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Curriculum philosophy Statement

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Curriculum philosophy Statement

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Developing an educational philosophy statement or rationale during the design of a Postgraduate Diploma in Higher Education practice at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University.

Developing an educational philosophy statement or rationale during the design of a Postgraduate Diploma in Higher Education practice at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University.

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Curriculum philosophy Statement

  1. 1. Curriculum Philosophy Gaining insights into our own theoretical positions and developing a rationale for the PGDip. Rita Kizito PGDip Development NMMU March 2017
  2. 2. Order of presentation • Brief Introduction • Readings • Presentation & discussion • Developing of individual philosophy • Collating philosophies into one document Rita Kizito PGDip Development NMMU March 2017
  3. 3. Why develop an educational philosophy? • To dialogue and articulate individual educational and subject/ discipline/professional values; • To negotiate and agree a shared vision and some common values. In order to: • Inform a more coherent choice and sequence of programme outcomes; content; teaching, learning and assessment approaches in the programme; • Assist in the transparency of the programme’s key vision and values to students and other stakeholders (UCD Curriculum Review And Enhancement Guide, 2015) Rita Kizito PGDip Development NMMU March 2017
  4. 4. What does the rationale do ? • Ensures that we have an understanding of what every HE practitioner needs to know and be able to do ( absolutely necessary, nice to know, unnecessary),reduces gaps • Ensures that the curriculum is at the required level – scope and depth • Helps us make decisions of whether we should follow traditional methods ( textbooks) or reimagine the curriculum • Helps us articulate utility of a programme – Career progression, promotion, academic advancement ? • Helps us articulate purpose – lifelong learning, developing problem solvers, critical thinkers? Rita Kizito PGDip Development NMMU March 2017
  5. 5. A story…. Towards changing Science Education in Africa Rita Kizito PGDip Development NMMU March 2017
  6. 6. “Philosophy of education is an activity of scientific inquiry which enables one to understand the situations of communities, ' `lived experiences”… (Waghid, 2004, p.56)… “There is no well-established tradition in the philosophy of education, either as regards its methodology or as regards its subject-matter, as there is in other branches of philosophy” ( Wilson, 2003, p.280). Philosophy of Education Rita Kizito PGDip Development NMMU March 2017
  7. 7. Think about your deep philosophy… Deep sense of the purpose – what do you value? What is important? How does this fit in with the community, and your university? Rita Kizito PGDip Development NMMU March 2017
  8. 8. Philosophical Perspectives Theories Approaches, Strategies Moving from theory to practice Rita Kizito PGDip Development NMMU March 2017
  9. 9. IDEALISM RealismPragmatism Existentialism Empiricism valuing ideas over experience or action, reality is that which exists mentally stresses the role of experience and active learning Objects exist regardless of how we perceive them Critical Realism focuses on value questionsthe importance and value of change, process and relativity combines a general philosophy of science (transcendental realism) with a philosophy of social science (critical naturalism) to describe an interface between the natural and social worlds. Plato, Descartes, Kant, Spinoza, Leibniz, Hegel, Schopenhauer Aristotle, Comenius, Pestalozzi, Herbart, Montessori, Hobbes, Bacon, Locke Locke, Kolbe… Kierkegaard, Sartre, Nietzsche Dewey Bhaskar, Sayer, Archer Philosophical Foundations Rita Kizito PGDip Development NMMU March 2017
  10. 10. Educational Philosophical Perspectives Perennialism Essentialism Progressivism Reconstructionism Focuses on personal development Focuses on the important skills to promote the intellectual growth of the individual Focuses on advances in science, technology, economic development to promote democratic and social living Focuses on reconstructing society by instilling habits and values to improve and reconstruct society education for change Involves a constant curriculum focusing on classical subjects, literary analysis The curriculum focuses on essentials skills of the 3R’s and essential subjects of English, Science, History, Math, and Foreign Languages Subjects are interdisciplinary- nary, integrative and interactive. Curriculum is focused on students interest, human problems and affairs The curriculum focuses on present and future trends and issues of national and international interests Rita Kizito PGDip Development NMMU March 2017
  11. 11. Is there room for an African Philosophy of Education? “Simply put, an African philosophy of education explores the lives of African communities and their situations” (Waghid, 2004, p.56) Rita Kizito PGDip Development NMMU March 2017
