personnel, set standards of performance, and provide motivation to grow in their capacity. Diversity (Equal Employment Opportunity) - ability to be sensitive to the needs of minorities, females and other protected groups and to demonstrate affirmative action in responding to these needs.  These different factors could each be assessed on a three point scale: (1) recognized strength, (2) meets expectations, (3) area needing improvement. Examples of work performance in these areas might also be provided.
  81. 81. Team ID: 22722 MANAGEMENT LJIET CIVIL 61  Type of Labours & Man Power Nos. TYPE OF LABOUR NO. OF LABOUR REQUIED CARPENTER/HELPER 300 FITTER/HELPER 250 MASON/HELPER 100 MALE COOLIE(USK) 100 WELDER/HELPER 40 RIGGER/FITTER/HELPER 70 OTHER 100 6.3Management of Material:-  Materials management is an important element in project planning and control. Materials represent a major expense in construction, so minimizing procurement or purchase costs presents important opportunities for reducing costs. Poor materials management can also result in large and avoidable costs during construction. First, if materials are purchased early, capital may be tied up and interest charges incurred on the excess inventory of materials. Even worse, materials may deteriorate during storage or be stolen unless special care is taken. For example, electrical equipment often must be stored in waterproof locations. Second, delays and extra expenses may be incurred if materials required for particular activities are not available. Accordingly, insuring a timely flow of material is an important concern of project managers.  Materials management is not just a concern during the monitoring stage in which construction is taking place. Decisions about material procurement may also be required during the initial planning and scheduling stages. For example, activities can be inserted in the project schedule to represent purchasing of major items such as elevators for buildings. The availability of materials may greatly influence the schedule in projects with a fast track or very tight time schedule: sufficient time for obtaining the necessary materials must be allowed. In some case, more expensive suppliers or shippers may be employed to save time.  Materials management is also a problem at the organization level if central purchasing and inventory control is used for standard items. In this case, the various projects undertaken by the organization would present requests to the central purchasing group. In turn, this group would maintain inventories of standard items to reduce the delay in providing material or to obtain lower costs due to bulk purchasing. This organizational materials
  82. 82. Team ID: 22722 MANAGEMENT LJIET CIVIL 62 management problem is analogous to inventory control in any organization facing continuing demand for particular items.  Materials ordering problems lend themselves particularly well to computer based systems to insure the consistency and completeness of the purchasing process. In the manufacturing realm, the use of automated materials requirements planning systems is common. In these systems, the master production schedule, inventory records and product component lists are merged to determine what items must be ordered, when they should be ordered, and how much of each item should be ordered in each time period. The heart of these calculations is simple arithmetic: the projected demand for each material item in each period is subtracted from the available inventory. When the inventory becomes too low, a new order is recommended. For items that are non-standard or not kept in inventory, the calculation is even simpler since no inventory must be considered. With a materials requirement system, much of the detailed record keeping is automated and project managers are alerted to purchasing requirements. Material Procurement and Delivery:-  The main sources of information for feedback and control of material procurement are requisitions, bids and quotations, purchase orders and subcontracts, shipping and receiving documents, and invoices. For projects involving the large scale use of critical resources, the owner may initiate the procurement procedure even before the selection of a constructor in order to avoid shortages and delays. Under ordinary circumstances, the constructor will handle the procurement to shop for materials with the best price/performance characteristics specified by the designer. Some overlapping and rehandling in the procurement process is unavoidable, but it should be minimized to insure timely delivery of the materials in good condition.  The materials for delivery to and from a construction site may be broadly classified as: (1) bulk materials, (2) standard off-the-shelf materials, and (3) fabricated members or units. The process of delivery, including transportation, field storage and installation will be different for these classes of materials. The equipment needed to handle and haul these classes of materials will also be different.  Bulk materials refer to materials in their natural or semi-processed state, such as earthwork to be excavated, wet concrete mix, etc. which are usually encountered in large quantities in construction. Some bulk materials such as earthwork or gravels may be measured in bank (solid in situ) volume. Obviously, the quantities of materials for delivery may be substantially different when expressed in different measures of volume, depending on the characteristics of such materials.  Standard piping and valves are typical examples of standard off-the-shelf materials which are used extensively in the chemical processing industry. Since standard off-the-shelf materials can easily be stockpiled, the delivery process is relatively simple.
