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20yrs: 2004 The Digital Preservation Coalition (DPC) Slide Set June


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This is the third of 12 conference presentations I’ve selected to mark 20 years in Digital Preservation. The remainder will be published at monthly intervals over 2015.
The DPC was founded during 2001-2002 commencing with a summit in January 2001, and culminating with its formal incorporation as a not-for-profit company with 7 members and a public launch at the House of Commons in February 2002. It has since grown to more than fifty members. Ably steered by a succession of staff and board members, it has exceeded the hopes of its founding members and is very worthy of inclusion in this top 12. This slide set is a nice visual snapshot of the DPC at a key time in its development.
The slide set consists of four presentations dating from June 2004 (but with origins in earlier versions from January 2001) that have been combined here: the History of the DPC, Rationale for the DPC, Structure of the DPC, and Programme of Activities. They formed a set of DPC member resources (in the then DPC colours and Powerpoint template) dating from June 2004. However their origins are much earlier than that –elements date from the key first Digital Preservation Summit for the DPC in January 2001 with subsequent updates. There is a background briefing and a report of proceedings of that summit available on the DPC Website.

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20yrs: 2004 The Digital Preservation Coalition (DPC) Slide Set June

  1. 1. 1 Presentations on the DPC (Jan 2001-June 2004) Neil Beagrie History of the DPC
  2. 2. • March 1999: A JISC/BL workshop recommended establishing a coordinating mechanism to tackle digital preservation • June 2000: JISC Preservation Focus post established. Its main priority was to establish the DPC • January 2001: First Summit meeting held, first civic meeting with 10 full members • February 2002: Launch of the DPC Timeline
  3. 3. History of the DPC • Aim of Coalition to develop a UK digital preservation agenda within an international context • Growing amounts of born-digital materials that require urgent preservation attention are being created in all sectors of UK • At the time of the launch, digital preservation was far from being on the national agenda
  4. 4. • July 2002: DPC established as a not-for-profit Company Limited by Guarantee • May 2003: New post of Digital Preservation Co-ordinator was established, first full-time employee • March 2004: 27 members of the DPC, comprising a wide cross- sectoral range Timeline
  5. 5. • Ten founding members: BL, CCLRC, CURL, JISC, OCLC, NAS, PRO (now TNA), Resource (now MLA), ULCC, Wellcome Trust • Chair: Lynne Brindley, Chief Executive, British Library Founding Members
  6. 6. 6 Presentations on the DPC (Jan 2001-June 2004) Neil Beagrie Rationale for the DPC
  7. 7. Urgent need to tackle digital preservation at a national level • 30% yearly increase in production of digital materials • Almost 5 ‘Exabytes’ of digital information was created in 2002 1 Exabyte = 1 million terabytes (1018 bytes) Digitised content of Library of Congress = 136 terabytes • 92% of this is stored on digital tape • Surface of World Wide Web contains 170 Terabytes of information This doesn’t include the ‘Deep web’, which is estimated to be 500 times larger than the surface web Reference: Lyman, Peter and Hal R. Varian, "How Much Information", 2003 URL: Rationale for the DPC
  8. 8. So….. • Reliance on digital resources is rapidly increasing, and there are increased expectations that digital data will be available in the long term • We need to ensure that some of these resources are available in 10 or in some cases,100 years time • We need to tackle the problems of digital preservation at a national level before it is too late Rationale for the DPC
  9. 9. But….. • Digital materials are all dependent on hardware or software in order to be read. These may not exist in the future • For example, thousands of software programmes available in the 1990s are now unavailable • Media on which data is stored are also vulnerable e.g. magnetic or optical media • Speed of change in technology doesn’t guarantee access to these hardware and software Rationale for the DPC
  10. 10. Vulnerable materials at risk Technological obsolescence Legislation: FOI etc Long-term Cost for Organisations Loss of Cultural and Corporate Memory Admissibility of materials/IPRModernising Govt. Digital Preservation Rationale for the DPC
  11. 11. • Digital records created daily  Could be simple text based records  Or complex multiple object files (multimedia files etc) and dynamic databases • No analogue original if they are lost, and these records are business critical • Long term access imperative for certain records • Outcome: Potential loss of corporate memory • Other problems:  Conflict with laws such as Freedom of Information and Data Protection Acts  Legal Admissibility: Files can be easily tampered with or altered while stored Scenario: The business
  12. 12. • Museum utilising digital technology to create digital surrogates of rare cultural material to provide alternative access for visitors • Huge investment for public organisation • Outcome: Potential loss of digital surrogate • Outcome: Potential loss of investment • Can resources spent on creating the digital surrogate be justified if long- term access cannot be guaranteed ? Scenario: Memory organisation