  12. 12. Constitutive elements of an African philosophy of education ( Waghid, 2004) Reasonableness and rationality Moral maturity and refinement Deliberative dialogue Importance of being reasonable and the ability of people to articulate clear, logical and defensible arguments Honesty, faithfulness, duty and empathy for the well- being of others in her community Progressive `structures of dialogue and argument’ where one listens to what the other has to say The curriculum should involve educational problem solving by offering possibilities as to what is achievable and whether achieving it is desirable The curriculum should empower communities to participate in their own educational development and use critical pedagogy and self-reflection In these dialogues, intellectual skills are used methodically in addressing the African predicament Rita Kizito PGDip Development NMMU March 2017
  13. 13. Our common-sense theories • Each of us have our own common-sense theories of learning. • These theories are based on assumptions we carry about teaching and learning, intuitions, reasons, beliefs and our ideas about how people learn, and how best to support that learning. • How do our common-sense theories relate to learning theory? ( Vivian Bozalek, at TALHE ,2015) Rita Kizito PGDip Development NMMU March 2017
  14. 14. Why do we have theories of learning? • “Theories about teaching and learning provide frameworks for the analysis of learning situations and a language to describe the learning taking place” (Capel, Leask & Turner 1995, p.213). ( Vivian Bozalek, at TALHE ,2015) Rita Kizito PGDip Development NMMU March 2017
  15. 15. Benefits of theories • “… at present there is no one best description of the learning process, just as there is no one ‘best’ way to teach. Educators can benefit from knowing various learning theories, because each position adds to their views on how to engage in this very complex process” (Hohn 1995: 5). ( Vivian Bozalek, at TALHE ,2015) Rita Kizito PGDip Development NMMU March 2017
  16. 16. Value of understanding theories Theories provide use with yardsticks we can use to evaluate our assumptions informing our beliefs , to check whether they make sense and if we can provide evidence to substantiate their existence. “A familiarity with the major theories, then, allows us to examine, to evaluate, and to discipline our intuitions and our own “theories” on human behavior” (Craig 1980,p. 30). Rita Kizito PGDip Development NMMU March 2017
  17. 17. Existing Learning Theories • An index of a list of fifty of the most influential educational theories which inform the design of learning can be found at the Learning Renaissance • The actual list can be found here: Learning Theories The five fundamental learning theories are : Behaviourism Cognitive Constructivism Social Constructivism Connectivism Associated Theorists Watson, Pavlov, Frederic Skinner Thorndike, Bandura Kolb Gagne -Conditions of learning Ausubel -Prior learning Bloom - Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Vygotsky Leontev Engestrom Lave & Wenger Bruner Siemens Downes Rita Kizito PGDip Development NMMU March 2017
  18. 18. Overview of the fundamental learning theories Behaviorism Cognitive Constructivism Social Constructivism Connectivism View of learning Learning is change in observable behaviour shaped by conditioning or response to a stimulus Learning involves active assimilation and accommodation of new information to existing cognitive structures. Mental models and discovery by learners are important. Learning is a socially meaningful activity focussing on conceptual development through collaborative activity supported by others (learning in the ‘zone of proximal development’ - ZPD Learning (defined as actionable & connected knowledge) , and focusses on connecting specialized information sets, inside and outside the learner. View of motivation Extrinsic, involving positive and negative reinforcement. Intrinsic; learners set their own goals and motivate themselves to learn. Intrinsic and extrinsic. Learning goals and motives are determined both by learners the community Intrinsic and extrinsic. Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate continual learning Implications for Teaching & Learning Learning is shaped by observable learning outcomes and regular feedback. Learner is usually taught using repetition & positive reinforcement (drill & practice.). The teacher facilitates learning by providing. The content is well- structured content & an environment where learners are assisted in developing capacity and skills to learn better. Tutorials & metacognitive strategies are important. Educator is facilitator, guide, coach, mentor who creates scaffolds for learning and a resource-rich environments Supports Inquiry-based learning & mediation &multiple perspectives. The teacher is a curator or expert learner creating spaces where knowledge can be ‘created, explored and connected’ . Rita Kizito PGDip Development NMMU March 2017