  83. 83. Team ID: 22722 MANAGEMENT LJIET CIVIL 63  Fabricated members such as steel beams and columns for buildings are pre-processed in a shop to simplify the field erection procedures. Welded or bolted connections are attached partially to the members which are cut to precise dimensions for adequate fit. Similarly, steel tanks and pressure vessels are often partly or fully fabricated before shipping to the field. In general, if the work can be done in the shop where working conditions can better be controlled, it is advisable to do so, provided that the fabricated members or units can be shipped to the construction site in a satisfactory manner at a reasonable cost.  As a further step to simplify field assembly, an entire wall panel including plumbing and wiring or even an entire room may be prefabricated and shipped to the site. While the field labour is greatly reduced in such cases, "materials" for delivery are in fact manufactured products with value added by another type of labour. With modern means of transporting construction materials and fabricated units, the percentages of costs on direct labour and materials for a project may change if more prefabricated units are introduced in the construction process.  In the construction industry, materials used by a specific craft are generally handled by craftsmen, not by general labour. Thus, electricians handle electrical materials, pipefitters handle pipe materials, etc. This multiple handling diverts scarce skilled craftsmen and contractor supervision into activities which do not directly contribute to construction. Since contractors are not normally in the freight business, they do not perform the tasks of freight delivery efficiently. All these factors tend to exacerbate the problems of freight delivery for very large projects. 7 QUANTITY OF VARIOUS MATERIAL:- a. Ordinary Portland Cement 53 Grade Quantity used: 30000 MT b. Aggregates 10 mm down Quantity used: – 44000 MT c. Aggregates 20 mm down Quantity Used: 52000 MT d. Sand Medium Coarse Zone 2 Quantity used: 60000 MT e. Admixture – 475 MT Vardhman Make, Dosage 4.8 Kg/ Cum f. Total Concrete Quantity to be Produced using above materials – 75000 Cum
  84. 84. Team ID: 22722 MANAGEMENT LJIET CIVIL 64 g. Reinforcement Steel (8 mm to 36 mm dia.) – 9100 MT h. Structural Steel E350 Grade High Tensile – 1900 MT i. High Tensile Strand for Post Tensioning Works – 110 MT j. Aerated Auto Claved Light Weight Concrete Blocks – 7000 Cum
  85. 85. CHAPTER – 9 REFERENCES
  86. 86. Team ID: 22722 REFERENCES LJIET CIVIL 66 1. McCullough, David, The Path Between the Seas, Simon and Schuster, 1977, pg. 531. 2. Rosefielde, Steven and Daniel Quinn Mills, "Is Construction Technologically Stagnant?", in Lange, Julian E. and Daniel Quinn Mills, The Construction Industry, Lexington Books, 1979, pg. 83. 3. This example was adapted with permission from an unpublished paper "Managing Mega Projects" presented by G.R. Desnoyers at the Project Management Symposium sponsored by the Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Florham Park, NJ, November 12, 1980. 4. See R.L. Tucker, "Perfection of the Buggy Whip," The Construction Advancement Address, ASCE, Boston, MA, Oct. 29, 1986. 5. For more detailed discussion, see D.G. Mills: "Labor Relations and Collective Bargaining" (Chapter 4) in The Construction Industry (by J.E. Lang and D.Q. Mills), Lexington Books, D.C. Heath and Co., Lexington, MA, 1979. 6. This example was adapted from Stukhart, G. and Bell, L.C. "Costs and Benefits of Materials Management Systems,", ASCE Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol. 113, No. 2, June 1987, pp. 222-234. 7. The information for this example was provided by Exxon Pipeline Company, Houston, Texas, with permission from the Alyeska Pipeline Service Co., Anchorage, Alaska. 8. This example was adapted from A.E. Kerridge, "How to Develop a Project Schedule," in A.E. Kerridge and C. H. Vervalin (eds.), Engineering and Construction Project Management, Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, 1986. 9. For further details on equipment characteristics, see, for example, S.W. Nunnally, Construction Methods and Management, Second Edition, Prentice-Hall, 1986 10. See Paulson, C., "Automation and Robotics for Construction," ASCE Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol. 111, No. CO-3, 1985, pp. 190-207. 11. This example is adapted from Fred Moavenzadeh, "Construction's High-Technology Revolution," Technology Review, October, 1985, pg. 32. 12. This and the following examples in this section have been adapted from E. Baracco-Miller and C.T. Hendrickson, Planning for Construction, Technical Report No. R-87-162, Department of Civil Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 1987.