  13. 13. What does the DPC do? • Raises the profile of Digital Preservation • Runs advocacy campaign which targets stakeholders:  Owners and Creators of digital resources; Funding bodies • Provides examples of Good Practice • Highlights where gaps and priorities for action and responsibility are • Acts as catalyst for Action  Disseminating information; maintaining current awareness Rationale for the DPC
  14. 14. Examples of DPC’s activities and initiatives: • The Coalition offers digital preservation training, advocacy and outreach • A Public Relations programme has been established to raise the profile of digital preservation in the media • Surveys of member organisations are carried out to assess digital preservation needs • DPC holds regular forums to provide training and advice • ‘What’s New in Digital Preservation’ and Technology Watch reports are among some of the publications of the DPC Rationale for the DPC
  15. 15. ‘ The nature of digital technology dictates that it is not feasible simply to hand over stewardship of the resource at some point in the future, without having managed it sufficiently...’ Preservation management of Digital Material Handbook, 2000 Life-Cycle Management
  16. 16. The DPC advocates that organisations take a ‘Life-Cycle’ approach • Long-term preservation and management of digital data relies on the collaboration of data creators, information professionals, managers, and users • It is crucial that all creators are involved at least in the early stages of the digital ‘life-cycle’ of a file; this involvement needs to permeate all levels of an organisation, from senior management to operational staff • This active management throughout will greatly assist long-term preservation (e.g. choice of suitable file format at an early stage) Life-Cycle Management
  17. 17. The DPC can provide advocacy on how to do this • Only a relatively small number of organisations such as the National Archives or the British Library will take on the long-term responsibility for preservation • Before the preservation stage, the Digital Life-Cycle includes the following: Creation  Selection of file format  Adding Metadata to object Access  Providing Discovery, Delivery Appraisal  Choosing what to retain Preservation  Storage, Preservation activities Life-Cycle Management
  18. 18. Detailed Preservation Management Appraisal Delivery Addition of Metadata Creation of file Selection File format All Organisations Preservation specialists Information Specialists Life-cycle responsibilities
  19. 19. 19 Presentations on the DPC (Jan 2001-June 2004) Neil Beagrie Structure of the DPC
  20. 20. 20 Levels of Membership of the DPC: • Membership is open to all collective or non-profit organisations (e.g. Cultural heritage, educational, research, government organisations), for a yearly subscription fee • Other organisations (e.g. commercial ones) can participate in alliances and sponsorship Structure of the DPC
  21. 21. 21 Three levels of participation: 1. Full members: representative sits on the Coalition Board and all staff and members can participate in DPC activities 2. Associate members: representative sits on the Advisory Council and all staff and members can participate in DPC activities 3. Allied Organisations: collaborate with the Coalition on specific activities. They can include commercial organisations who work to promote dialogue with industry towards developing IT standards Allied Individuals: individuals who are invited to share their expertise with the advisory council or other activities Structure of the DPC
  22. 22. 22 • Sponsorship: all organisations can offer sponsorship for specific projects or events • Criteria for membership: Full membership is offered to organisations who can demonstrate a strategic contribution to the DPC and a national/international role in Digital Preservation. Associate membership is offered to not-for-profit organisations who commit to active participation in the Coalition • Cross-sectoral involvement is strongly encouraged and this is already evident from the already varied membership • The DPC structure is being reviewed in 2004/2005 Structure of the DPC
  23. 23. 23 Publishing/Media Education Archives Libraries Science & Technology Government Research & policy Museums Data Services Cross-Sectoral Membership Members of the DPC
  24. 24. 24 “ The aim of the Digital Preservation Coalition is to secure the preservation of digital resources in the UK and to work with others internationally to secure our global digital memory and knowledge base ” The DPC also has a number of Goals and Principles: Mission of the DPC
  25. 25. 25 • To disseminate, produce and provide information on current research, and build expertise amongst its members with the aim of accelerating their learning and generally widen the pool of professionals skilled in digital preservation • To institute a concerted and co-ordinated effort to get digital preservation on the agenda of key stakeholders, in terms that they will understand and find persuasive • To seek appropriate and adequate funding to secure the nation's investment in digital resources Goals of the DPC
  26. 26. 26 • To provide a common forum for the development and co-ordination of digital preservation strategies in the UK, and placing them within an international context • To promote and develop services, technology, and standards for digital preservation • To forge strategic alliances with relevant agencies nationally and internationally, and with industry and research organisations, to address shared challenges in digital preservation • To attract funding to the Coalition to support achievement of its goals and programmes Goals of the DPC