  19. 19. Developing your individual philosophy Readings Scheme through the following readings and spend some time developing your own individual philosophy using the following document for guidance. ( Individual Philosophy document). • Carlile, O., & Jordan, A. (2005). It works in practice but will it work in theory? The theoretical underpinnings of pedagogy. Emerging Issues in the Practice of University Learning and Teaching. Dublin: AISHE, 11-26. • Waghid, Y. (2004). African philosophy of education: implications for teaching and learning: perspectives on higher education. South African Journal of Higher Education, 18(3), 56-64. We will then collate all the individual philosophies into one philosophy for the entire programme. Rita Kizito PGDip Development NMMU March 2017
  20. 20. Thank you Rita Kizito PGDip Development NMMU March 2017
  21. 21. References Bozalek, V. (2015). Presentation at the Teaching and Learning in Higher Education (TALHE), The Cape Higher Education Consortium (CHEC). Capel, S., Leask, M. & Turner, T. (1995). Learning to teach in the secondary school: A companion to school experience. London: Routledge. (RU Library 371.3 CAP). Carlile, O., & Jordan, A. (2005). It works in practice but will it work in theory? The theoretical underpinnings of pedagogy. Emerging Issues in the Practice of University Learning and Teaching. Dublin: AISHE, 11-26. Craig, G.J. (1980). Human development. (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Hohn, R.L. (1995). Classroom learning and teaching. White Plains, NY: Longman. University College Dublin, Curriculum Review and Enhancement Guide. [ Available at : http://www.ucd.ie/t4cms/Curriculum%20Review%20&%20Enhancement%20Guide .pdf] Waghid, Y. (2004). African philosophy of education: implications for teaching and learning: perspectives on higher education. South African Journal of Higher Education, 18(3), 56-64 Wilson, J. (2003). Perspectives on the Philosophy of Education. Oxford Review of Education, 29(2), 279-303. Rita Kizito PGDip Development NMMU March 2017
  22. 22. Operant Conditioning • Operant conditioning is a process that attempts to modify behavior through the use of positive and negative reinforcement. • Reinforcement comes in two forms: positive (praise, rewards, the red tick on assignments) and negative (removal of undesired behavior – red cross on assignments). The learner makes an association between a particular behavior and a consequence. • The term operant conditioning was developed by B. F. Skinner. He believed that one should focus on the external, observable causes of behavior (rather than try to unpack the internal thoughts and motivations). Skinner ( Psychologist) Main strategy Objective-based instruction, competency-based training, skills training Teaching methods Lecture, simulation , demonstration, programmed instruction Assessment methods Criterion- based assessment, Multiple-choice questions , recall items Rita Kizito PGDip Development NMMU March 2017
  23. 23. Social Learning Theory • Albert Bandura (1977) agrees with the behaviorist learning theories of classical conditioning ( Pavlov) and operant conditioning . Mediating processes occur between stimuli & responses. • Bandura asserts that that people learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling. The theory encompasses attention, memory, and motivation and is often seen as a bridge between behaviorist and cognitive theories. • Bandura advocates for “reciprocal determinism”, where the world ( environment and a person’s behavior influence each other). Bandura ( Psychologist) Main strategy Involves (a) attention – where factors such as previous reinforcement affects attention ; (b) retention – remembering you pay attention to using symbolic coding, mental images, cognitive organization; (c) reproduction of images using self observation : (d) motivation – based on concretes reasons such as past incentives. Teaching methods Modelling as part of skill training where information is given (lecture), opportunities for observation; practicing of skills, application of skills, & provision of constructive feedback. Development of self-efficacy. Assessment methods Problem solving, portfolio development, Case studies. Rita Kizito PGDip Development NMMU March 2017
  24. 24. Experiential Learning – Kolb’s Learning Cycle • Kolb argues that we learn from our everyday experiences and that reflection as an integral part of learning. • Four-stage model Main strategy Active learning where activities draw on abilities from each stage of the experiential learning cycle , and are designed in ways that offer each learner the chance to engage with their preferred way of learning. Teaching methods Concrete Experience ( Laboratory methods, field experiences , simulations); Reflective Observation ( reflective assignments, discussions in class, discussion forums); Abstract Conceptualization ( Lecture, presentation of a model/theory of what is to be observed; Active Experimentation ( Learner plans to test the model/ or future experience). Assessment methods Exams, Projects, Paper, Presentations and Portfolios. David Kolb ( Philosopher) Rita Kizito PGDip Development NMMU March 2017