  87. 87. Team ID: 22722 REFERENCES LJIET CIVIL 67 13. This model used the INSIGHT simulation language and was described in B.C. Paulson, W.T. Chan, and C.C. Koo, "Construction Operations Simulation by Microcomputer," ASCE Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol. 113, No. CO-2, June 1987, pp. 302-314. 14. In the literature of queueing theory, this formula represents an M/D/1 queue, meaning that the arrival process is Markovian or random, the service time is fixed, only one server exists, and the system is in "steady state," implying that the service time and average arrival rate are constant. Altering these assumptions would require changes in the waiting time formula; for example, if service times were also random, the waiting time formula would not have the 2 shown in the denominator of Eq. (4.27). For more details on queueing systems, see Newell, G.F. Applications of Queueing Theory, Chapman and Hall, London, 1982.
  88. 88. APPENDIX – 1 PERIODIC PROGRESS REPORT
  89. 89. Periodic Progess Report : First PPR Project : Construction And Project Management Of G+20 Corporate House Status : Submitted  (Freeze) What Progress you have made in the Project ? Foundation of G+20 corporate housing. What challenge you have faced ? various  problems  such  as  excavation  problem,  Piling  problem,  PCC  mixture  problems, problem in design of footing. What support you need ? To overcome this problems, proper marking for excavation is done, proper supervision for excavation of the earth is done with suitable equipment for excvation. Proper PCC mixture is made with its proper ratio. Footing was made as per the revised plan for the foundation. Which literature you have referred ? Refereed various tests such as Soil test, Details given by Surveyor.
  90. 90. Periodic Progess Report : Second PPR Project : Construction And Project Management Of G+20 Corporate House Status : Submitted  (Freeze) What Progress you have made in the Project ? Construction of Basement B­1 and B­2 What challenge you have faced ? Problems faced such as Seepage, Land sliding. What support you need ? provided bituminous sheets for preventing water from entering the basement, provided the retaining support for restricting the land sliding. Which literature you have referred ? Design plan of basement and parking capacity.
  91. 91. Periodic Progess Report : Third PPR Project : Construction And Project Management Of G+20 Corporate House Status : Submitted  (Freeze) What Progress you have made in the Project ? Construction of ground floor and first floor. What challenge you have faced ? Problem faced such as dry shrinkage in concrete, permeability of concrete, Buckling, load distribution problems. What support you need ? Proper curing of concrete, proper proportion of water cement ratio, Using of vibrator. Which literature you have referred ? Various  IS  codes  for  concrete  and  steel  and  designing,  using  of  Mixtures  for  cement  and concrete, proper site inspection.
  92. 92. Periodic Progess Report : Forth PPR Project : Construction And Project Management Of G+20 Corporate House Status : Submitted  (Freeze) What Progress you have made in the Project ? Construction management of entire project. What challenge you have faced ? various  problem  faced  as  Labours  problem  such  as  lack  of  labours,unskilled  labours. Equipment  problems  and  its  maintenance.  Improper  Time  management.  lack  of  raw materials. What support you need ? Supports  got  from  labour  contractor,  Quality  and  quantity  of  materials,  proper  use  of equipment as per requirement. Quality measurements. Which literature you have referred ? Abstract  sheet,  Measurement  sheet,  record  book,  mustard  roll,  Updated  patterns,  Critical Path Method (CPM), Program Evaluation and review Technique(PERT) methods.