  27. 27. 27 The activities and members of the Coalition will operate by the following principles: • Openness: The Coalition and its members commit to promoting and disseminating information and sharing outcomes • Collaboration: Digital preservation has become so significant a phenomenon (in scope, complexity, and investment), that no single organisation can address all the challenges alone • Collective benefit: Core Coalition activities supported by resources from its membership must be of common interest and benefit to them • Vendor neutrality: The goals of the Coalition are generic and will be vendor neutral. It will support the development of standards and generic approaches to digital preservation Principles of the DPC
  28. 28. 28 • British Library • Consortium of University Research Libraries (CURL) • Online Computer Library Center • National Library of Scotland • National Library of Wales • National Electronic Library for Health • Research Libraries Group • University of York library • Trinity College Library Dublin • Wellcome Trust Library BACK Members: Libraries
  29. 29. 29 • Arts and Humanities Data Service • UK Data Archive , Essex University • University of London Computer Centre BACK Members: Data Services
  30. 30. 30 • Joint Information Systems Committee of the Higher and Further Education Funding Councils (JISC) • Ministry of Defence • Council for the Central Laboratory of the Research Councils • The Council for Museums, Archives and Libraries BACK Members: Government Research & Policy
  31. 31. 31 • The National Archives • National Archives of Scotland • Public Record Office Northern Ireland BACK Members: Archives
  32. 32. 32 • Open University Members: Education BACK
  33. 33. 33 • National History Museum Members: Museums BACK
  34. 34. 34 • e-Science Core Programme • Central Information Technology Unit for Northern Ireland Members: Science & Technology BACK
  35. 35. 35 • Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers • BBC Information & Archives • Publishers Association Members: Publishing & Media BACK
  36. 36. 36 Presentations on the DPC (Jan 2001-June 2004) Neil Beagrie Programme of Activities
  37. 37. 37 • The DPC is committed to building digital preservation infrastructure in both the UK and the global environment • DPC carries out its functions via six Work Packages • A Programme of Activities is also in place which maintains a global perspective and attracts a world-wide audience • International collaboration is important to the DPC:  Memorandum of Understanding with National Library of Australia (NLA) means that the UK has an input to PADI, and ‘What’s New in Digital Preservation’ is prepared jointly between the DCC and NLA  Potential for future collaboration with Europe (6th Framework) and USA: Cornell University, and Library of Congress • Collaboration through Memorandum of Understanding and/or working groups Programme of Activities
  38. 38. 38 1. Promoting Digital Preservation 2. Acting to increase funding 3. Fostering collaboration and forging strategic alliances 4. Producing, providing, and disseminating information 5. Promoting and developing services, technology, standards and training 6. Continuing to develop the Coalition’s activities Six Work Packages
  39. 39. 39 1. Promoting Digital Preservation  Efforts aimed at ensuring digital preservation is on the agenda of key stakeholders. This involves an advocacy and PR campaign, press articles, conference papers, the UK Needs Assessment, etc. 2. Acting to increase funding  Ensuring the nation’s investment in preservation, e.g. seeking funding to complete UK needs assessment; co-ordinating information about DPC projects; JISC is funding a report on digital preservation training 2. Fostering collaboration and forging strategic alliances Six Work Packages
  40. 40. 40 4. Producing, providing, and disseminating information  Building expertise in digital preservation e.g. commissioning Technology Watch Reports and holding DPC forums. Developing the DPC website and producing quarterly reports of ‘What’s New in Digital Preservation’ 5. Promoting and developing services, technology, standards and training  E.g. Initiating training workshops, so far held in Edinburgh, London and Belfast, and producing Technology Watch Reports, developing intensive digital preservation programme 6. Continuing to develop the Coalition’s activities  Recruiting membership and attracting resources to support DPC’s goals, monthly reports to members via Discussion lists Six Work Packages
  41. 41. 41 DPC Forums • Three held each year which focus on different themes • Provide a key method for disseminating information on current activities and keeping them informed of developments in the field • Also provides excellent networking opportunities • Themes have included: Web Archiving; Open Source Software; Digital Curation; Preservation Metadata; Cost/business models • Evaluation feedback so far has been very positive Activities – Regular events