  25. 25. Robert Gagne – Conditions of learning • There are several different types or levels of learning and each level (verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, motor skills and attitudes) requires a different type of sequencing of instruction. • Nine instructional events for designing instruction and selecting appropriate technology ✓ Gaining attention (reception) ✓ Informing learners of the objective (expectancy) ✓ Stimulating recall of prior learning (retrieval) ✓ Presenting the stimulus (selective perception) ✓ Providing learning guidance (semantic encoding) ✓ Eliciting performance (responding) ✓ Providing feedback (reinforcement) ✓ Assessing performance (retrieval) ✓ Enhancing retention and transfer (generalization). Main strategy Appropriate sequencing of instruction so that learners are exposed to opportunities that require decision-making and problem solving . Learning tasks are organized in a hierarchy according to complexity: stimulus recognition, response generation, procedure following, use of terminology, discriminations, concept formation, rule application, and problem solving. Teaching methods Technology- based simulations, Role plays, Project based Assessment methods Exams, Projects, Paper, Presentations and Portfolios. Rita Kizito PGDip Development NMMU March 2017
  26. 26. Benjamin Bloom – Taxonomy of Learning Objectives Benjamin Bloom (Educational Psychologist) Benjamin Bloom made significant contributions to the classification of educational objectives and the theory of mastery learning. He , together with a group of educators developed a hierarchical "taxonomy of educational objectives" categorized in three "domains:" Affective, Psychomotor, and Cognitive. The taxonomy is used to motivate educators to design and created holistic learning experiences . Rita Kizito PGDip Development NMMU March 2017
  27. 27. Lev Vygotsky • Vygotsky stresses the fundamental role of social interaction in the development of cognition (Vygotsky, 1978), as he believed strongly that community plays a central role in the process of "making meaning." • His theory is one of the foundations of constructivism, asserting three themes related to social interaction, the more knowledgeable other, and the zone of proximal development. Main strategy Active based learning where students take initiative for their own learning experiences in a supportive, democratic and collaborative environment. The environment is democratic, the activities are interactive and student-centered and the teacher facilitates a process of learning where students are encouraged to become responsible and autonomous. Teaching methods Experimentation, Research projects, Field trips, Video presentation, Simulations, Tutorials, Peer-supported ;learning. Assessment methods Exams, Pre and post testing; Oral discussions, Mind Mapping, Projects, Case studies. Lev Vygotsky, Soviet psychologist Rita Kizito PGDip Development NMMU March 2017
  28. 28. Communities of Practice ( CoP) • Communities of Practice (CoP) present a process of social learning that occurs when people who have a common interest in a subject or area collaborate over an extended period of time, sharing ideas and strategies, determine solutions, and build innovations. • These groups of people share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly. • CoP’s require cultivation” so that they can emerge, grow and become sustainable. Main strategy A carefully well though purpose followed by processes of inquiry ( exploration and vision formation) ;design of activities , roles & processes; prototype ( piloting the community with stakeholders) ; Launching ( rolling out); growing ( numbers and networks in collaborative projects) sustaining – assessing products outputs & impacts on community. Teaching methods Use physical and technology –supported infrastructure in relationship building, collaborative learning, knowledge sharing, and action. Assessment methods Evaluation of impact of CoP on community and individuals Rita Kizito PGDip Development NMMU March 2017
  29. 29. George Siemens– Connectivism • The theory of connectivism (Siemens, 2005) is characterized as the learning theory of the digital age. One underlying assumption in this theory is that knowledge is distributed and can reside inside and outside of ourselves. • Learning consists of the ability to construct and traverse those networks where actionable knowledge is assembled to form a network of connections arising from experience and interactions within a community. Main strategy Collaborative learning whereby members of a group collectively help each other towards achieving a pre-established goal through interaction. Collaboration makes the process of learning efficient and relevant because of an assumption that knowledge and expertise reside in the networks. There is room for individual and group learning in these interactions. Teaching methods The teacher assists the learners build and make the relevant connections in their Personal Learning Networks (PLNs). The teacher is a curator and directs students to appropriate resources and other experts, and creates experiences that stimulate continual learning. Technology is pivotal in this learning process Assessment methods Projects, Contributions to discussions, Artefact creation. George Siemens (writer, theorist, speaker, and researcher) Rita Kizito PGDip Development NMMU March 2017

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