  93. 93. APPENDIX – 2 PATENT DRAFTING EXERCISE
  94. 94. GIC Patent Drafting Exercise Team ID: FORM 1 THE PATENTS ACT 1970 (39 OF 1970) & THE PATENTS RULES, 2003 APPLICATION FOR GRANT OF PATENT (FOR OFFICE USE ONLY) Application No: Filing Date: Amount of Fee paid: CBR No: GTU Innovation Council Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) 22722 1. Applicant(s) : This is just a mock Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) for semester 8, BE students of GTU. These documents are not to be submitted with any patent office. Note : Page 1 of 6
  95. 95. ID Name Nationality Address Mobile No. Email Neelay Rakesh Khese Civil Engineering , L. J. Institute Of Engineering And Technology, Ahmedabad , Gujarat Technologycal University. 8460791412 nilaybond_133@ yahoo.co.in Indian1 Maitrey Yogeshkumar Patel Civil Engineering , L. J. Institute Of Engineering And Technology, Ahmedabad , Gujarat Technologycal University. 7600363968 maitreypatel007 @gmail.com Indian2 Jainil Bharatbhai Patel Civil Engineering , L. J. Institute Of Engineering And Technology, Ahmedabad , Gujarat Technologycal University. 8758283725 doodysc02@gma il.com Indian3 Rehan Javed Peerzada Civil Engineering , L. J. Institute Of Engineering And Technology, Ahmedabad , Gujarat Technologycal University. 9925586869 rehan.peerzada1 090@gmail.com Indian4 Aash Hitendra Shah Civil Engineering , L. J. Institute Of Engineering And Technology, Ahmedabad , Gujarat Technologycal University. 7405473607 aashshah93@g mail.com Indian5 2. Inventor(s): This is just a mock Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) for semester 8, BE students of GTU. These documents are not to be submitted with any patent office. Note : Page 2 of 6
  96. 96. Mobile No. EmailAddressNationalityNameID Neelay Rakesh Khese Civil Engineering , L. J. Institute Of Engineering And Technology, Ahmedabad , Gujarat Technologycal University. 8460791412 nilaybond_133 @yahoo.co.in Indian1 Maitrey Yogeshkumar Patel Civil Engineering , L. J. Institute Of Engineering And Technology, Ahmedabad , Gujarat Technologycal University. 7600363968 maitreypatel007 @gmail.com Indian2 Jainil Bharatbhai Patel Civil Engineering , L. J. Institute Of Engineering And Technology, Ahmedabad , Gujarat Technologycal University. 8758283725 doodysc02@gm ail.com Indian3 Rehan Javed Peerzada Civil Engineering , L. J. Institute Of Engineering And Technology, Ahmedabad , Gujarat Technologycal University. 9925586869 rehan.peerzada 1090@gmail.co m Indian4 Aash Hitendra Shah Civil Engineering , L. J. Institute Of Engineering And Technology, Ahmedabad , Gujarat Technologycal University. 7405473607 aashshah93@g mail.com Indian5 3. Title of Invention/Project: Construction And Project Management Of G+20 Corporate House 4. Address for correspondence of applicant/authorized patent agent in india Name: Address: Mobile: Email ID: Rehan Javed Peerzada Civil Engineering , L. J. Institute Of Engineering And Technology, Ahmedabad , Gujarat Technological University. 9925586869 rehan.peerzada1090@gmail.com This is just a mock Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) for semester 8, BE students of GTU. These documents are not to be submitted with any patent office. Note : Page 3 of 6
  97. 97. 5. Priority particulars of the application(S) field in convention country Name of the Applicant Title of the InventionFiling DateApplication No.Country N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A 6. Particulars for filing patent co-operation treaty (pct) national phase Application International application number International filing date as alloted by the receiving office N/A N/A 7. Particulars for filing divisional application Original(First) Application Number Date of filing of Original (first) application N/A N/A 8. Particulars for filing patent of addition Original(First) Application Number Date of filing of Original (first) application N/A N/A 9. DECLARATIONS: (i) Declaration by the inventor(s) I/We, the above named inventor(s) is/are true & first inventor(s) for this invention and declare that the applicant(s). herein is/are my/our assignee or legal representative. Date : 21 - May - 2015 Signature & DateName 1 Neelay Rakesh Khese 2 Maitrey Yogeshkumar Patel 3 Jainil Bharatbhai Patel 4 Rehan Javed Peerzada 5 Aash Hitendra Shah (ii) Declaration by the applicant(s) in the convention country I/We, the applicant(s) hereby declare(s) that:- (iii) Declaration by the applicant(s) I/We, the applicant (s) in the convention country declare that the applicant(s) herein is/are my/our assignee or legal representative.applicant(s) This is just a mock Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) for semester 8, BE students of GTU. These documents are not to be submitted with any patent office. Note : Page 4 of 6