  42. 42. 42 • Training Workshops for DPC members: Three have already taken place in Edinburgh, London and Belfast • DPC Website: The site has received 1.3 million hits since it was established. A private members area is also available which holds information for members, technology reports, shared documents. Most popular is the online version of the Preservation Management Handbook • List Serve: The popular JISCmail Digital Preservation list has grown to more than 1000 members. A private list for members has also been created. Activities – Regular events
  43. 43. 43 ‘What’s New in Digital Preservation?’ • A quarterly report prepared by the National Library of Australia’s PADI and the DPC (UKOLN compiles this for the DPC) • PADI, set up in 1996, is a comprehensive subject gateway to international digital preservation resources • The reports lists a summary of international preservation activities • Information compiled from the PADI gateway and mailing lists Activities – Regular events
  44. 44. 44 Advocacy Campaign • Little awareness of digital preservation dilemma outside of the information community – only one reference to digital preservation in 2002, before the PR campaign was underway. • DPC embarked on a professional PR and Media Campaign to raise the profile of digital preservation in both national and specialist media • PR consultant hired to assist with 2002 DPC launch • Launch at House of Commons February 2002 Activities – Regular events
  45. 45. 45 Advocacy Campaign • Twenty-five articles have appeared in the national media in the first year of the DPC’s operation including a strong presence in the Guardian’s Online supplement Now, selected projects are focused on and promoted in the media Activities – Regular events
  46. 46. 46 Preservation management of Digital Material Handbook • Developed by Neil Beagrie and Maggie Jones in 2000 and is constantly updated Available free at: • Online version to be developed further • Used as a basis for workshops and tutorials, and may be used for more intensive training programmes • Offers a practical step-by-step guide for those involved in all stages of digital preservation Activities – UK Initiatives
  47. 47. 47 Digital Preservation Award: • This award, the first of its kind, is worth £5,000 and recognises achievement in the digital preservation field • Sponsored by the DPC, it is aimed at encouraging creative and practical approaches to the preservation of ‘born-digital’ materials • The award reflects significant progress both in the work of the DPC and institutions who are carrying out important digital preservation work • The 2004 winner will be announced at an awards event on 22nd June 2004 Activities – Initiatives
  48. 48. 48 UK Needs Assessment Exercise: • One of the goals of the DPC is to “get digital preservation on the agenda of key stakeholders in terms that they will find persuasive and understand” • A survey of DPC members was carried out to provide more detailed information on the current state of play in digital preservation • Aim is to highlight priorities for action over the next 18 months and to carry out targeted approaches Activities – Initiatives
  49. 49. 49 Results of UK Needs Assessment Exercise: • The survey led to a workshop for DPC members, which in turn led to a number of recommendations for the DPC to take forward • An implementation plan included 24 tasks for the DPC to follow up, among which were:  Seeking funding for a survey of regional organisations (identified as high priority at the workshops)  Facilitating planning and development of intensive training programme • These exercises also help to further support the case for increased investment in national digital preservation infrastructure Activities – Initiatives
  50. 50. 50 Technology Watch Reports: • These are user-friendly reports the DPC has commissioned experts to write. Authors avoid complicated jargon-filled language so that reports are accessible to all • Reports focus on emerging preservation standards, technical formats, and developments in tools which are critical in assisting digital preservation activities • Reports available on the DPC website:  ‘Introduction to OAIS’ – Brian Lavoie/OCLC  ‘Institutional Repositories’ – Paul Wheatley Activities – Initiatives
  51. 51. 51 JISC Digital Preservation and Records Management: • JISC played a key role in establishing the DPC • DPC and JISC are separate entities but JISC was one of the founding members of the DPC • DPC is cross-sectoral, whereas JISC deals solely with Higher and Further Education sectors • JISC have a Digital Preservation and Electronic Records Management programme Related UK Initiatives
  52. 52. 52 • Digital Curation Centre (DCC) is jointly funded by JISC and the e-Science Core Programme for an initial three-year period • Consortium of Universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow UKOLN, and CCLRC • It will undertake research and develop tools to support effective digital curation, developing standards and certification. It will also pilot preservation services within the H.E. sector • The DCC is not a data centre but set of central services, established to assist existing distributed digital data centres and institutional preservation services Digital Curation Centre
  53. 53. 53 • Funding: via Membership • c.£130,000 p/a • Seeking funding to secure investment in preservation • Emphasis on cross-sectoral involvement • • Funding: E-Science & JISC • £1.3 million p/a • Aimed at needs of HE/FE and Research Councils • To develop repository of tools and file formats • Registry of metadata standards • DPC DCC Differences
  54. 54. 54 • Both will provide Advocacy and Outreach • Training and Advice will also be offered Links between DPC & DCC