  98. 98. I am/We in possession of the above mentioned invention. The provisional/complete specification relating to the invention is filed with this aplication. The invention as disclosed in the spcification uses the biological material from India and the necessary permission from the competent authority shall be submitted by me/us before the grant of patent to me/us. There is no lawful ground of objection to the grant of the patent to me/us. I am/we are the assignee or the legal representative of true & first inventors. The application or each of the application,particulars of each are given in the para 5 was the first applicatin in the convention country/countries in respect of my/our invention. The application or each of the application,particulars of each are given in the para 5 was the first applicatin in the convention country/countries in respect of my/our invention. I/we claim the priority from the above mentioned applications(s) filed in the convention country/countries & state that no application for protection in respect of invention had been made in a convention country before that date by me/us or by any person My/Our application in india is based on international application under Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) as mentioned in para 6 The application is divided out of my/our application(s) particulars of which are given in para 7 and pray that this application may be treated as deemed to have been filed on ___________under section 16 of the Act. The said invention is an improvement in or modification of the invention particulars of ehivh are given in para 8. (a) Provisional specification/Complete specification (b) Complete specification(In confirmation with the international application) / as amended before the international Preliminary Examination Authority (IPEA),as applicable(2 copies),No.of pages.....No.of claims..... (c) Drawings (In confirmation with the international application)/as amended before the international Preliminary Examination Authority(IPEA),as applicable(2 copies),No.of sheets.... (d) Priority documents (e) Translations of priority documents/specification/international search reports (f) Statement and undertaking on Form 3 (g) Power of Authority (h) Declaration of inventorship on Form 5 (i) Sequence listing in electronic Form (j) ........................................ Fees Rs.XXX in Cash /Cheque/Bank Draft bearin No.XXX Date: XXX on XXX Bank. 10. Following are the attachments with the application: I/We hereby declare that to the best of my /our knowledge, information and belief the fact and mtters stated herein are correct and I/We request that a patent may be granted to me/us for the said invention. Dated this 21 day of May , 2015 This is just a mock Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) for semester 8, BE students of GTU. These documents are not to be submitted with any patent office. Note : Page 5 of 6
  99. 99. Name Signature & Date 1 Neelay Rakesh Khese 2 Maitrey Yogeshkumar Patel 3 Jainil Bharatbhai Patel 4 Rehan Javed Peerzada 5 Aash Hitendra Shah This is just a mock Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) for semester 8, BE students of GTU. These documents are not to be submitted with any patent office. Note : Page 6 of 6
  100. 100. GIC Patent Drafting Exercise Team ID: FORM 2 THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 (39 OF 1970) & THE PATENTS RULES, 2003 PROVISIONAL SPECIFICATION 22722 1. Title of the project/invention : Construction And Project Management Of G+20 Corporate House Neelay Rakesh Khese , ( Indian ) Address :Civil Engineering , L. J. Institute Of Engineering And Technology, Ahmedabad , Gujarat Technologycal University. Maitrey Yogeshkumar Patel , ( Indian ) Address :Civil Engineering , L. J. Institute Of Engineering And Technology, Ahmedabad , Gujarat Technologycal University. Jainil Bharatbhai Patel , ( Indian ) Address :Civil Engineering , L. J. Institute Of Engineering And Technology, Ahmedabad , Gujarat Technologycal University. Rehan Javed Peerzada , ( Indian ) Address :Civil Engineering , L. J. Institute Of Engineering And Technology, Ahmedabad , Gujarat Technologycal University. Aash Hitendra Shah , ( Indian ) Address :Civil Engineering , L. J. Institute Of Engineering And Technology, Ahmedabad , Gujarat Technologycal University. 2. Applicant(s) : 3. Preamble to the description : The following specification describes the invention. This is just a mock Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) for semester 8, BE students of GTU. These documents are not to be submitted with any patent office. Note : Page 1 of 5
  101. 101. 4. Description : a. Field of Application / Project / Invention : Construction Management and Development. b. Prior Art / Background of the Invention / References : In developing a construction plan, it is common to adopt a primary emphasis on either cost control or on schedule control as illustrated in Fig. 9-1. Some projects are primarily divided into expense categories with associated costs. In these cases, construction planning is cost or expense oriented . Within the categories of expenditure, a distinction is made between costs incurred directly in the performance of an activity and indirectly for the accomplishment of the project. For example, borrowing expenses for project financing and overhead items are commonly treated as indirect costs. For other projects, scheduling of work activities over time is critical and is emphasized in the planning process. In this case, the planner insures that the proper precedence ’s among activities are maintained and that efficient scheduling of the available resources prevails. Traditional scheduling procedures emphasize the maintenance of task precedence’s (resulting in critical path scheduling procedures) or efficient use of resources over time (resulting in job shop scheduling procedures). Finally, most complex projects require consideration of cost and scheduling over time, so that planning, monitoring and record keeping must consider both dimensions. In these cases, the integration of schedule and budget information is a major concern. c. Summary of the Invention/Project : With the competition in the construction market is fierce increasingly, profit margin of construction enterprises is getting smaller and smaller,and cost control of construction projects become more and more important.The control of construction project cost becomes one of the cores in project management. Construction project management is a systematic, comprehensive, dynamic subject, requiring construction project manager to regularize and standardize the organization, goal, quality, safety, and cost of construction project . In this paper, in order to achieve the project cost control effectively and create greater economic benefits,construction project management content,measures and cost Control measures were studies. d. Objects of the Invention/Project : Building Construction Management Learning Outcomes :- 1. The student is prepared to assume an entry level professional constructor ’s role as a member of a multidisciplinary team in the construction industry. 2. The student has the fundamental education that will lead to a leadership role in the construction industry. 3. The student has developed an ethical and professional foundation to become a responsible member of society and the construction industry. 4. The student has the fundamental skills in oral and written communication as required to effectively communicate in the construction industry 5. The student possesses the fundamental knowledge and skills needed to manage the principal resources of the construction industry to include human, material, equipment, and financial resources 6. The student has a well-developed concept of mathematics and physical science 7. The student possesses an understanding of the contributions made by design professionals to the construction processes, and can communicate and interact with design professionals within the multidisciplinary construction team. 8. The student will understand the global nature of the construction industry. e. Drawing(s) : This is just a mock Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) for semester 8, BE students of GTU. These documents are not to be submitted with any patent office. Note : Page 2 of 5
  102. 102. f. Description of the Invention Construction planning is a fundamental and challenging activity in the management and execution of construction projects. It involves the choice of technology, the definition of work tasks, the estimation of the required resources and durations for individual tasks, and the identification of any interactions among the different work tasks. A good construction plan is the basis for developing the budget and the schedule for work. Developing the construction plan is a critical task in the management of construction, even if the plan is not written or otherwise formally recorded. In addition to these technical aspects of construction planning, it may also be necessary to make organizational decisions about the relationships between project participants and even which organizations to include in a project. For example, the extent to which sub-contractors will be used on a project is often determined during construction planning. Most people, if you describe a train of events to them, will tell you what the result would be. They can put those events together in their minds, and argue from them that something will come to pass. There are few people, however, who, if you told them a result, would be able to evolve from their own inner consciousness what the steps were which led up to that result. This power is what I mean when I talk of reasoning backward. Like a detective, a planner begins with a result (i.e. a facility design) and must synthesize the steps required to yield this result. Essential aspects of construction planning include the generation of required activities, analysis of the implications of these activities, and choice among the various alternative means of performing activities. In contrast to a detective discovering a single train of events, however, construction planners also face the normative problem of choosing the best among numerous alternative plans. Moreover, a detective is faced with an observable result, whereas a planner must imagine the final facility as described in the plans and specifications. In developing a construction plan, it is common to adopt a primary emphasis on either cost control or on schedule control as illustrated in Fig. 9-1. Some projects are primarily divided into expense categories with associated costs. In these cases, construction planning is cost or expense oriented . Within the categories of expenditure, a distinction is made between costs incurred directly in the performance of an activity and indirectly for the accomplishment of the project. For example, borrowing expenses for project financing and overhead items are commonly treated as indirect costs. For other projects, scheduling of work activities over time is critical and is emphasized in the planning process. In this case, the planner insures that the proper precedence ’s among activities are maintained and that efficient scheduling of the available resources prevails. Traditional scheduling procedures emphasize the maintenance of task precedence’s (resulting in critical path scheduling procedures) or efficient use of resources over time (resulting in job shop scheduling procedures). Finally, most complex projects require consideration of cost and scheduling over time, so that planning, monitoring and record keeping must consider both dimensions. In these cases, the integration of schedule and budget information is a major concern. g. Examples h. Unique Features of the Project nothing 5. Date & Signature : Date : 21 - May - 2015 This is just a mock Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) for semester 8, BE students of GTU. These documents are not to be submitted with any patent office. Note : Page 3 of 5
  103. 103. Sign and Date Neelay Rakesh Khese Sign and Date Maitrey Yogeshkumar Patel Sign and Date Jainil Bharatbhai Patel Sign and Date Rehan Javed Peerzada Sign and Date Aash Hitendra Shah 6. Abstract of the project / invention : With the competition in the construction market is fierce increasingly, profit margin of construction enterprises is getting smaller and smaller,and cost control of construction projects become more and more important.The control of construction project cost becomes one of the cores in project management . Construction project management is a systematic, comprehensive, dynamic subject, requiring construction project manager to regularize and standardize the organization, goal, quality, safety, and cost of construction project . In this paper, in order to achieve the project cost control effectively and create greater economic benefits,construction project management content,measures and cost Control measures were studies. This is just a mock Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) for semester 8, BE students of GTU. These documents are not to be submitted with any patent office. Note : Page 4 of 5
  104. 104. Drawing Attachments : This is just a mock Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) for semester 8, BE students of GTU. These documents are not to be submitted with any patent office. Note : Page 5 of 5
  105. 105. GIC Patent Drafting Exercise Team ID: FORM 3 THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 (39 OF 1970) & THE PATENTS RULES, 2003 STATEMENT AND UNDERTAKING UNDER SECTION 8 22722 1. Declaration : Neelay Rakesh Khese , Maitrey Yogeshkumar Patel , Jainil Bharatbhai Patel , Rehan Javed Peerzada , Aash Hitendra Shah , I/We, Neelay Rakesh Khese ( Indian ) Address : Civil Engineering , L. J. Institute Of Engineering And Technology, Ahmedabad , Gujarat Technologycal University. Maitrey Yogeshkumar Patel ( Indian ) Address : Civil Engineering , L. J. Institute Of Engineering And Technology, Ahmedabad , Gujarat Technologycal University. Jainil Bharatbhai Patel ( Indian ) Address : Civil Engineering , L. J. Institute Of Engineering And Technology, Ahmedabad , Gujarat Technologycal University. Rehan Javed Peerzada ( Indian ) Address : Civil Engineering , L. J. Institute Of Engineering And Technology, Ahmedabad , Gujarat Technologycal University. Aash Hitendra Shah ( Indian ) Address : Civil Engineering , L. J. Institute Of Engineering And Technology, Ahmedabad , Gujarat Technologycal University. 2. Name, Address and Nationality of the joint Applicant : Name of the Country Date of Application Application Number Status of the Application Date of Publication Date of Grant N/A N/A N/A N/AN/AN/A (i) that I/We have not made any application for the same/substantially the same invention outside India. (ii) that the right in the application(s) has/have been assigned to, Here by declare: (iii) that I/We undertake that up to the date of grant of patent by the Controller , I/We would keep him inform in writing the details regarding corresponding application(s) for patents filed outside India within 3 months from the date of filing of such application. Dated this 21 day of May , 2015. This is just a mock Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) for semester 8, BE students of GTU. These documents are not to be submitted with any patent office. Note : Page 1 of 2
  106. 106. 3. Signature of Applicants : Sign and Date Neelay Rakesh Khese Sign and Date Maitrey Yogeshkumar Patel Sign and Date Jainil Bharatbhai Patel Sign and Date Rehan Javed Peerzada Sign and Date Aash Hitendra Shah To The Controller of Patent The Patent Office, at Mumbai. This is just a mock Patent Drafting Exercise (PDE) for semester 8, BE students of GTU. These documents are not to be submitted with any patent office. Note : Page 2 of 2
  107. 107. APPENDIX – 3 Business Model Canvas

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